Adam Richard Sandler is an American actor, screenwriter, film producer, musician. After becoming a Saturday Night Live cast member, Sandler went on to star in many Hollywood feature films that combined have grossed over $2 billion at the box office, his film roles include Billy Madison, the sports comedies Happy Gilmore and The Waterboy, the romantic comedy The Wedding Singer, Big Daddy, Mr. Deeds, voicing Dracula in Hotel Transylvania, Hotel Transylvania 2, Hotel Transylvania 3: Summer Vacation; some of his films, such the panned Jack and Jill, have been criticized, culminating in a shared second place in the number of Raspberry Awards and Raspberry Award nominations, in both cases second only to Sylvester Stallone. He has ventured into more dramatic territory with his roles in Punch-Drunk Love, Reign Over Me, Funny People, The Meyerowitz Stories, all of which earned him critical praise. Sandler was born in Brooklyn, New York, on September 9, 1966, to Judith "Judy", a nursery school teacher, Stanley Sandler, an electrical engineer.
His family descends from Russian Jewish immigrants on both sides. His patrilineal great grandfather, Joseph Jacob Sandler, was born in Pagėgiai Municipality, Tauragė County, Lithuania. Adam grew up after moving there at the age of six, he attended Manchester Central High School. As a teen, Sandler was in a Jewish youth group. Sandler graduated from New York University's Tisch School of the Arts in 1988. Early in his career, in 1987, Sandler played Theo Huxtable's friend, Smitty, in The Cosby Show and the Stud Boy or Trivia Delinquent in the MTV game show Remote Control. After his film debut Going Overboard in 1989, Sandler performed in comedy clubs, having first taken the stage at his brother's urging when he was 17, he was discovered by comedian Dennis Miller, who caught Sandler's act in Los Angeles and recommended him to Saturday Night Live producer Lorne Michaels. Sandler was hired as a writer for SNL in 1990 and became a featured player the following year, making a name for himself by performing amusing original songs on the show, including "The Thanksgiving Song" and "The Chanukah Song".
Sandler told Conan O'Brien on The Tonight Show that NBC fired him and Chris Farley from the show in 1995. In 1993, Adam Sandler appeared in the film Coneheads with Chris Farley, David Spade, Dan Aykroyd, Phil Hartman, Jane Curtin. In 1994, he co-starred in Airheads with Steve Buscemi, he starred in Billy Madison playing a grown man repeating grades 1–12 to earn back his father's respect and the right to inherit his father's multimillion-dollar hotel empire. He followed this film with Bulletproof, the financially successful comedies Happy Gilmore and The Wedding Singer, he was cast in the bachelor party–themed comedy/thriller Very Bad Things but had to back out due to his involvement in The Waterboy, one of his first hits. Although his earliest films did not receive favorable critical attention, he started to receive more positive reviews, beginning with Punch-Drunk Love in 2002. Roger Ebert's review of Punch-Drunk Love concluded that Sandler had been wasted in earlier films with poorly written scripts and characters with no development.
Sandler has moved outside the genre of slapstick comedy to take on more serious parts such as the aforementioned Punch-Drunk Love and Mike Binder's Reign Over Me, a drama about a man who loses his entire family in 9/11 and rekindles a friendship with his old college roommate. He starred alongside friend Kevin James in the film I Now Pronounce You Chuck and Larry, headlined You Don't Mess with the Zohan; the film was written by Sandler, Judd Apatow, Robert Smigel, it was directed by Dennis Dugan. Sandler starred along with Keri Russell and English comedian Russell Brand in Adam Shankman's fantasy film Bedtime Stories, as a stressed hotel maintenance worker whose bedtime stories he reads to his niece and nephew begin to come true, it marked as first film under the Walt Disney banner. In 2009, Sandler starred in Judd Apatow's third directorial feature Funny People; the film was released on July 31, 2009. Following the release of Funny People, it, along with Punch-Drunk Love were cited in the June 2010 announcement that Sandler was one of 135 people invited to join the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.
Sandler appeared in Grown Ups, alongside Kevin James, Chris Rock, Rob Schneider, David Spade. Sandler and Dickie Roberts scribe Fred Wolf wrote Dennis Dugan directed the film. Sandler starred. Sandler voiced a capuchin monkey in Kevin James's Zookeeper, released on July 8, 2011. In 2012, he starred. Sandler starred with Drew Barrymore in the Warner Bros. romantic comedy Blended, filmed in South Africa, was released on May 23, 2014. In 2013, he guest starred in the Disney Channel Original Series Jessie as himself, he and Cameron Boyce worked together in Grown Ups and Grown Ups 2. The episode is titled "Punched Dumped Love". Sandler co-starred in the drama film Men, Women & Children, directed by Jason Reitman, he was considered for the voice of Rocket Raccoon in Marvel's Guardians of the Galaxy but Bradley Cooper was cast instead. Sandler's recent comedy films, including Grown Ups and Grown Ups 2, have receiv
In a modern sense, comedy refers to any discourse or work intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter in theatre, film, stand-up comedy, or any other medium of entertainment. The origins of the term are found in Ancient Greece. In the Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theaters; the theatrical genre of Greek comedy can be described as a dramatic performance which pits two groups or societies against each other in an amusing agon or conflict. Northrop Frye depicted these two opposing sides as a "Society of Youth" and a "Society of the Old." A revised view characterizes the essential agon of comedy as a struggle between a powerless youth and the societal conventions that pose obstacles to his hopes. In this struggle, the youth is understood to be constrained by his lack of social authority, is left with little choice but to take recourse in ruses which engender dramatic irony which provokes laughter.
Satire and political satire use comedy to portray persons or social institutions as ridiculous or corrupt, thus alienating their audience from the object of their humor. Parody subverts popular genres and forms, critiquing those forms without condemning them. Other forms of comedy include screwball comedy, which derives its humor from bizarre, surprising situations or characters, black comedy, characterized by a form of humor that includes darker aspects of human behavior or human nature. Scatological humor, sexual humor, race humor create comedy by violating social conventions or taboos in comic ways. A comedy of manners takes as its subject a particular part of society and uses humor to parody or satirize the behavior and mannerisms of its members. Romantic comedy is a popular genre that depicts burgeoning romance in humorous terms and focuses on the foibles of those who are falling in love; the word "comedy" is derived from the Classical Greek κωμῳδία kōmōidía, a compound either of κῶμος kômos or κώμη kṓmē and ᾠδή ōidḗ.
The adjective "comic", which means that which relates to comedy is, in modern usage confined to the sense of "laughter-provoking". Of this, the word came into modern usage through the Latin comoedia and Italian commedia and has, over time, passed through various shades of meaning; the Greeks and Romans confined their use of the word "comedy" to descriptions of stage-plays with happy endings. Aristotle defined comedy as an imitation of men worse than the average. However, the characters portrayed in comedies were not worse than average in every way, only insofar as they are Ridiculous, a species of the Ugly; the Ridiculous may be defined as a deformity not productive of pain or harm to others. In the Middle Ages, the term expanded to include narrative poems with happy endings, it is in this sense that Dante used the term in the title of La Commedia. As time progressed, the word came more and more to be associated with any sort of performance intended to cause laughter. During the Middle Ages, the term "comedy" became synonymous with satire, with humour in general.
Aristotle's Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic world, where it was elaborated upon by Arabic writers and Islamic philosophers, such as Abu Bischr, his pupils Al-Farabi and Averroes. They disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation and instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija, they viewed comedy as the "art of reprehension", made no reference to light and cheerful events, or to the troubling beginnings and happy endings associated with classical Greek comedy. After the Latin translations of the 12th century, the term "comedy" gained a more general meaning in medieval literature. In the late 20th century, many scholars preferred to use the term laughter to refer to the whole gamut of the comic, in order to avoid the use of ambiguous and problematically defined genres such as the grotesque and satire. Starting from 425 BCE, Aristophanes, a comic playwright and satirical author of the Ancient Greek Theater, wrote 40 comedies, 11 of which survive.
Aristophanes developed his type of comedy from the earlier satyr plays, which were highly obscene. The only surviving examples of the satyr plays are by Euripides, which are much examples and not representative of the genre. In ancient Greece, comedy originated in bawdy and ribald songs or recitations apropos of phallic processions and fertility festivals or gatherings. Around 335 BCE, Aristotle, in his work Poetics, stated that comedy originated in phallic processions and the light treatment of the otherwise base and ugly, he adds that the origins of comedy are obscure because it was not treated from its inception. However, comedy had its own Muse: Thalia. Aristotle taught that comedy was positive for society, since it brings forth happiness, which for Aristotle was the ideal state, the final goal in any activity. For Aristotle, a comedy did not need to involve sexual humor. A comedy is about the fortunate rise of a sympathetic character. Aristotle divides comedy into three categories or subgenres: farce, romantic comedy, satire.
On the contrary, Plato taught. He believed that it produces an emotion that overrides ra
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
Luis Gerardo Méndez
Luis Gerardo Méndez is a Mexican actor and producer born in Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes. Having mostly appeared in smaller films and on television, Méndez shot to fame through his starring role in 2013 comedy film The Noble Family, which for a few months was Mexico's highest-ever grossing film; the following year, he played a role in the movie Cantinflas, as of 2015 he is co-producing and co-starring in Club de Cuervos, Netflix's first original production in Spanish. Born and raised in Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes in the heart of central Mexico. Méndez was asked about his sexuality following a 2014 interview where he used a masculine form to refer to his past relationships, he responded that the comment was taken out of context, that he does not talk about his private life and that the day someone's sexuality stops being news society will make an important step forward. As of January 2016, he was in a relationship with Pablo Chemor. Méndez has a dog named Tuba, they both appeared in a PETA campaign encouraging people to treat their pets as members of the family.
For his role as Javi Noble in The Noble Family, Méndez was nominated for the Ariel Award for Best Actor. He won a Latin ACE Award for Best Supporting Actor in a Motion Picture for his role in Cantinflas. Luis Gerardo Méndez on IMDb
Colin Andrew Firth is an English actor who has received an Academy Award, a Golden Globe Award, two BAFTA Awards, three Screen Actors Guild Awards, as well as the Volpi Cup for Best Actor at the Venice Film Festival. In 2010, Firth's portrayal of King George VI in Tom Hooper's The King's Speech won him the Academy Award for Best Actor. Identified in the late 1980s with the "Brit Pack" of rising, young British actors, it was not until his portrayal of Fitzwilliam Darcy in the 1995 television adaptation of Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice that he received more widespread attention; this led to roles in films, such as The English Patient, Bridget Jones's Diary, for which he was nominated for a BAFTA Award, Shakespeare in Love, Love Actually. In 2009, Firth received widespread critical acclaim for his leading role in A Single Man, for which he gained his first Academy Award nomination, won a BAFTA Award. In 2014, Firth portrayed secret agent Harry Hart in the film Kingsman: The Secret Service.
In 2018, he co-starred as William "Weatherall" Wilkins in the musical fantasy Mary Poppins Returns. His films have grossed more than $3 billion from 42 releases worldwide. In 2011, Firth received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, was selected as one of the Time 100, he was awarded an honorary degree from the University of Winchester in 2007, was made a Freeman of the City of London in 2012. He has campaigned for the rights of indigenous tribal people, is a member of Survival International. Firth has campaigned on issues of asylum seekers, refugees' rights, the environment, he commissioned and co-authored a scientific paper on a study into the differences in brain structure between people of differing political orientations. Firth was born in the village of Grayshott, Hampshire, to parents who were both academics and teachers, his mother, Shirley Jean, was a comparative religion lecturer at King Alfred's College, his father, David Norman Lewis Firth, was a history lecturer at King Alfred's and education officer for the Nigerian Government.
Firth is the eldest of three children. His maternal grandparents were Congregationalist ministers and his paternal grandfather was an Anglican priest; as a child, Firth travelled due to his parents' work, spending some years in Nigeria. He lived in St. Louis, when he was 11, which he has described as "a difficult time". On returning to England, he attended the Montgomery of Alamein Secondary School, which at the time was a state comprehensive school in Winchester, Hampshire, he was the target of bullying. To counter this, he adopted the local working class Hampshire accent and copied his schoolmates' lack of interest in schoolwork. By the time he was 14, Firth had decided to be a professional actor, having attended drama workshops from the age of 10; until further education, he was not academically inclined saying in an interview, "I didn't like school. I just thought it was boring and mediocre and nothing they taught me seemed to be of any interest at all." However, at Barton Peveril Sixth Form College in Eastleigh, he was imbued with a love of English literature by an enthusiastic teacher, Penny Edwards, has said that his two years at Barton Peveril were "among the two happiest years of my life".
After his sixth form years, Firth joined the National Youth Theatre. There, he made many contacts in the acting world, from which he got a job in the wardrobe department at the National Theatre. From there, he went on to study at Drama Centre London. Playing Hamlet in the Drama Centre end of year production, Firth was spotted by playwright Julian Mitchell, who cast him as the gay, ambitious public schoolboy Guy Bennett in the 1983 West End production of Another Country. In 1984, Firth made his film debut in the role of Tommy Judd, Guy Bennett's straight, Marxist school friend in the screen adaptation of the play; this was the start of longstanding public feud between Firth and Everett, resolved. He starred with Sir Laurence Olivier in Lost Empires, a TV adaptation of J. B. Priestley's novel. In 1987, Firth along with other up and coming British actors such as Tim Roth, Bruce Payne and Paul McGann were dubbed the'Brit Pack'; that same year, he appeared alongside Kenneth Branagh in the film version of J. L. Carr's A Month in the Country.
Sheila Johnston observed a theme in his early works of playing those traumatised by war. Firth portrayed real-life British soldier Robert Lawrence MC in the 1988 BBC dramatisation Tumbledown. Lawrence was injured at the Battle of Mount Tumbledown during the Falklands War, the film details his struggles to adjust to his disability whilst confronted with indifference from the government and the public; the film attracted controversy at the time, with criticism coming from left and right ends of the political spectrum. Firth's performance led to a Royal TV Society Best Actor Award and he was nominated for the 1989 BAFTA Television Award. In 1989, he played the title role based on Les Liaisons dangereuses; this did not make a big impact in comparison. The same year, he played a paranoid awkward character in Argentinian psychological thriller Apartment Zero. Firth became a household name through his role as the aloof and haughty aristocrat Mr. Darcy in the 1995 BBC television adaptation of Jane Austen's Pride and
Just Go with It
Just Go with It is a 2011 American romantic comedy film directed by Dennis Dugan, written by Allan Loeb and Timothy Dowling and starring Adam Sandler, Jennifer Aniston, Nicole Kidman, Nick Swardson and Brooklyn Decker. The film is based on the 1969 film Cactus Flower, adapted from an earlier Broadway stage play written by Abe Burrows, which in turn was based upon the French play Fleur de cactus. Production of the film began on March 2, 2010; the film was released on February 2011 by Columbia Pictures in North America. The film grossed over $214 million, making it a box office success - however, the film received negative reviews from critics and won two Golden Raspberry Awards for Worst Actor and Worst Director. In 1988, Daniel "Danny" Maccabee, a 22-year old man, leaves his wedding right before the ceremony is about to begin after learning that his fiancee is cheating on him, was only marrying him because he was going to be a doctor, he goes to drink alone at a bar, where a beautiful woman walks in.
She sees that Danny has a wedding ring on his hand, asks him about his wife, to which he explains how she left him for someone else, the woman from the bar ends up sleeping with him. Twenty-three years Danny is now a successful plastic surgeon in Los Angeles who feigns unhappy marriages to get women, to avoid romantic commitment that may lead to heartbreak; the only woman aware of his schemes is his office manager and best friend Katherine Murphy, a divorced mother of two. At a party, Danny meets Palmer, a sixth grade math teacher, without his wedding ring on, they have a connection together; the next morning, she assumes he is married. She refuses to date him. Instead of telling her the truth, Danny tells her that he is getting divorced from a woman named Devlin because she cheated on him with a man named "Dolph Lundgren"; when Palmer insists on meeting Devlin, Danny asks Katherine to pose as "Devlin" and they go shopping for new clothes to dress like a trophy wife. A made-over Katherine/"Devlin" meets with Danny and Palmer and gives them her blessing.
However, after hearing Katherine talking on the phone with her kids, Palmer assumes that her kids are Danny's as well. Danny privately meets with Katherine's kids and Michael, to get them to play along and gives them the aliases of "Kiki Dee" and "Bart" respectively. Danny accepts their demands for being his fake children. Palmer meets the kids at a play center where Maggie has adopted a fake British accent, Michael acts morose, they blackmail Danny in front of Palmer to take them all to Hawaii. At the airport, they are all surprised by Danny's goofball cousin Eddie, who has adopted an Austrian disguise as the "Dolph Lundgren" that Danny had made up earlier. To maintain the lies and Katherine are forced to bring him along. At the resort in Hawaii, Danny tells Eddie. Katherine and Danny run into the real-life Devlin Adams and her husband Ian Maxtone-Jones; because of Katherine and Devlin's long-time rivalry, Katherine introduces Danny as her husband rather than admit she is a single mother. Over time, Katherine is impressed by his way of fun with her kids.
Katherine again runs into Devlin, who Danny out to dinner. Eddie agrees to take Palmer out to dinner. Since he is supposed to be a sheep salesman, Eddie's cover is nearly blown when he is forced to save the life of an actual sheep who choked on a toy whistle. At dinner, Devlin asks Danny and Katherine to tell each other what they admire most about each other, and, as Danny and Katherine talk, they start to feel a connection; when Palmer and Eddie return from their dinner date, Palmer suggests that she and Danny get married now, since a drunken Eddie told her about Danny's plans of engagement. Danny and Katherine are both surprised by her proposition, but Danny agrees. Danny calls Katherine regarding his confusion, but Katherine says that she will be taking a job in New York City to get a fresh start to her life; the next day, Palmer confronts Katherine about Danny's feelings for her. Katherine runs into Devlin at a bar and admits that she pretended to be married to Danny to avoid embarrassment.
Devlin confesses that she is divorcing Ian because he is gay and that he did not invent the iPod, but made his money by suing the Los Angeles Dodgers after getting hit by a foul ball. Katherine confides in Devlin about being in love with Danny, but Danny shows up behind her, saying that he is not marrying Palmer and that he is in love with Katherine. Meanwhile, on the plane ride back to the mainland, Palmer meets a professional tennis player who shares her interests. Sometime Danny and Katherine get married. Titled "Holiday in Hawaii", "Pretend Wife", it was released as "Just Go with It"; the film was shot in Los Angeles and the Hawaiian islands of Maui and Kauai between March 2, 2010 and May 25, 2010. The film is deliberately vague; the characters stay at a Hawaiian hotel called the Waldorf Astoria. In actuality, the film was shot at the Grand Wailea in Maui, owned by Waldorf Astoria Hotels and Resorts. One of the film's in-jokes is the scene wherein Decker's cha