Dunblane is a town in the council area of Stirling in central Scotland. It is a commuter town, with many residents making use of good transport links to much of the Central Belt, including Glasgow and Edinburgh. Dunblane is built on the banks of a tributary of the River Forth. Dunblane Cathedral is its most prominent landmark. Dunblane had a population of 8,114 at the 2001 census; the most popular theory for the derivation of the name "Dunblane" is that it means "fort of Blane", commemorating Saint Blane, an early Christian saint who lived in the late 6th century. His main seat was Kingarth on the Isle of Bute, he or his followers may have founded a church at Dunblane. The earliest spellings of the name Dunblane are of the form Dul Blaan, the first element being a Pictish word for'water meadow, haugh', borrowed into Scottish Gaelic. There are parallels to Dul Blaan in such Scottish place-names as Dalserf and Dalpatrick, all of which commemorate saints; the earliest evidence for Christianity on the site are two cross-slabs of the 10th to 11th centuries which are preserved in the cathedral.
Incorporated into the medieval building, but free-standing, is an 11th-century bell-tower, whose height was increased in the 15th century. The nave and aisleless choir are 13th century. Dunblane did not have a rich or extensive medieval diocese, the cathedral is modest in scale, but its refined architecture is much admired, as is its setting overlooking the valley of the Allan Water. After the Reformation, the nave of the cathedral was abandoned and soon became roofless and used for burials; the choir was retained as the parish church. The nave was re-roofed and the cathedral provided with new furnishings by Robert Rowand Anderson between 1889 and 1893. During the boom years of the Hydropathy movement in the 19th century, Dunblane was the location of a successful hydropathic establishment. Since the early 1970s the town has grown extensively and is now regarded as a sought-after commuter town due to its excellent road and rail links and good schools. Dunblane is close to the University of Stirling's campus at Bridge of Allan, is a popular location for academics.
Japanese Wagyu beef is now being raised in Dunblane. The town was a royal burgh and part of Perthshire until the 1975 abolition of Scottish counties, from which point it became part of Stirling District in Central Region. In 1994, the regions were themselves abolished and Dunblane's only local authority became Stirling Council. In addition, Dunblane has an active community council; until 1983, Dunblane was part of the Kinross and Western Perthshire constituency of the UK parliament, being represented by predominantly Unionist MPs. After 1983, it became part of the Stirling constituency, since has been represented by Conservative, Labour and SNP MPs. In the Scottish Parliament, Dunblane is part of the Clackmannanshire and Dunblane constituency and the Mid Scotland and Fife region, it shares a ward with Bridge of Allan in council elections. Dunblane is referred to as a city, due to the presence of Dunblane Cathedral. However, this status was never recognised. Dunblane has two supermarkets, a Tesco and a M&S Foodhall, as well as a local Co-op.
Among other shops, the High Street has two independent butchers and one remaining bank, the Bank of Scotland Over the course of 6 years, a small group of young local boys and their parents raised money to build a skatepark in the Laighills. The skatepark was completed on 23 February 2007 and has been visited by Death skateboard team and by the Vans UK Tour; the town is served by Dunblane railway station, which has regular services to Stirling, Perth and Edinburgh. It is a stop on the Caledonian Sleeper from Inverness, several other long distance trains to Aberdeen, Dundee and London. Dunblane station was the junction for services over the scenically attractive route to Doune and Crianlarich, where the line joined the still extant line from Glasgow to Oban; the route to Oban via the popular Callander line closed in 1965. Dunblane is the northernmost station of Network Rail's Edinburgh to Glasgow Improvement Programme, which includes electrification. Dunblane is the point at which the M9 motorway ends and joins the A9 dual carriageway north towards Perth.
The A9 went through the centre of Dunblane, but a bypass was completed in 1991 and the old road became the B8033. The rapid expansion of the town has led to a large increase in local car usage, resulting in considerable parking problems. Dunblane Cathedral - Church of Scotland St Blane's Church - Church of Scotland St Mary's Church - Scottish Episcopal Church Church of the Holy Family - Roman Catholic Church Free Church of Scotland Dunblane Christian Fellowship Community of St Nicholas - Eastern Orthodox ChurchDunblane Cathedral is remarkable in having retained more of its late-medieval choir stalls than any other Scottish church building, is noted for its organ. Further fragments of medieval woodwork from the cathedral are displayed in the town's museum the Cathedral Museum, situated nearby. Though still used as a parish church, the building is in the care of Historic Scotland. To the south of the cathedral are some stone vaults of medieval origin, which are the only remaining f
The Dunblane school massacre took place at Dunblane Primary School near Stirling, Scotland, on 13 March 1996, when Thomas Hamilton shot 16 children and one teacher dead before killing himself. It remains the deadliest mass shooting in British history. Public debate about the killings centred on gun control laws, including public petitions calling for a ban on private ownership of handguns and an official inquiry, which produced the 1996 Cullen Reports. In response to this debate, two new Firearms Acts were passed, which outlawed private ownership of most handguns in Great Britain. At about 8:15 a.m. on Wednesday 13 March 1996, Thomas Hamilton, aged 43, was seen scraping ice off his van outside his home at Kent Road in Stirling. He drove about 5 miles north to Dunblane, he arrived on the grounds of Dunblane Primary School at around 9:30 a.m. and parked his van near a telegraph pole in the car park of the school. Hamilton cut the cables at the bottom of the telegraph pole, which served nearby houses, with a set of pliers before making his way across the car park towards the school buildings.
Hamilton headed towards the north-west side of the school to a door near the toilets and the school gymnasium. After entering, he made his way to the gymnasium armed with four legally-held handguns—two 9mm Browning HP pistols and two Smith & Wesson M19.357 Magnum revolvers. He was carrying 743 cartridges of ammunition. In the gym was a class of twenty-eight Primary 1 pupils preparing for a PE lesson in the presence of three adult members of staff. Before entering the gymnasium, it is believed Hamilton fired two shots into the stage of the assembly hall and the girls' toilet. Upon entering the gymnasium, as he was about to be confronted by Eileen Harrild, the PE teacher in charge of the lesson, he started shooting and randomly, he shot Harrild, injured in her arms and chest as she attempted to protect herself, continued shooting into the gymnasium. Harrild stumbled into the open-plan store cupboard at the side of the gym along with several injured children. Gwen Mayor, the teacher of the Primary 1 class, was killed instantly.
The other adult present, Mary Blake, a supervisory assistant, was shot in the head and both legs but managed to make her way to the store cupboard with several of the children in front of her. From entering the gymnasium and walking a few steps, Hamilton had fired 29 shots with one of the pistols, killed one child, injured several others. Four injured children had taken shelter in the store cupboard along with the injured Harrild and Blake. Hamilton moved up the east side of the gym, firing six shots as he walked, fired eight shots towards the opposite end of the gym, he went towards the centre of the gym, firing 16 shots at point-blank range at a group of children, incapacitated by his earlier shots. A Primary 7 pupil, walking along the west side of the gym building at the time heard loud bangs and screams and looked inside the gym. Hamilton shot in his direction and the pupil was injured by flying glass before running away. From this position, Hamilton fired 24 shots in various directions, he fired shots towards a window next to the fire exit at the south-east end of the gym at an adult, walking across the playground, fired four more shots in the same direction after opening the fire exit door.
Hamilton exited the gym through the fire exit, firing another four shots towards the cloakroom of the library and injuring Grace Tweddle, another member of staff at the school. In the mobile classroom closest to the fire exit where Hamilton was standing, Catherine Gordon saw him firing shots and instructed her Primary 7 class to get down onto the floor before Hamilton fired nine bullets into the classroom, striking books and equipment. One bullet passed through a chair. Hamilton reentered the gym, dropped the pistol he was using, took out one of the two revolvers, he put the barrel of the gun in his mouth, pointed it upwards, pulled the trigger, killing himself. A total of 32 people sustained gunshot wounds inflicted by Hamilton over a 3–4-minute period, 16 of whom were fatally wounded in the gymnasium, which included Mayor and 15 of her pupils. One other child died en route to hospital; the first call to the police was made at 9:41 a.m. by the headmaster of the school, Ronald Taylor, alerted by assistant headmistress Agnes Awlson to the possibility of a gunman on the school premises.
Awlson had told Taylor that she had heard screaming inside the gymnasium and had seen what she thought to be cartridges on the ground, Taylor had been aware of loud noises which he assumed to have been from builders on site that he had not been informed of. As he was on his way to the gym, the shooting ended and when he saw what had happened he ran back to his office and told deputy headmistress Fiona Eadington to call for ambulances, a call, made at 9:43 a.m. The first ambulance arrived on the scene at 9:57 a.m. in response to the call made at 9:43 a.m. Another medical team from Dunblane Health Centre arrived at 10:04 a.m. which included doctors and a nurse, who were involved in the initial resuscitation of the injured. Medical teams from the health centres in Doune and Callander arrived shortly after; the accident and emergency department at Stirling Royal Infirmary had been informed of a major incident involving multiple casualties at 9:48 a.m. and the first of several medical teams from the hospital arrived at 10:15 a.m.
Another medical team from the Falkirk and District Royal Infirmary arrived at 10:35 a.m. By about 11:10 a.m. all of the injured had been taken to Stirling Royal Infirmary for medical treatment.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department referred to as the Home Secretary, is a senior official as one of the Great Offices of State within Her Majesty's Government and head of the Home Office. It is a British Cabinet level position; the Home Secretary is responsible for the internal affairs of England and Wales, for immigration and citizenship for the United Kingdom. The remit of the Home Office includes policing in England and Wales and matters of national security, as the Security Service is directly accountable to the Home Secretary; the Home Secretary was the minister responsible for prisons and probation in England and Wales. A high profile position, it is recognised as one of the most prestigious and important roles in the British Cabinet; the position of Home Secretary has been held by Sajid Javid since 30 April 2018. British government departments Cabinet Great Offices of State List of British governments Ministry of Justice Shadow Home Secretary Home Office under Theresa May Gibson, Bryan.
The New Home Office: An Introduction. Waterside Press. Pp. 148–149. ISBN 978-1-904380-49-8. Home Office website
Michael Howard, Baron Howard of Lympne, is a British politician who served as Leader of the Conservative Party and Leader of the Opposition from November 2003 to December 2005. He held cabinet positions in the governments of Margaret Thatcher and John Major, including Secretary of State for Employment, Secretary of State for the Environment and Home Secretary. Howard was born in Swansea, he studied at Peterhouse, following which he joined the Young Conservatives. In 1964, he was called to the Bar and became a Queen's Counsel in 1982, he first became a Member of Parliament at the 1983 general election, representing the constituency of Folkestone and Hythe. This led to him being promoted and Howard became Minister for Local Government in 1987. Under the premiership of John Major, he served as Secretary of State for Employment, Secretary of State for the Environment and Home Secretary. Following the Conservative Party's landslide defeat at the 1997 general election, he unsuccessfully contested the leadership, subsequently held the posts of Shadow Foreign Secretary and Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer.
In November 2003, following the Conservative Party's vote of no confidence in Iain Duncan Smith, Howard was elected to the leadership unopposed. At the 2005 general election, the Conservatives gained 33 new seats in Parliament, including five from the Liberal Democrats. Following the election, Howard resigned as leader and was succeeded by future Prime Minister David Cameron. Howard chose to not seek re-election at the 2010 general election and entered the House of Lords as Baron Howard of Lympne, he has been supportive of the Eurosceptic pressure group Leave Means Leave. Howard was born Michael Hecht in Swansea, he is the son of Bernat Hecht, born in Romania and came to Britain in 1939. His mother, lived in Wales from the age of 6 months. Both of Howard's parents were from Jewish families; when Howard was six, his parents became naturalised as British subjects, his surname was changed following the parents' naturalisation with the new surname Howard. Howard passed his eleven-plus exam in 1952 and attended Llanelli Boys' Grammar School.
He joined the Young Conservatives at age 15. He obtained eight O-levels, A-levels, gaining a place at Peterhouse at Cambridge University, he was President of the Cambridge Union Society in 1962. After taking a 2:1 in the first part of the economics tripos, he switched to law and graduated with a 2:2 in 1962, he was one of a cluster of Conservative students at Cambridge University around this time, sometimes referred to as the "Cambridge Mafia", many of whom held high government office under Margaret Thatcher and John Major. Howard was called to the Bar at the Inner Temple in 1964 and specialised in employment and planning law, he continued his career at the Bar, becoming a practising Queen's Counsel in 1982. In the late 1960s Howard gained promotion within the Bow Group, becoming Chairman in April 1970. At the Conservative Party conference in October 1970, he made a notable speech commending the government for attempting to curb trade union power and called for state aid to strikers' families to be reduced or stopped altogether, a policy which the Thatcher government pursued over a decade later.
In the 1970s, Howard was a leading advocate of British membership of the Common Market and served on the board of the cross-party Britain in Europe group. Howard was named as co-respondent in the high-profile divorce case of 1960s model Sandra Paul, they subsequently married in 1975. They have a son born in 1976 and a daughter born in 1977. At the 1966 and 1970 general elections, Howard unsuccessfully contested the safe Labour seat of Liverpool Edge Hill. C. which he has held since childhood. In June 1982, Howard was selected to contest the constituency of Folkestone and Hythe in Kent after the sitting Conservative MP, Sir Albert Costain, decided to retire. Howard won the seat at the 1983 general election. Howard gained quick promotion, becoming Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State at the Department of Trade and Industry in 1985 with responsibility for regulating the financial dealings of the City of London; this junior post became important, as he oversaw the Big Bang introduction of new technology in 1986.
After the 1987 general election, he became Minister for Local Government. Following a proposal from backbench MP David Wilshire, he accepted the amendment which would become Section 28 and defended its inclusion. Howard guided the 1988 Local Government Finance Act through the House of Commons; the act brought in Margaret Thatcher's new system of local taxation known as the Community Charge but universally nicknamed the "poll tax". Howard supported the tax and won Thatcher's respect for minimising the rebellion against it within the Conservative Party. After a period as Minister for Water and Planning in 1988–89, during which he was responsible for implementing water privatisation in England and Wales, Howard was promoted to the Cabinet as Secretary of State for Employment in January 1990 following the resignation of Norman Fowler, he subsequently guided through legislation abolishing the closed shop, campaigned vigorously for Thatcher in the first ballot of the 1990 Conservative Party leadership contest, although he told her a day before she resigned that he fel
The Central Criminal Court of England and Wales is a court in London and one of a number of buildings housing the Crown Court. Part of the present building stands on the site of the medieval Newgate gaol, on a road named Old Bailey that follows the line of the City of London's fortified wall, which runs from Ludgate Hill to the junction of Newgate Street and Holborn Viaduct; the Old Bailey has been housed in several structures near this location since the sixteenth century, its present building dates from 1902. The Crown Court sitting at the Central Criminal Court deals with major criminal cases from within Greater London and in exceptional cases, from other parts of England and Wales. Trials at the Old Bailey, as at other courts, are open to the public; the court originated as the sessions house of the Lord Mayor and Sheriffs of the City of London and of Middlesex. The original medieval court was first mentioned in 1585, it was destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666 and rebuilt in 1674, with the court open to the weather to prevent the spread of disease.
In 1734, it was refronted, enclosing the court and reducing the influence of spectators: this led to outbreaks of typhus, notably in 1750 when 60 people died, including the Lord Mayor and two judges. It was rebuilt again in 1774 and a second courtroom was added in 1824. Over 100,000 criminal trials were carried out at the Old Bailey between 1674 and 1834. In 1834, it was renamed as the Central Criminal Court and its jurisdiction extended beyond that of London and Middlesex to the whole of the English jurisdiction for trials of major cases, her Majesty's Courts and Tribunals Service manages the courts and administers the trials but the building itself is owned by the City of London Corporation, which finances the building, the running of it, the staff and the maintenance out of their own resources. The court was intended as the site where only criminals accused of crimes committed in the City and Middlesex were tried. However, in 1856, there was public revulsion at the accusations against the doctor William Palmer that he was a poisoner and murderer.
This led to fears. The Central Criminal Court Act 1856 was passed to enable his trial to be held at the Old Bailey. In the 19th century, the Old Bailey was a courtroom adjacent to Newgate Prison. Hangings were a public spectacle in the street outside until May 1868; the condemned would be led along Dead Man's Walk between the prison and the court, many were buried in the walk itself. Large, riotous crowds would gather and pelt the condemned with rotten fruit and vegetables and stones. In 1807, 28 people were crushed to death. A secret tunnel was subsequently created between the prison and St Sepulchre's church opposite, to allow the chaplain to minister to the condemned man without having to force his way through the crowds; the present Old Bailey building dates from 1902 but it was opened on 27 February 1907. It was designed by E. W. Mountford and built on the site of the infamous Newgate Prison, demolished to allow the court buildings to be constructed. Above the main entrance is inscribed the admonition: "Defend the Children of the Poor & Punish the Wrongdoer".
King Edward VII opened the courthouse. On the dome above the court stands a bronze statue of Lady Justice, executed by the British sculptor F. W. Pomeroy, she holds the scales of justice in her left. The statue is popularly supposed to show blind Justice, the figure is not blindfolded: the courthouse brochures explain that this is because Lady Justice was not blindfolded, because her "maidenly form" is supposed to guarantee her impartiality which renders the blindfold redundant. During the Blitz of World War II, the Old Bailey was bombed and damaged, but subsequent reconstruction work restored most of it in the early 1950s. In 1952, the restored interior of the Grand Hall of the Central Criminal Court was once again open; the interior of the Great Hall is decorated with paintings commemorating the Blitz, as well as quasi-historical scenes of St Paul's Cathedral with nobles outside. Running around the entire hall are a series of axioms, some of biblical reference, they read: "The law of the wise is a fountain of life" "The welfare of the people is supreme" "Right lives by law and law subsists by power" "Poise the cause in justice's equal scales" "Moses gave unto the people the laws of God" "London shall have all its ancient rights"The Great Hall is decorated with many busts and statues, chiefly of British monarchs, but of legal figures, those who achieved renown by campaigning for improvement in prison conditions in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
This part of the building houses the shorthand-writers' offices. The lower level hosts a minor exhibition on the history of the Old Bailey and Newgate featuring historical prison artefacts. In 1973, the Belfast Brigade of the Provisional IRA exploded a car bomb in the street outside the courts, killing one and injuring 200 people. A shard of glass is preserved as a reminder, embedded in the wall at the top of the main stairs. Between 1968 and 1972, a new South Block, designed by the architects Donald McMorran and George Whitby, was built to accommodate more modern courts. There are presently 18 courts in use. Court 19 is now used variously as a press overflow facility, as a registra
Hounslow is a large commercial town and district in west London, England, 11.1 miles west-southwest of Charing Cross. It is the administrative centre of the London Borough of Hounslow and is identified as a major metropolitan centre in the London Plan; the town incorporates the villages and districts of Hounslow West and Cranford, which includes London Heathrow Airport. Part of Middlesex, since 1965 Hounslow has been part of the London Borough of Hounslow, with parts in the London Boroughs of Hillingdon, Richmond upon Thames, Ealing. Prior to this, Hounslow was part of the Municipal Borough of Heston and Isleworth, from 1835 until 1965. Whitton was part of the Municipal Borough of Twickenham, while Cranford was part of the Hayes and Harlington Urban District and Feltham Urban District. Additionally, Norwood Green was part of the Municipal Borough of Southall. Hounslow has a large shopping centre, called the Blenheim Centre, which adjoins its high street and a large number of restaurants, cafés and small businesses, many of which are associated with product assembly, telecommunications and Heathrow Airport.
It is connected to Central London by South Western Railway's Hounslow Loop Line and Hounslow station, by the London Underground's Piccadilly line through three stations - Hounslow West, Hounslow Central and Hounslow East. According to the 2011 census, the borough has a population of 254,000; the name Hounslow is spelt in old records as'Hundeslow' and similar, pointing to Anglo-Saxon Hundes hlāw, meaning "the dog's mound" or "the mound of a man named or nicknamed Hound". Positioned on the Bath Road, Hounslow was centred around Holy Trinity Priory founded in 1211; the priory developed what had been a small village into a town with regular markets and other facilities for travellers heading to and from London. Although the priory was dissolved in 1539 the town remained an important staging post on the Bath Road; the adjacent Hounslow Heath, used as a military encampment by both Oliver Cromwell and James II developed a reputation as the haunt of highwaymen and footpads. Nearby important landowners included those of Osterley House, Syon House, Hanworth Park House and Worton Hall.
In 1756 Sir Thomas Morris, a distant relative of Bernard Matthews, established the base of his chicken farming empire. As a rich philanthropist who started from humble beginnings, he used his wealth to establish a school for the under privileged children of the town, believing every child had the right to education; the building of the Great Western Railway line from London to Bristol from 1838 reduced long-distance travel along the Bath Road. By 1842 the local paper was reporting that the'formerly flourishing village', which used to stable 2,000 horses, was suffering a'general depreciation of property'; the Hounslow Loop Line was constructed in 1850. One of the earliest surviving houses in the town is The Lawn, in front of the Civic Centre with its public tennis courts, in brown brick with three double-hung sash windows set back in reveals with flat arches, roof with parapet and porch of fluted doric columns, pilasters and semi-circular traceried fanlight; the construction of the Great West Road in the 1920s attracted the building of the factories and headquarters of large companies.
The factories were a great local source of employment until a decline in the 1970s, attracting workers from a wide area and leading to a great deal of housing development. In the next two decades offices replaced factories on the Great West Road and further expansion in hotel and housing stock has taken place, an example being the Blenheim Centre, an image of, in the gallery section below. Hounslow Town Centre is a busy predominantly retail centre, with a small number of commercial offices and civic buildings. There is a large shopping centre called the Treaty Shopping Centre, containing Debenhams, JD, Next, H&M and many large branches of chain stores found in British high streets, it includes a food court along with over 50 shops. There is a large ASDA superstore located within the Blenheim Centre complex along with B&M, a Barnado's charity shop, a local health centre, a gym run by The Gym Group and Jungle V. I. P. A new retail area, the High Street Quarter, will be located near Hounslow High Street and is set to contain a 27-storey residential tower along with many shops, a ten-screen Cineworld cinema multiplex.
Hounslow is an economic hub within the west of the capital city, with it having a large shopping centre which adjoins its high street and a large number of restaurants, cafés and small businesses, many of which are associated with product assembly, telecommunications and Heathrow Airport, which has a large number of businesses and public sector jobs in and around it to which the local population commute. The settlement is partially employed in the Commuter Belt with access between 45 and 60 minutes from most of Central London. DHL Air UK has its head office in the Orbital Park in Hounslow. There are three major roads in Hounslow; the east-west roads, the A4'Great West Road' and the'Bath Road' that connects Hounslow to Central London and Slough, the A30'Great South West Road' that connects it to Staines-upon-Thames, which meet at Henlys Roundabout in Hounslow West. There is the north-south road, the A312'The Causeway' and'The Parkway', which connects Hounslow to Hampton in the south and Harrow to the north.
Additionally, A and B roads in Hounslow include the A314'Hanworth Road