The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, judgement and memory. It is defined as the faculty of an entity's thoughts and consciousness, it holds the power of imagination and appreciation, is responsible for processing feelings and emotions, resulting in attitudes and actions. There is a lengthy tradition in philosophy, religion and cognitive science about what constitutes a mind and what are its distinguishing properties. One open question regarding the nature of the mind is the mind–body problem, which investigates the relation of the mind to the physical brain and nervous system. Older viewpoints included idealism, which considered the mind somehow non-physical. Modern views center around physicalism and functionalism, which hold that the mind is identical with the brain or reducible to physical phenomena such as neuronal activity, though dualism and idealism continue to have many supporters. Another question concerns. For example, whether mind is exclusive to humans, possessed by some or all animals, by all living things, whether it is a definable characteristic at all, or whether mind can be a property of some types of human-made machines.
Whatever its nature, it is agreed that mind is that which enables a being to have subjective awareness and intentionality towards their environment, to perceive and respond to stimuli with some kind of agency, to have consciousness, including thinking and feeling. The concept of mind is understood in many different ways by many different cultural and religious traditions; some see mind as a property exclusive to humans whereas others ascribe properties of mind to non-living entities, to animals and to deities. Some of the earliest recorded speculations linked mind to theories concerning both life after death, cosmological and natural order, for example in the doctrines of Zoroaster, the Buddha, Plato and other ancient Greek and Islamic and medieval European philosophers. Important philosophers of mind include Plato, Descartes, Locke, Hume, Hegel, Searle, Fodor and Chalmers. Psychologists such as Freud and James, computer scientists such as Turing and Putnam developed influential theories about the nature of the mind.
The possibility of nonbiological minds is explored in the field of artificial intelligence, which works in relation with cybernetics and information theory to understand the ways in which information processing by nonbiological machines is comparable or different to mental phenomena in the human mind. The mind is portrayed as the stream of consciousness where sense impressions and mental phenomena are changing; the original meaning of Old English gemynd was the faculty of memory, not of thought in general. Hence call to mind, come to mind, keep in mind, to have mind of, etc; the word retains this sense in Scotland. Old English had other words to express "mind", such as hyge "mind, spirit"; the meaning of "memory" is shared with Old Norse. The word is from a PIE verbal root *men-, meaning "to think, remember", whence Latin mens "mind", Sanskrit manas "mind" and Greek μένος "mind, anger"; the generalization of mind to include all mental faculties, volition and memory develops over the 14th and 15th centuries.
The attributes that make up the mind are debated. Some psychologists argue that only the "higher" intellectual functions constitute mind reason and memory. In this view the emotions — love, hate and joy — are more primitive or subjective in nature and should be seen as different from the mind as such. Others argue that various rational and emotional states cannot be so separated, that they are of the same nature and origin, should therefore be considered all part of it as mind. In popular usage, mind is synonymous with thought: the private conversation with ourselves that we carry on "inside our heads." Thus we "make up our minds," "change our minds" or are "of two minds" about something. One of the key attributes of the mind in this sense is that it is a private sphere to which no one but the owner has access. No one else can "know our mind." They can only interpret or unconsciously communicate. Broadly speaking, mental faculties are the various functions of the mind, or things the mind can "do".
Thought is a mental act that allows humans to make sense of things in the world, to represent and interpret them in ways that are significant, or which accord with their needs, goals, plans, desires, etc. Thinking involves the symbolic or semiotic mediation of ideas or data, as when we form concepts, engage in problem solving and making decisions. Words that refer to similar concepts and processes include deliberation, ideation and imagination. Thinking is sometimes described as a "higher" cognitive function and the analysis of thinking processes is a part of cognitive psychology, it is deeply connected with our capacity to make and use tools. Memory is the ability to preserve and subsequently recall, information or experience. Although memory has traditionally been a persistent theme in philosophy, the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
Names of God in Islam
According to a hadith, there are at least 99 Attributes of Allah, known as the ʾasmāʾu llāhi l-ḥusnā. The names are called 99 Attributes of Allah. According to Sahih Bukhari Hadith: Abu Hurairah reported that Allah has ninety-nine Names, i.e. one hundred minus one, whoever believes in their meanings and acts accordingly, will enter Paradise. There's another Sahih Muslim Hadith:Allah's Messenger said, "Allah has ninety-nine Names, one-hundred less one. To count something means to know it by heart; the Qur'an refers to God's Most Beautiful Names in several Surahs. Gerhard Böwering refers to Surah 17 as the locus classicus to which explicit lists of 99 names used to be attached in tafsir. A cluster of more than a dozen Divine epithets which are included in such lists is found in Surah 59. Mystic philosopher Ibn Arabi surmised that the 99 names are "outward signs of the universe's inner mysteries". There is no universal agreement among Muslims as to what counts as a name of God, what does not. Additionally, while some names are only in the Quran, others are only in the hadith, there are some names which appear in both.
Different sources give different lists of the 99 names. The following list is based on the one found in the Jamiʿ at-Tirmidhi. Other hadith, such as those of al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Ibn Majah, al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi or Ibn ʿAsākir, have variant lists. All attribute the original compilation of the list of names to Abu Hurairah.al-Tirmidhi comments on his list: "This hadith is gharib. Various early Muslim exegetes, including Jaʿfar al-Sadiq, Sufyan ibn `Uyaynah, Ibn Hazm, al-Qurtubi, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, have given their own versions of lists of 99 names.ٱ = The waṣla denoting of ٱلْ is "ʾal/ ʾul/ ʾil" depending on the last vowel of the previous word/sentence structure: e.g. سُوْرَةُ ٱلْرَّحْمَـٰنُ Suratu r-Raḥmān. Please note the written Arabic spelling of the names written in Arabic in the table are in the vowelled Classical/ Quranic form with the square bracketed "" variant of the written Arabic forms given in common or modern texts - in media, some long vowels and punctuations are omitted for the easier typing and reading.
There is a tradition in Sufism to the effect the 99 names of God point to a mystical "Most Supreme and Superior Name" (ismu l-ʾAʿẓam. This "Greatest Name of God" is said to be "the one which if He is called by it, He will answer."According to a hadith narrated by Abdullah ibn Masud, some of the names of God have been hidden from mankind. More than 1000 names of God are listed in the Jawshan Kabir invocations; the Arabic names of God are used to form theophoric given names used in Muslim cultures throughout the world, including non-Arabic speaking societies. Because the names of God themselves are reserved to God and their use as a person's given name is considered religiously inappropriate, theophoric names are formed by prefixing the term ˁabd to the name in the case of male names; this distinction is established out of respect for the sanctity of Divine names, which denote attributes that are believed to be possessed in a full and absolute sense only by God, while human beings, being limited creatures, are viewed by Muslims as being endowed with the Divine attributes only in a limited and relative capacity.
The prefixing of the definite article would indicate that the bearer possesses the corresponding attribute in an exclusive sense, a trait reserved to God. Quranic verse 3:26 is cited as evidence against the validity of using Divine names for persons, with the example of Mālik ul-Mulk: "Say: "O God! Lord of Power, You give power to whom You please, You strip off power from whom You please. You endue with honour whom You please, You bring low whom You please. In Your hand is all Good." Verily, over all things You have power." The two parts of the name starting with ˁabd may be written separately or combined as one in the transliterated form. Examples of Muslim theophoric names include: Rahmān, such as Abdul Rahman Al-Sudais - Imam of the Grand Mosque of Makkah, KSA Salām, such as Salam Fayyad - Palestinian politician Jabbār, such as Kareem Abdul-Jabbar - American basketball player Hakīm, such as Sherman "Abdul Hakim" Jackson - American Islamic Studies scholar Ra'ūf, such as Ra'ouf Mus'ad - Egyptian-Sudanese novelist Mālik, such as Mālik bin ʼAnas - classical Sunni Muslim scholars after whom the Maliki school of fiqh was named Abdul Muqtedar as in Muhammad Abdul Muqtedar Khan - Indian-American
Omega is the 24th and last letter of the Greek alphabet. In the Greek numeric system/Isopsephy, it has a value of 800; the word means "great O", as opposed to omicron, which means "little O". In phonetic terms, the Ancient Greek Ω is a long open-mid o, comparable to the vowel of British English raw. In Modern Greek, Ω represents the same sound as omicron; the letter omega is transcribed ō or o. As the last letter of the Greek alphabet, Omega is used to denote the last, the end, or the ultimate limit of a set, in contrast to alpha, the first letter of the Greek alphabet. Ω was not part of the early Greek alphabets. It was introduced in the late 7th century BC in the Ionian cities of Asia Minor to denote the long half-open, it is a variant of omicron, broken up with the edges subsequently turned outward. The Dorian city of Knidos as well as a few Aegean islands, namely Paros and Melos, chose the exact opposite innovation, using a broken-up circle for the short and a closed circle for the long /o/.
The name Ωμέγα is Byzantine. The modern lowercase shape goes back to the uncial form, a form that developed during the 3rd century BC in ancient handwriting on papyrus, from a flattened-out form of the letter that had its edges curved further upward. In addition to the Greek alphabet, Omega was adopted into the early Cyrillic alphabet. See Cyrillic omega. A Raetic variant is conjectured to be at the origin or parallel evolution of the Elder Futhark ᛟ. Omega was adopted into the Latin alphabet, as a letter of the 1982 revision to the African reference alphabet, it has had little use. See Latin omega; the uppercase letter Ω is used as a symbol: In chemistry: For oxygen-18, a natural, stable isotope of oxygen. In physics: For ohm – SI unit of electrical resistance. Unicode has a separate code point for the ohm sign, but it is included only for backward compatibility, the Greek uppercase omega character is preferred. In statistical mechanics, Ω refers to the multiplicity in a system; the solid angle or the rate of precession in a gyroscope.
In particle physics to represent the Omega baryons. In astronomy, Ω refers to the density of the universe called the density parameter. In astronomy, Ω refers to the longitude of the ascending node of an orbit. In mathematics and computer science: In complex analysis, the Omega constant, a solution of Lambert's W function In differential geometry, the space of differential forms on a manifold. A variable for a 2-dimensional region in calculus corresponding to the domain of a double integral. In topos theory, the subobject classifier of an elementary topos. In combinatory logic, the looping combinator, In group theory, the omega and agemo subgroups of a p-group, Ω and ℧ In group theory, Cayley's Ω process as a partial differential operator. In statistics, it is used as total set of possible outcomes. In number theory, Ω is the number of prime divisors of n. In notation related to Big O notation to describe the asymptotic behavior of functions. Chaitin's constant; as part of logo or trademark: The logo of Omega Watches SA.
Part of the original Pioneer logo. Part of the Badge of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. Part of the mission patch for STS-135, as it was the last mission of the Space Shuttle program; the logo of the God of War video game series based on Greek mythology. In God of War, it is revealed; the logo of E-123 Omega, a Sonic the Hedgehog character. The logo of the Heroes of Olympus series, based on Greek mythology; the logo of the Ultramarines in Warhammer 40,000 The logo of Primal Groudon, the version mascot of Pokémon Omega Ruby. The logo of Darkseid in DC comics One of the logos of professional wrestler Kenny Omega Other The symbol of the resistance movement against the Vietnam-era draft in the United States Year or date of death Used to refer to the lowest-ranked wolf in a pack In eschatology, the symbol for the end of everything In molecular biology, the symbol is used as shorthand to signify a genetic construct introduced by a two-point crossover Omega Particle in the Star Trek universe The final form of NetNavi bosses in some of the Mega Man Battle Network games The personal symbol for Death, as worn by Death in the Discworld series by Terry Pratchett The symbol to represent Groudon in Pokémon Omega Ruby and Alpha Sapphire A secret boss in the Final Fantasy series called Omega Weapon.
A character from the series Doctor Who called Omega, believed to be one of the creators of the Time Lords on Gallifrey. The minuscule letter ω is used as a symbol: Biochemistry and chemistry: Denotes the carbon atom furthest from the carboxyl group of a fatty acid In biochemistry, for one of the RNA polymerase subunits In biochemistry, for the dihedral angle associated with the peptide group, involving the backbone atoms Cα-C'-N-Cα In biology, for the fitness. In genomics, as a measure of evolution at the protein level Physics Angular velocity or angular frequency In computational fluid dynamics, the specific turbulence dissipation rate In meteorology, the change of pressure with respect to time of a parcel o
The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system. The somatosensory system is a complex system of sensory neurons and pathways that responds to changes at the surface or inside the body; the axons of sensory neurons connect with, or respond to, various receptor cells. These sensory receptor cells are activated by different stimuli such as heat and nociception, giving a functional name to the responding sensory neuron, such as a thermoreceptor which carries information about temperature changes. Other types include mechanoreceptors and nociceptors which send signals along a sensory nerve to the spinal cord where they may be processed by other sensory neurons and relayed to the brain for further processing. Sensory receptors are found all over the body including the skin, epithelial tissues, muscles and joints, internal organs, the cardiovascular system. Somatic senses are sometimes referred to as somesthetic senses, with the understanding that somesthesis includes the sense of touch and haptic perception.
The mapping of the body surfaces in the brain is called somatotopy. In the cortex, it is referred to as the cortical homunculus; this brain-surface map is not immutable, however. Dramatic shifts can occur in response to injury; the four mechanoreceptors in the skin each respond to different stimuli for long periods. Merkel cell nerve endings are found in hair follicles. Due to having a small receptive field, they are used in areas like fingertips the most. Tactile corpuscles react to moderate light touch, they are located in the dermal papillae. They respond unlike Merkel nerve endings, they are responsible for the ability to feel gentle stimuli. Lamellar corpuscles distinguish rough and soft substances, they react in quick action potentials to vibrations around 250 Hz. They have large receptor fields. Pacinian reacts only to sudden stimuli so pressures like clothes that are always compressing their shape are ignored. Bulbous corpuscles react and respond to sustained skin stretch, they are responsible for the feeling of object slippage and play a major role in the kinesthetic sense and control of finger position and movement.
Merkel and bulbous cells - slow-response - are myelinated. All of these receptors are activated upon pressures that squish their shape causing an action potential. All afferent touch/vibration info ascends the spinal cord via the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway via gracilis or cuneatus. Cuneatus sends signals to the cochlear nucleus indirectly via spinal grey matter, this info is used in determining if a perceived sound is just villi noise/irritation. All fibers cross in the medulla; the postcentral gyrus includes the primary somatosensory cortex collectively referred to as S1. BA3 receives the densest projections from the thalamus. BA3a is involved with the sense of relative position of neighboring body parts and amount of effort being used during movement. BA3b is responsible for distributing somato info, it projects texture info to BA1 and shape + size info to BA2. Region S2 divides into parietal ventral area. Area S2 is involved with specific touch perception and is thus integrally linked with the amygdala and hippocampus to encode and reinforce memories.
Parietal ventral area is the somatosensory relay to the premotor cortex and somatosensory memory hub, BA5. BA5 is association area. BA1 processes texture info. Area S2 processes light touch, visceral sensation, tactile attention. S1 processes the remaining info. BA7 integrates visual and proprioceptive info to locate objects in space; the insular cortex plays a role in the sense of bodily-ownership, bodily self-awareness, perception. Insula plays a role in conveying info about sensual touch, temperature and local oxygen status. Insula is a connected relay and thus is involved in numerous functions; the somatosensory system is spread through all major parts of the vertebrate body. It consists both of sensory receptors and afferent neurons in the periphery, to deeper neurons within the central nervous system. A somatosensory pathway will have three long neurons: primary and tertiary; the first neuron always has its cell body in the dorsal root ganglion of the spinal nerve. The second neuron has its cell body either in the brainstem.
This neuron's ascending axons will cross to the opposite side either in the spinal cord or in the brainstem. In the case of touch and certain types of pain, the third neuron has its cell body in the VPN of the thalamus and ends in the postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe. Photoreceptors, similar to those found in the retina of the eye, detect damaging ultraviolet radiation (
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, values, reason and language. Such questions are posed as problems to be studied or resolved; the term was coined by Pythagoras. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real? Philosophers pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust? Do humans have free will? "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy" encompassed astronomy and physics. For example, Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize.
In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology and economics. Other investigations related to art, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy. For example, is beauty objective or subjective? Are there many scientific methods or just one? Is political utopia a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy? Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics, ethics, political philosophy and philosophy of science. Traditionally, the term "philosophy" referred to any body of knowledge. In this sense, philosophy is related to religion, natural science and politics. Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy is classified in the 2000s as a book of physics. In the first part of the first book of his Academics, Cicero introduced the division of philosophy into logic and ethics. Metaphysical philosophy was the study of existence, God, logic and other abstract objects; this division has changed.
Natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences astronomy, chemistry and cosmology. Moral philosophy still includes value theory. Metaphysical philosophy has birthed formal sciences such as logic and philosophy of science, but still includes epistemology and others. Many philosophical debates that began in ancient times are still debated today. Colin McGinn and others claim. Chalmers and others, by contrast, see progress in philosophy similar to that in science, while Talbot Brewer argued that "progress" is the wrong standard by which to judge philosophical activity. In one general sense, philosophy is associated with wisdom, intellectual culture and a search for knowledge. In that sense, all cultures and literate societies ask philosophical questions such as "how are we to live" and "what is the nature of reality". A broad and impartial conception of philosophy finds a reasoned inquiry into such matters as reality and life in all world civilizations. Western philosophy is the philosophical tradition of the Western world and dates to Pre-Socratic thinkers who were active in Ancient Greece in the 6th century BCE such as Thales and Pythagoras who practiced a "love of wisdom" and were termed physiologoi.
Socrates was a influential philosopher, who insisted that he possessed no wisdom but was a pursuer of wisdom. Western philosophy can be divided into three eras: Ancient, Medieval philosophy, Modern philosophy; the Ancient era was dominated by Greek philosophical schools which arose out of the various pupils of Socrates, such as Plato, who founded the Platonic Academy and his student Aristotle, founding the Peripatetic school, who were both influential in Western tradition. Other traditions include Cynicism, Greek Skepticism and Epicureanism. Important topics covered by the Greeks included metaphysics, the nature of the well-lived life, the possibility of knowledge and the nature of reason. With the rise of the Roman empire, Greek philosophy was increasingly discussed in Latin by Romans such as Cicero and Seneca. Medieval philosophy is the period following the fall of the Western Roman Empire and was dominated by the ris
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness or of being aware of an external object or something within oneself. It has been defined variously in terms of sentience, qualia, the ability to experience or to feel, having a sense of selfhood or soul, the fact that there is something "that it is like" to "have" or "be" it, the executive control system of the mind. Despite the difficulty in definition, many philosophers believe that there is a broadly shared underlying intuition about what consciousness is; as Max Velmans and Susan Schneider wrote in The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness: "Anything that we are aware of at a given moment forms part of our consciousness, making conscious experience at once the most familiar and most mysterious aspect of our lives."Western philosophers, since the time of Descartes and Locke, have struggled to comprehend the nature of consciousness and identify its essential properties. Issues of concern in the philosophy of consciousness include whether the concept is fundamentally coherent.
Thanks to developments in technology over the past few decades, consciousness has become a significant topic of interdisciplinary research in cognitive science, with significant contributions from fields such as psychology, anthropology and neuroscience. The primary focus is on understanding what it means biologically and psychologically for information to be present in consciousness—that is, on determining the neural and psychological correlates of consciousness; the majority of experimental studies assess consciousness in humans by asking subjects for a verbal report of their experiences. Issues of interest include phenomena such as subliminal perception, denial of impairment, altered states of consciousness produced by alcohol and other drugs, or spiritual or meditative techniques. In medicine, consciousness is assessed by observing a patient's arousal and responsiveness, can be seen as a continuum of states ranging from full alertness and comprehension, through disorientation, loss of meaningful communication, loss of movement in response to painful stimuli.
Issues of practical concern include how the presence of consciousness can be assessed in ill, comatose, or anesthetized people, how to treat conditions in which consciousness is impaired or disrupted. The degree of consciousness is measured by standardized behavior observation scales such as the Glasgow Coma Scale; the origin of the modern concept of consciousness is attributed to John Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding, published in 1690. Locke defined consciousness as "the perception of what passes in a man's own mind", his essay influenced the 18th-century view of consciousness, his definition appeared in Samuel Johnson's celebrated Dictionary. "Consciousness" is defined in the 1753 volume of Diderot and d'Alembert's Encyclopédie, as "the opinion or internal feeling that we ourselves have from what we do." The earliest English language uses of "conscious" and "consciousness" date back, however, to the 1500s. The English word "conscious" derived from the Latin conscius, but the Latin word did not have the same meaning as our word—it meant "knowing with", in other words "having joint or common knowledge with another".
There were, many occurrences in Latin writings of the phrase conscius sibi, which translates as "knowing with oneself", or in other words "sharing knowledge with oneself about something". This phrase had the figurative meaning of "knowing that one knows", as the modern English word "conscious" does. In its earliest uses in the 1500s, the English word "conscious" retained the meaning of the Latin conscius. For example, Thomas Hobbes in Leviathan wrote: "Where two, or more men, know of one and the same fact, they are said to be Conscious of it one to another." The Latin phrase conscius sibi, whose meaning was more related to the current concept of consciousness, was rendered in English as "conscious to oneself" or "conscious unto oneself". For example, Archbishop Ussher wrote in 1613 of "being so conscious unto myself of my great weakness". Locke's definition from 1690 illustrates. A related word was conscientia, which means moral conscience. In the literal sense, "conscientia" means knowledge-with, that is, shared knowledge.
The word first appears in Latin juridical texts by writers such as Cicero. Here, conscientia is the knowledge. René Descartes is taken to be the first philosopher to use conscientia in a way that does not fit this traditional meaning. Descartes used conscientia the way modern speakers would use "conscience". In Search after Truth he says "conscience or internal testimony"; the dictionary meanings of the word consciousness extend through several centuries and several associated related meanings. These have ranged from formal definitions to definitions attempting to capture the less captured and more debated meanings and usage of the wor
Incarnation means embodied in flesh or taking on flesh. It refers to the conception and birth of a sentient being, the material manifestation of an entity, god or force whose original nature is immaterial. In its religious context the word is used to mean the descent from Heaven of a god, deity, or divine being in human/animal form on Earth. In the Bahá'í Faith, God is not seen to be incarnated into this world and is not seen to be part of creation as he cannot be divided and does not descend to the condition of his creatures; the Manifestations of God are not seen as an incarnation of God, but are instead understood to be like a perfect mirror reflecting the attributes of God onto this material world.. Buddhism is a non-theistic religion, it denies the concept of a creator deity or any incarnation of a creator deity. However, Buddhism does teach the rebirth doctrine and asserts that living beings are reborn, reincarnating as devas, demi-gods, human beings, hungry ghosts or hellish beings, in a cycle of samsara that stops only for those who reach nirvana.
In Tibetan Buddhism, an enlightened spiritual teacher is believed to reincarnate, is called a tulku. According to Tulku Thondup, there are three main types of tulkus, they are the emanations of buddhas, the manifestations of accomplished adepts, rebirths of virtuous teachers or spiritual friends. There are authentic secondary types as well which include unrecognized tulkus, blessed tulkus, tulkus fallen from the path. Logos-Sarx-Schema uses to explain incarnation of the Son of God; the incarnation of Christ is a central Christian doctrine that God became flesh, assumed a human nature, became a man in the form of Jesus, the Son of God and the second person of the Trinity. This foundational Christian position holds that the divine nature of the Son of God was united with human nature in one divine Person, making him both God and man; the theological term for this is hypostatic union: the Second Person of the Trinity, God the Son, became flesh when he was miraculously conceived in the womb of the Virgin Mary.
Biblical passages traditionally referenced in connection with the doctrine of the Incarnation include John 3:1-21, Colossians 2:9, Philippians 2:7-8. In Hinduism, incarnation refers to its rebirth doctrine, in its theistic traditions to avatar. Avatar means "descent, alight, to make one's appearance", refers to the embodiment of the essence of a superhuman being or a deity in another form; the word implies "to overcome, to remove, to bring down, to cross something". In Hindu traditions, the "crossing or coming down" is symbolism, states Daniel Bassuk, of the divine descent from "eternity into the temporal realm, from unconditioned to the conditioned, from infinitude to finitude". An avatar, states Justin Edwards Abbott, is a saguna embodiment of Atman. Neither the Vedas nor the Principal Upanishads mentions the word avatar as a noun; the verb roots and form, such as avatarana, do appear in ancient post-Vedic Hindu texts, but as "action of descending", but not as an incarnated person. The related verb avatarana is, states Paul Hacker, used with double meaning, one as action of the divine descending, another as "laying down the burden of man" suffering from the forces of evil.
The term is most found in the context of the Hindu god Vishnu. The earliest mention of Vishnu manifested in a human form to empower the good and fight against evil, uses other terms such as the word sambhavāmi in verse 4.6 and the word tanu in verse 9.11 of the Bhagavad Gita, as well as other words such as akriti and rupa elsewhere. It is in medieval era texts, those composed after the sixth century CE, that the noun version of avatar appears, where it means embodiment of a deity; the incarnation idea proliferates thereafter, in the Puranic stories for many deities, with ideas such as ansha-avatar or partial embodiments. While Avatars of other deities such as Ganesha and Shiva are mentioned in medieval Hindu texts, this is minor and occasional; the incarnation doctrine is one of the important differences between Vaishnavism and Shaivism traditions of Hinduism. The translation of avatar as "incarnation" has been questioned by Christian theologists, who state that an incarnation is in flesh and imperfect, while avatar is mythical and perfect.
The theological concept of Christ as an incarnation, as found in Christology, presents the Christian concept of incarnation. This, state Oduyoye and Vroom, is different from the Hindu concept of avatar because avatars in Hinduism are unreal and is similar to Docetism. Sheth disagrees and states that this claim is an incorrect understanding of the Hindu concept of avatar. Avatars are true embodiments of spiritual perfection, one driven by noble goals, in Hindu traditions such as Vaishnavism. Mainstream Islam rejects the doctrine of the incarnation of God in any form, as the concept is defined as shirk. In mainstream Islam God is one and "neither begets nor is begotten". Mainstream Judaism rejects any doctrine of an incarnation of God and rejects any concept of an incarnation of God in any form. However, some Hasidim believe in a somewhat similar concept. Menachem Mendel Schneerson, a prominent Hasidic leader, said that the Rebbe is God's essence itself put into a body of a tzadik. Serer religion rejects any notion of an incarnation or manifestation of Roog, called Koox among the Cangin.
However, the reincarnation of the ancient Serer saints and ancestral spirits, called Pangool, is a well held principle in Serer religion. These Pangool act as intermediaries between the living world and the Devine