Sarajevo is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,524 in its administrative limits. The Sarajevo metropolitan area, including Sarajevo Canton, East Sarajevo and nearby municipalities, is home to 555,210 inhabitants.a Nestled within the greater Sarajevo valley of Bosnia, it is surrounded by the Dinaric Alps and situated along the Miljacka River in the heart of the Balkans. Sarajevo is the political and cultural center of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a prominent center of culture in the Balkans, with its region-wide influence in entertainment, media and the arts. Due to its long and rich history of religious and cultural diversity, Sarajevo is sometimes called the "Jerusalem of Europe" or "Jerusalem of the Balkans", it is one of only a few major European cities which have a mosque, Catholic church, Orthodox church and synagogue in the same neighborhood. A regional center in education, the city is home to the Balkans first institution of tertiary education in the form of an Islamic polytechnic called the Saraybosna Osmanlı Medrese, today part of the University of Sarajevo.
Although settlement in the area stretches back to prehistoric times, the modern city arose as an Ottoman stronghold in the 15th century. Sarajevo has attracted international attention several times throughout its history. In 1885, Sarajevo was the first city in Europe and the second city in the world to have a full-time electric tram network running through the city, following San Francisco. In 1914, it was the site of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria by local Young Bosnia activist Gavrilo Princip that sparked World War I, which ended Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and resulted in the creation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. After World War II, the establishment of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina within the Second Yugoslavia led to a massive expansion of Sarajevo, the constituent republic's capital, which culminated with the hosting of the 1984 Winter Olympics marking a prosperous era for the city. However, after the start of the Yugoslav Wars, for 1,425 days, from April 1992 to February 1996, the city suffered the longest siege of a capital city in the history of modern warfare, during the Bosnian War and the breakup of Yugoslavia.
Sarajevo has been undergoing post-war reconstruction, is the fastest growing city in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The travel guide series Lonely Planet has named Sarajevo as the 43rd best city in the world, in December 2009 listed Sarajevo as one of the top ten cities to visit in 2010. In 2011, Sarajevo was nominated to be the European Capital of Culture in 2014 and will be hosting the European Youth Olympic Festival in 2019; the earliest known name for the large central Bosnian region of today's Sarajevo is Vrhbosna. The name Sarajevo derives from the Turkish noun saray, meaning "palace" or "mansion"; the letter "j" in the Bosnian language is equivalent soundwise to the English letter "y" as in "boy" and "yet". The evo portion may come from the term saray ovası first recorded in 1455, meaning "the plains around the palace" or "palace plains". However, in his Dictionary of Turkish loanwords, Abdulah Škaljić maintains that the "evo" ending is more to have come from the widespread Slavic suffix "evo" used to indicate place names, than from the Turkish ending "ova", as proposed by some.
The first mention of name Sarajevo was in 1507 letter written by Feriz Beg. The official name during the 400-year Ottoman period was Saraybosna, it is still known by that name in modern Turkish. Sarajevo has had many nicknames; the earliest is Šeher, the term Isa-Beg Ishaković used to describe the town he was going to build. It is a Turkish word meaning an advanced city of key importance which in turn comes from Persian: شهر shahr; as Sarajevo developed, numerous nicknames came from comparisons to other cities in the Islamic world, i.e. "Damascus of the North". The most popular of these was "European Jerusalem"; some argue that a more correct translation of saray is government house. Sarajevo is near the geometric center of the triangular-shaped Bosnia-Herzegovina and within the historical region of Bosnia proper, it is situated 518 meters above sea level and lies in the Sarajevo valley, in the middle of the Dinaric Alps. The valley itself once formed a vast expanse of greenery, but gave way to urban expansion and development in the post-World War II era.
The city is surrounded by forested hills and five major mountains. The highest of the surrounding peaks is Treskavica at 2,088 meters Bjelašnica mountain at 2,067 meters, Jahorina at 1,913 meters, Trebević at 1,627 meters, with 1,502 meters Igman being the shortest; the last four are known as the Olympic Mountains of Sarajevo. The city itself has its fair share of hilly terrain, as evidenced by the many steeply inclined streets and residences perched on the hillsides; the Miljacka river is one of the city's chief geographic features. It flows through the city from east through the center of Sarajevo to west part of city where meets up with the Bosna river. Miljacka river is "The Sarajevo River", with its source 2 kilometres south of the town of Pale at the foothills of Mount Jahorina, several kilometers to the east of Sarajevo center; the Bosna's source, Vrelo Bosne near Ilidža, is another notable natural landmark and a popular destination for Sarajevans and other tourists. Several smaller rivers and streams such as Koševski Potok run through the city and its vicinity.
Tim Judah is a British reporter and political analyst for The Economist, has written several books focusing on Serbia and Kosovo. He is considered an expert authority on the Balkans. Tim Judah was born in London in 1962 and was raised in family of Baghdadi Jewish descent whose tradition maintains they first came to Iraq from the ancient Kingdom of Judah at the time of the Babylonian Exile, his ancestors include Solomon Ma’tuk. The Judah family was established in Calcutta as part of the Baghdadi Jewish community before migrating to Britain. Judah went to Charterhouse school followed by the London School of Economics, he studied at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University. Based abroad as a foreign correspondent Judah lived in Bucharest from 1990 to 1991 where he covered the fall of communism for The Times and the Economist, he moved to Belgrade where he covered the conflicts surrounding breakup of the former Yugoslavia. He moved back to London in 1995 but continues to travel to the Balkans.
Judah is married to writer and publisher Rosie Whitehouse and has five children, one of whom is the journalist Ben Judah. Tim Judah began his career at the African service of the BBC World Service, he has reported from many flashpoints around the world, including the states of the former Yugoslavia, El Salvador, Iran, Niger, Uganda, North Korea, Armenia and Ukraine. In 1997, based on his reporting of the Yugoslav Wars Judah criticized "academics imbued with a two dimensional view of the world" such as Francis Fukuyama for discussing the revolutions of 1989 as heralding the end of history. Judah has been described by The Guardian newspaper as "a distinguished foreign correspondent." As a writer his style combines reportage and history and his main focus, as a journalist, has been on conflict in Africa and Eastern Europe, in particular the Balkans. He has written three books on the Balkans region, most notably The Serbs: History and the Destruction of Yugoslavia published by Yale University Press in 1997 and Kosovo: War And Revenge with the same publisher in 2002.
He was an eyewitness to many of the most notable battles of the Yugoslav Wars including the siege of Dubrovnik and the battle of Vukovar. Judah is considered an expert authority on Balkan politics; as a Senior Visiting Fellow at the European Institute of the London School of Economics in 2009 he developed the concept of the Yugosphere. He has described the Yugosphere as "a way of describing the renewal of thousands of broken bonds across the former state," a social and political phenomenon with a certain political application. In the Balkans itself, he is president of the board of the Balkan Investigative Reporting Network and a member of the board of the Kosovar Stability Initiative. Elsewhere in Eastern Europe, Judah has reported on the War in Donbass, his most recent book In Wartime: Stories from Ukraine was published in December 2015. Judah's work on Africa has included a BBC Radio 4 documentary on Mouridism, his work has touched on African sporting achievements with his 2008 book Bikila: Ethiopia’s Barefoot Runner shortlisted for the best new sportswriter category in the 2009 British Sports Book Awards.
Judah has worked in 2013 as a regular columnist for Bloomberg. He has celebrated the Jewish festival of Passover in both Baghdad during the American invasion of 2003 and Donetsk during the Russian invasion of 2014; the Serbs: History and the Destruction of Yugoslavia. Yale University Press. 2000. ISBN 978-0-300-08507-5. Kosovo: War and Revenge. Yale University Press. 2002. ISBN 978-0-300-09725-2. Bikila: Ethiopia's Barefoot Olympian. Reportage Press. 2008. ISBN 978-0-9558302-1-1. Kosovo: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford University Press. 29 August 2008. ISBN 978-0-19-974103-8. In Wartime: Stories from Ukraine. Allen Lane / Penguin. 1 December 2015. ISBN 978-0241198827. Articles written for Prospect magazine Articles written for New York Review of Books The Judah Edition Tim Judah’s website. BIRN The Economist European Stability Initiative Kosovar Stability Initiative
Church of the Holy Transfiguration, Sarajevo
The Church of the Holy Transfiguration is a Serbian Orthodox church in Novo Sarajevo, Sarajevo and Herzegovina. Planned for Split in Croatia, it was built in 1940 by Aleksandar Deroko and consecrated by Serbian Patriarch Gavrilo V, it was the place of worship for 50,000 adherents in the region. It is the only Orthodox church in Novo Sarajevo. During the Yugoslav Wars, the Church was damaged, after the war it was renovated. Reworking of frescoes began in 2004. Serb Orthodox Cathedral Serbs of Sarajevo Dabro-Bosnian Metropolitanate 70th Church anniversary
Radovan Karadžić is a Bosnian Serb former politician and convicted war criminal who served as the President of Republika Srpska during the Bosnian War and sought the unification of that entity with Serbia. Trained as a psychiatrist, he co-founded the Serb Democratic Party in Bosnia and Herzegovina and served as the first President of Republika Srpska from 1992 to 1996, he was a fugitive from 1996 until July 2008 after having been indicted for war crimes by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. The indictment concluded there were reasonable grounds for believing he committed war crimes, including genocide against Bosniak and Croat civilians during the Bosnian War. While a fugitive, he worked at a private clinic in Belgrade, specializing in alternative medicine and psychology under an alias, his nephew, Dragan Karadžić, has claimed in an interview to the Corriere della Sera that Radovan Karadžić attended Serie A football matches and that he visited Venice using a different alias.
He was arrested in Belgrade on 21 July 2008 and brought before Belgrade's War Crimes Court a few days later. Extradited to the Netherlands, he is in the custody of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in the United Nations Detention Unit of Scheveningen, where he was charged with 11 counts of war crimes, he is sometimes referred to by the Western media as the "Butcher of Bosnia", a sobriquet applied to former Army of Republika Srpska General Ratko Mladić. On 24 March 2016, he was found guilty of the genocide in Srebrenica, war crimes, crimes against humanity, 10 of the 11 charges in total, sentenced to 40 years' imprisonment. On 22 July 2016 he filed an appeal against his conviction; the appeal was rejected on 20 March 2019, the sentence was increased to life imprisonment. Radovan Karadžić was born on 19 June 1945 in the village of Petnjica in the People's Republic of Montenegro, Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, near Šavnik. Karadžić's father, was a cobbler from Petnjica.
His mother, was a peasant girl from Pljevlja. She married Karadžić's father in 1943, aged twenty. Karadžić claims to be related to the Serbian linguistic reformer Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, although this claim cannot be confirmed, his father had been a Chetnik – the army of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia's government-in-exile during World War II – and was imprisoned by the post-war communist regime for much of his son's childhood. Karadžić moved to Sarajevo in 1960 to study psychiatry at the Sarajevo University School of Medicine. Karadžić studied neurotic disorders and depression at Næstved Hospital in Denmark in 1970, during 1974 and 1975 he underwent further medical training at Columbia University in New York. After his return to Yugoslavia, he worked in the Koševo Hospital in Sarajevo, he was a poet, influenced by Serbian writer Dobrica Ćosić, who encouraged him to go into politics. During his spell as an ecologist, he declared that "Bolshevism is bad, but nationalism is worse". Soon after graduation, Karadžić started working in a treatment centre at the psychiatric clinic of the main Sarajevo hospital, Koševo.
According to testimony, he boosted his income by issuing fake medical and psychological evaluations to healthcare workers who wanted early retirement or to criminals who tried to avoid punishment by pleading insanity. In 1983, Karadžić started working at a hospital in the Belgrade suburb of Voždovac. With his partner Momčilo Krajišnik manager of a mining enterprise Energoinvest, he managed to get a loan from an agricultural-development fund, they used it to build themselves houses in Pale, a Serb town above Sarajevo turned into a ski resort by the government. On 1 November 1984 the two were arrested for fraud and spent 11 months in detention before their friend Nikola Koljević managed to bail them out. Due to a lack of evidence, Karadžić was released and his trial was brought to a halt; the trial was revived, on 26 September 1985 Karadžić was sentenced to three years in prison for embezzlement and fraud. As he had spent over a year in detention, Karadžić did not serve the remaining sentence in prison.
Following encouragement from Dobrica Ćosić the first president of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Jovan Rašković, leader of the Croatian Serbs, Karadžić cofounded the Serb Democratic Party in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1989. The party aimed at unifying the Republic's Bosnian Serb community and joining Croatian Serbs in leading them in remaining as part of Yugoslavia in the event of secession by those two republics from the federation. Throughout September 1991, the SDS began to establish various "Serb Autonomous Regions" throughout Bosnia-Herzegovina. After the Bosnian parliament voted on sovereignty on 15 October 1991, a separate Serb Assembly was founded on 24 October 1991 in Banja Luka, to represent the Serbs in Bosnia and Herzegovina; the following month, Bosnian Serbs held a referendum which resulted in an overwhelming vote in favour of staying in a federal state with Serbia and Montenegro, as part of Yugoslavia. In December 1991, a top secret document, For the organisation and activity of organs of the Serbs people in Bosnia-Herzegovina in extraordinary circumstances, was drawn up by the SDS leadership.
This was a centralised programme for the takeover of each municipality in the country, through the creation of shadow governments and para-governmental structures through various "crisis headquarters", by preparing loyalist Serbs for the takeover in co-ordination with the Yugoslav People's Army. On 9 January 1992, the Bosnian Serb Assembly proclaimed the Republic of the Serb Peop
Momčilo Krajišnik is a former Bosnian Serb political leader, who along with Radovan Karadžić co-founded the Bosnian Serb nationalist Serb Democratic Party. Between 1990-92, he was Speaker of the People's Assembly of Republika Srpska. Between June and December 1992, he served as member of the expanded Presidency of Republika Srpska. After the Bosnian War, he was elected Serb member of the tripartite Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the September 1996 and served in that post from October 1996 to October 1998, he lost his bid for re-election in 1998 to Živko Radišić. In 2006, Krajišnik was found guilty of committing crimes against humanity during the Bosnian War by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and was sentenced to 20 years' imprisonment, he was granted early release on 1 September 2013, he returned to Republika Srpska. An ethnic Serb, Krajišnik was born in Zabrđe, a village near Sarajevo in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 15 October 1991, the parliament of SR Bosnia and Herzegovina passed a resolution on the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in spite of strong opposition from Bosnian Serb deputies.
Ten days the Serb Democratic Party formed a Bosnian Serb Assembly, with Momčilo Krajišnik acting as its president. The Bosnian Serb Assembly began establishing parallel government structures. Krajišnik took part in the negotiations leading to the Dayton agreements, he earned the nickname "Mr. No" for his uncompromising stance during negotiations. About that period, Richard Holbrooke noted in his memoirs: As everybody who met him noted, Krajišnik had only one long and extraordinarily brushy eyebrow, which spanned his forehead, creating what looked like a permanent dark cloud over his deep-set eyes. Although Krajišnik had not been indicted by the War Crimes Tribunal – and could therefore participate in Dayton – it was hard to distinguish his views from those of his close friend Radovan Karadžić. Milošević had said that Krajišnik was "more difficult" than Karadžić, but we had little basis on which to make an independent judgment, he and Izetbegović knew each other well, from lengthy meetings in the Bosnian Assembly before the war.
Krajišnik owned a five-hectare farm on the edge of Sarajevo, in an area that would revert to the Muslims in any settlement, we made bitter jokes that the war was over Krajišnik's five hectares. Krajišnik was indicted by the ICTY on various charges of crimes against humanity - namely extermination, persecution and forced transfer, murder as a war crime, genocide - in relation to acts committed in 1992 in Bosnia and Herzegovina by Bosnian Serb forces, he was arrested on 3 April 2000 at Pale by French marine commandos which were part of SFOR. On 27 September 2006 Krajišnik was convicted of the following crimes against humanity: extermination, persecution and forced transfer, he was acquitted of the charges of murder as a war crime and complicity in genocide. He was sentenced to 27 years imprisonment. ICTY judges found that Krajišnik had been part of a joint criminal enterprise which carried out the extermination, murder and deportation of non-Serbs during the Bosnian war between 1992 and 1995. Judge Alphons Orie observed that "Krajišnik's role in the commission of the crimes was crucial...
His positions within the Bosnian Serb leadership gave him the authority to facilitate the military and paramilitary groups to implement the objective of the joint criminal enterprise". He noted "Mr Krajišnik... accepted that a heavy price of suffering and destruction was necessary to achieve Serb domination."Krajišnik was acquitted of genocide or complicity in genocide on the grounds that the court had found no evidence of a genocidal intent on his part to destroy in full or part ethnic or religious communities. This decision was greeted with anger by representatives of victims of crimes of which Krajišnik had been found guilty, who found his acquittal on the charge of genocide difficult to accept. Bakira Hasečić of the Association of Women Victims of War, an organisation which campaigns for the prosecution of those responsible for the use of rape as a weapon of war, a feature of the ethnic cleansing campaign, commented that "The sentence is a major blow to justice, it is an insult for the victims."On 17 March 2009 the charges of murder and extermination were dropped and the sentence was reduced to 20 years.
While the ICTY judges found that while there was evidence that crimes committed in Bosnia constituted the criminal act of genocide, they did not establish that the accused possessed genocidal intent, or was part of a criminal enterprise that had such an intent. According to Edina Bećirević, both Krajišnik and Radovan Karadžić were warned by Bosnian Serb military commander General Ratko Mladić indicted on genocide charges, that their "plans" could not be committed without committing genocide: People are not little stones, or keys in someone's pocket, that can be moved from one place to another just like that. Therefore, we cannot arrange for only Serbs to stay in one part of the country while removing others painlessly. I do not know how Mr Mr Karadžić will explain that to the world; that is genocide. In 2009, Krajišnik was transferred to the UK under the UK's enforcement agreements with the ICTY to serve his sentence at HM Prison Belmarsh. In 2010, after a single year in prison, he filed a request for early release, rejected, as in practice the ICTY considers early release only after two thirds of the original sentence is served, unlike the UK where it is considered after only half of the sentence is served.
In 2011, another r
Party of Democratic Action
The Party of Democratic Action is a conservative Bosniak nationalist political party in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Party of Democratic Action was founded on 26 May 1990 in Sarajevo, as a "party of Muslim cultural-historic circle", it was a realisation of Alija Izetbegović's idea of an Islamic religious and national party in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Many members of the Islamic Community of Bosnia and Herzegovina, including imams, took part in the party's foundation. Alija, chosen as its chairman tried to resolve disputes between the Muslim nationalist-Islamists led by Omer Behmen and the left-wing Muslims led by Adil Zulfikarpašić; the party has its roots in the old Yugoslav Muslim Organization, a conservative Bosniak party in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Yugoslav Muslim Organization was a successor of Muslimanska Narodna Organizacija, a conservative Bosniak party founded in 1906 during the Austro-Hungarian era; the Muslim National Organization was itself a successor of the conservative Bosniak "Movement for waqf and educational autonomy" that goes back to 1887.
The SDA achieved considerable success in elections after the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s. It founded the newspaper Ljiljan; the party remains the strongest political party among the Bosniak population in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In November 2000 the party was defeated by the Social Democratic Party and other parties gathered into the "Alliance for Change", found itself in opposition for the first time since its creation; the party has branches in Slovenia, North Macedonia and the Sandžak region of Serbia. One of the goals of the party, outside Bosnia and Herzegovina, is to represent and defend the interests of Bosniaks and other Muslim South Slavs in the entire Balkan region. In Montenegro the party merged with smaller Bosniak and Slavic Muslim parties to create the Bosniak Party; the party is an observer member of the European People's Party. After the 2018 elections, SDA became once again the largest party in Herzegovina. In the 1998 elections SDA was the main party in the Coalition for Unity and Democracy (along with Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina, Liberal Democratic Party and Civic Democratic Party.
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Serbian Orthodox Church
The Serbian Orthodox Church is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches. It is the second-oldest Slavic Orthodox Church in the world; the Serbian Orthodox Church comprises the majority of the population in Serbia and the Republika Srpska entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is organized into metropolises and eparchies located in Serbia and Herzegovina, Croatia, but all over the world where Serb diaspora lives; the Serbian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous, or ecclesiastically independent, member of the Eastern Orthodox communion. Serbian Patriarch serves as first among equals in his church; the Church achieved autocephalous status in 1219 under the leadership of St. Sava, becoming independent Archbishopric of Žiča, its status was elevated to that of a patriarchate in 1346, was known afterwards as the Serbian Patriarchate of Peć. This patriarchate was abolished by the Ottoman Turks in 1766; the modern Serbian Orthodox Church was re-established in 1920 after the unification of the Patriarchate of Karlovci, the Metropolitanate of Belgrade and the Metropolitanate of Montenegro.
Christianity spread to the Balkans beginning in the 1st century. Florus and Laurus are venerated as Christian martyrs of the 2nd century. Constantine the Great, born in Niš, was the first Christian Roman Emperor. Several bishops seated in what is today Serbia participated in the First Council of Nicaea, such as Ursacius of Singidunum. In 380, Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius decreed that his subjects would be Christians according to the Council of Nicea formula. Greek was used in the Byzantine church. With the definite split in 395, the line in Europe ran south along the Drina river. Among old Christian heritage is the Archbishopric of Justiniana Prima, established in 535, which had jurisdiction over the whole of present-day Serbia. However, the Archbishopric did not last, as the Slavs and Avars destroyed the region sometime after 602, when the last mention is made of it. In 731 Leo III attached Illyricum and Southern Italy to Patriarch Anastasius of Constantinople, transferring the papal authority to the Eastern Church.
The history of the early medieval Serbian Principality is recorded in the work De Administrando Imperio, compiled by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus. The DAI drew information on the Serbs among others, a Serbian source; the Serbs were said to have received the protection of Emperor Heraclius, Porphyrogenitus stressed that the Serbs had always been under Imperial rule. His account on the first Christianization of the Serbs can be dated to 632–638; the establishment of Christianity as state religion dates to the time of Prince Mutimir and Byzantine Emperor Basil I. The Christianization was due to Byzantine and subsequent Bulgarian influence. At least during the rule of Kocel in Pannonia, communications between Serbia and Great Moravia, where Methodius was active, must have been possible; this fact, the pope was aware of, when planning Methodius' diocese as well as that of the Dalmatian coast, in Byzantine hands as far north as Split. There is a possibility that some Cyrillomethodian pupils reached Serbia in the 870s even sent by Methodius himself.
Serbia was accounted Christian as of about 870. The first Serbian bishopric was founded at Ras, near modern Novi Pazar on the Ibar river. According to Vlasto, the initial affiliation is uncertain; the early Ras church can be dated to the 9th–10th century, with the rotunda plan characteristic of first court chapels. The bishopric was established shortly after 871, during the rule of Mutimir, was part of the general plan of establishing bishoprics in the Slav lands of the empire, confirmed by the Council of Constantinople in 879–880; the names of Serbian rulers through Mutimir are Slavic dithematic names, per the Old Slavic tradition. With Christianization in the 9th century, Christian names appear; the next generations of Serbian royalty had Christian names, evident of strong Byzantine missions in the 870s. Petar Gojniković was evidently a Christian prince, Christianity was spreading in his time; the Bulgarian annexation of Serbia in 924 was important for the future direction of the Serbian church, by at latest, Serbia must have received the Cyrillic alphabet and Slavic religious text familiar but not yet preferred to Greek.
In 1018–19, the Archbishopric of Ohrid was established after the Byzantines conquered Bulgaria. Greek replaced Bulgarian Slavic as the liturgical language. Serbia was ecclesiastically administered into several bishoprics: the bishopric of Ras, mentioned in the first charter of Basil II, became part of the Ohrid archbishopric and encompassed the areas of southern Serbia, by the rivers Raška, Ibar and Lim, evident in the second charter of Basil II. In the chrysobulls of Basil II d