London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Deportation is the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country. The term expulsion is often used as a synonym for deportation, through expulsion is often used in the context of international law. Definitions of deportation apply equally to nationals and foreigners, transportation is by way of punishment of one convicted of an offense against the laws of the country. Extradition is the surrender to another country of one accused of an offense against its laws, there to be tried, deportations widely occurred in ancient history. Deportation was practiced as a policy toward rebellious people in Achaemenid Empire, one notable example was the deportaion of the Mards in Charax, near Rhages by Phraates I. The 10,000 Roman prisonors of war after the Battle of Carrhae appear to have been deported to Alexandria Margiana near the border in 53 BC. It is hypothesized that some of them founded the Chinese city of Li-Jien after becoming soldiers for the Hsiung-nu, Deportation was widely used by the Sasanians, especially during the wars with the Romans and the Byzantines.
During Shapur Is reign, the Romans who were defeated at the Battle of Edessa were deported to Persis, other destinations were Parthia and Asorestan. There were cities which were founded and were populated by Romans prisoners of war, including Shadh-Shapur in Meshan, Bishapur in Persis, Wuzurg-Shapur, agricultural land were given to the deportees. These deportations initiated the sread Christianity in the Sassanian empire, in Rēw-Ardashīr, there was a church for the Romans and another one for Carmanians. After the Arab incursion into Persia during Shapur IIs reign, he scattered the defeated Arab tribes by deporting them to other regions, some where deported to Bahrain and Kirman, possibly to both populate these unattractive regions and bringing the tribes under control. The author of the text Liber Calipharum has praised the king Yazdegerd I for his treatment of the deportees, major deportations occurred during the Anastasian War. Major deportations occurred during the campaigns of Khosrau I from the Roman cities of Sura, Antioch, Callinicum, the city was founded near Ctesiphon especially for them, and Khosrow reportedly did everything in his power to make the residents want to stay.
The number of the deportees is recorded to be 292,000 in another source, in 1954, the executive branch of the U. S. government implemented Operation Wetback, a program created in response to public hysteria about immigration and immigrants from Mexico. Operation Wetback led to the deportation of nearly 1.3 million Mexicans from the United States, already in natural law of the 18th century, philosophers agreed that expulsion of a nation from the territory that it historically inhabits is not allowable. Deportation often requires a process that must be validated by a court or senior government official. It should not be confused with administrative removal, which is the process of a country denying entry to an individual at a port of entry and expelling them. Deportation can happen within a state, when an individual or a group of people is forcibly resettled to a different part of the country, if ethnic groups are affected by this, it may be referred to as population transfer
James Gordon Brown is a British politician who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and the Leader of the Labour Party from 2007 to 2010. He previously served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in the Blair Government from 1997 to 2007, Brown was a Member of Parliament from 1983 to 2015, first for Dunfermline East and for Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath. A doctoral graduate of the University of Edinburgh, Brown spent his career working as both a lecturer at a further education college and a television journalist. He entered Parliament in 1983 as the MP for Dunfermline East and he joined the Shadow Cabinet in 1989 as Shadow Secretary of State for Trade, and was promoted to become Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1992. After Labours victory in 1997, he was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer, in 2007, Tony Blair resigned as Prime Minister and Labour Leader and Brown was chosen to replace him in an uncontested election. Brown remained in office as Labour negotiated to form a government with the Liberal Democrats.
On 10 May 2010, Brown announced he would stand down as leader of the Labour Party, Labours attempts to retain power failed and on 11 May, he officially resigned as Prime Minister and Leader of the Labour Party. He was succeeded as Prime Minister by David Cameron, and as Leader of the Labour Party by Ed Miliband, Brown played a prominent role in the campaign surrounding the Scottish independence referendum of 2014, galvanising support behind maintaining the union. Brown was born at the Orchard Maternity Nursing Home in Giffnock and his father was John Ebenezer Brown, a minister of the Church of Scotland and a strong influence on Brown. He died in December 1998, aged 84 and his mother, Jessie Elizabeth Brown, known as Bunty, died on 19 September 2004, aged 86. She was the daughter of John Souter, a timber merchant, the family moved to Kirkcaldy – the largest town in Fife, across the Firth of Forth from Edinburgh – when Gordon was three. Brown was brought up there with his elder brother John and younger brother Andrew Brown in a manse, in common with many other notable Scots, he is therefore often referred to as a son of the manse.
At age sixteen he wrote that he loathed and resented this ludicrous experiment on young lives and he was accepted by the University of Edinburgh to study history at the same early age of sixteen. During an end-of-term rugby union match at his old school, he received a kick to the head and this left him blind in his left eye, despite treatment including several operations and weeks spent lying in a darkened room. Later at Edinburgh, while playing tennis, he noticed the symptoms in his right eye. Brown underwent experimental surgery at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary and his eye was saved. In his youth at the University of Edinburgh, Brown was involved in a relationship with Margarita. Margarita said about it, It was a solid and romantic story
West Yorkshire Police
West Yorkshire Police is the territorial police force responsible for policing West Yorkshire in England. It is the fourth largest force in England and Wales by number of officers, West Yorkshire Police was formed in 1974, when part of the West Yorkshire Constabulary was amalgamated with the Leeds City Police and Bradford City Police, under the Local Government Act 1972. The force was known as the West Yorkshire Metropolitan Police. Some older signs around the Force area, such as the one in the reception of Millgarth Police Station in Leeds city centre read West Yorkshire Metropolitan Police, the Metropolitan from the police title was dropped in 1986 when the Metropolitan counties were abolished. These plans are currently under review and not expected to place in the foreseeable future. On 12 December 2006, Sir Norman Bettison was announced as the new Chief Constable, replacing Colin Cramphorn and he was replaced by Temporary Chief Constable John Parkinson until the appointment of Mark Gilmore as Chief Constable on 1 February 2013.
For operational purposes West Yorkshire Police is divided into five geographic divisions known within the force as ‘policing districts’, each district is made up of Partnership Working Areas which consist of an Inspector and three teams of sergeants, police constables, special constables and PCSOs. The Sir Alec Jeffreys Building in the Calder Park Business Estate houses the Yorkshire, West Yorkshire Police is the lead force for scientific support and provides such services for North Yorkshire Police, South Yorkshire Police and Humberside Police. The current estate of police stations and other buildings is changing with certain buildings closing, as of 2014 there are three PFI projects completed and as a result of these new buildings a number of police stations have closed and been sold. Wakefield District police headquarters is now located on Havertop Lane, the total area is 11,500 metres squared and provides office accommodation as well as a 35-cell custody suite. As its now operational, the following Police stations are in the process of being closed and/or sold, Castleford Police Station, Castleford The new headquarters for the newly formed Leeds District is operational on Elland Road, Leeds.
The total area is 12,500 metres squared and provides office accommodation as well as a 40-cell custody suite, now operational, the Leeds District HQ will replace the following stations, Millgarth Police Station, Leeds city centre. The existing Operational Support facilities at Carr Gate, Wakefield have been expanded, the table below shows the divisional structure from 2008 –2014. The grid below outlines the mergers of the divisions to the eight operational divisions which ceased in April 2014
Closed-circuit television camera
A closed-circuit television camera can produce images or recordings for surveillance or other private purposes. Cameras can be either video cameras, or digital stills cameras, walter Bruch was the inventor of the CCTV camera. Can record straight to a tape recorder which are able to record analogue signals as pictures. If the analogue signals are recorded to tape, the tape must run at a slow speed in order to operate continuously. This is because in order to allow a three-hour tape to run for 24 hours, in one second, the camera scene can change dramatically. Analogue signals can be converted into a signal to enable the recordings to be stored on a PC as digital recordings. In that case the video camera must be plugged directly into a video capture card in the computer. These cards are relatively cheap, but inevitably the resulting signals are compressed 5,1 in order for the video recordings to be saved on a continuous basis. Another way to store recordings on a media is through the use of a digital video recorder.
Such a device is similar in functionality to a PC with a capture card, unlike PCs, most DVRs designed for CCTV purposes are embedded devices that require less maintenance and simpler setup than a PC-based solution, for a medium to large number of analogue cameras. Some DVRs allow digital broadcasting of the signal, thus acting like a network camera. If a device does allow broadcasting of the video, but does not record it and these devices effectively turn any analogue camera into a network TV. These cameras do not require a video capture card because they work using a signal which can be saved directly to a computer. The signal is compressed 5,1, but DVD quality can be achieved with more compression, the highest picture quality of DVD is only slightly lower than the quality of basic 5, 1-compression DV. Saving uncompressed digital recordings takes up an amount of hard drive space. Holiday uncompressed recordings may look fine but one could not run uncompressed quality recordings on a continuous basis, motion detection is therefore sometimes used as a work around solution to record in uncompressed quality.
Nevertheless, multi-megapixel IP-CCTV cameras are coming on the market, still quite expensive, but they can capture video images at resolutions of 1,2,3,5 and even up to 11 Mpix. Unlike with analogue cameras, details such as plates are easily readable
British National Party
The British National Party is a far-right political party in the United Kingdom. It is headquartered in Wigton and its current leader is Adam Walker and it currently has one councillor in UK local government. During its heyday in the 2000s, it had over fifty seats in local government, the BNP was formed in 1982 by John Tyndall and other former members of the National Front. By Tyndalls admission, it remained ideologically identical to the NF, during its first two decades, the BNP placed little emphasis on contesting elections, in which it did poorly, but rather focused on street marches and rallies. A growing moderniser faction was frustrated by Tyndalls leadership and in 1999 ousted him and this resulted in increased electoral growth throughout the 2000s, to the extent that it became the most electorally successful far-right party in British history. Concerns regarding financial mismanagement resulted in Griffin being ousted in 2014, by point the BNPs membership. Ideologically positioned on the far-right of British politics, the BNP has been characterised as fascist or neo-fascist by political scientists, under Tyndalls leadership, it was more specifically regarded as Neo-Nazi.
The party is ethnic nationalist, and espouses the view that only white people should be citizens of the United Kingdom and it calls for an end to non-white migration into the UK and the removal of settled non-white populations from the country. Initially, it called for the expulsion of non-whites, although has since advocated voluntary removals with financial incentives. It promotes biological racism, calling for racial separatism and condemning mixed race relationships. Under Tyndall, the BNP emphasised anti-semitism and Holocaust denial, although Griffin switched the focus on to Islamophobia. It promotes economic protectionism, and an away from liberal democracy, while its social policies oppose feminism, LGBT rights. The BNP has a centralised structure that gives its chairman near total control. It established a range of sub-groups—such as a wing, record label. More widely, it was unpopular and faced much opposition from anti-fascists, religious organisations. BNP members were banned from a number of professions and polling suggested that a majority of Britons favoured the partys criminalisation, the British National Party was founded by the extreme-right political activist John Tyndall.
Tyndall had been involved in Neo-Nazi groups since the late 1950s before leading the far-right National Front throughout most of the 1970s, following an argument with senior party member Martin Webster, he resigned from the NF in 1980. In June 1980 Tyndall established a rival, the New National Front, at the recommendation of Ray Hill—who was secretly an anti-fascist spy seeking to sow disharmony among Britains far-right—Tyndall decided to unite an array of extreme-right groups as a single party
Police Memorial Trust
The Police Memorial Trust is a charitable organisation founded in 1984 and based in London. The Police Memorial Trust was the brainchild of film producer Michael Winner, after receiving donations from members of the public, Winner established the trust on 3 May 1984. The first Police Memorial Trust memorial was erected for Fletcher and was unveiled at St. Jamess Square in London by the prime minister Margaret Thatcher on 1 February 1985. The trusts third memorial, and the first to be erected outside London, was sited at the seafront at Frinton-on-Sea, bishops memorial was unveiled by the home secretary Douglas Hurd, on 19 February 1986. The most recent memorial was unveiled by the prime minister Gordon Brown in Luton on 3 October 2008 to mark the site of the fatal stabbing of PC Jonathan Henry. A total of thirty-eight memorials in honour of police officers killed on duty have been erected throughout the United Kingdom. They include Insp Raymond Codling and the three officers who died in the Shepherds Bush Murders, PC Keith Blakelock, PC Sharon Beshenivsky, in the mid-1990s the Police Memorial Trust proposed a single memorial for all police officers who had died in the course of their duties.
This became The National Police Memorial, which is sited in St. Jamess Park at the junction of Horse Guards Road and it was unveiled on 26 April 2005 by Elizabeth II on behalf of the Police Memorial Trust. List of British police officers killed in the line of duty Police Roll of Honour Trust Essex Police Memorial Trust, Brian Bill Bishop
Robert Michael Winner was an English film director and producer, and a restaurant critic for The Sunday Times. Winner was a child, born in Hampstead, England, to Helen and George Joseph Winner. His family was Jewish, his mother was Polish and his father of Russian extraction, following his fathers death, Winners mother gambled recklessly and sold art and furniture worth around £10m at the time, bequeathed to her not only for her life but to Michael thereafter. She died aged 78 in 1984 and he was educated at St Christopher School and Downing College, where he read law and economics. He edited the student newspaper, Varsity. Winner had earlier written a column, Michael Winners Showbiz Gossip. The first issue of Showgirl Glamour Revue in 1955 has him writing another film and showbusiness gossip column, such jobs allowed him to meet and interview several leading film personalities, including James Stewart and Marlene Dietrich. He wrote for the New Musical Express and he began his screen career as an assistant director of BBC television programmes, cinema shorts, and full-length B productions, occasionally writing screenplays.
In 1957 he directed his first travelogue, This is Belgium and his first on-screen credit was earned as a writer for the 1958 crime film Man with a Gun directed by Montgomery Tully. Winners first credit on a short was Associate Producer on the 1959 film Floating Fortress produced by Harold Baim. Winners first project as a lead director involved another story he wrote, Shoot to Kill and he would regularly edit his own movies, using the pseudonym Arnold Crust. In the early 1960s, Winners films followed fashion and his second project, Some Like It Cool, is the tale of a young woman who introduces her prudish husband and in-laws to the joys of nudism. Filmed at Longleat, he was afraid the sight of bare flesh would offend the magistrate for the area so he confided his worries to the landowner, ‘Don’t worry, ’ said the Marquess, ‘I am the local magistrate. It was preceded by the Billy Fury-led musical Play It Cool and his first significant project was West 11, a realistic tale of London drifters starring Alfred Lynch.
Winners film The System began a partnership with actor Oliver Reed that would last for six films over a 25-year period and Reed closed out the 1960s as a pair with The Jokers, comedy-drama Ill Never Forget Whatsisname, and the World War II satire Hannibal Brooks. A non-Reed comedy, You Must Be Joking. with Denholm Elliott, Hannibal Brooks drew notice in Hollywood and Winner soon received an opportunity to direct his first American film, which was Lawman starring Burt Lancaster and Robert Duvall. The following year, Winner cast Lancaster again in the espionage drama Scorpio, in 1974, Winner and Bronson collaborated on Death Wish, a film that defined the subsequent careers of both men. Based on a novel by Brian Garfield and adapted to the screen by Wendell Mayes, the commitment of Lumet to another film and UAs questioning of its subject matter led to an eventual production by Dino De Laurentiis through Paramount Pictures
The Crown Court of England and Wales is, together with the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeal, one of the constituent parts of the Senior Courts of England and Wales. It is the court of first instance in criminal cases, for some purposes the Crown Court is hierarchically subordinate to the High Court. The Crown Court sits in around 92 locations in England and Wales, the administration of the Crown Court is conducted through HM Courts and Tribunals Service. Previously conducted across six circuits, HM Courts and Tribunals Service is now divided into seven regions, North East, North West, South East, South West and Wales. The Wales region was identified separately, having regard to the legislative powers of the Welsh Assembly Government. When the Crown Court sits in the City of London it is known as the Central Criminal Court, the average time from receipt by the Crown Court to completion was 177 days by the start of 2016. Rather than speaking of a location at which the Crown Court sits, it is practice to refer to any venue as a Crown Court.
In 2015 the Crown Court heard 11,348 appeals against conviction, at the conclusion of the hearing the Crown Court has the power to confirm, reverse or vary any part of the decision under appeal. The average waiting time for appeals was 8.8 weeks in 2015, in 2015 the Crown Court dealt with 30,802 cases for sentencing from the magistrates courts. Committals may arise from breaches of the terms of a Community Rehabilitation Order or a sentence of imprisonment. The court performance target is that cases committed for sentence should be heard within 10 weeks, when the Crown Court is dealing with a matter connected with a trial on indictment, appeal lies to the criminal division of the Court of Appeal and thence to the Supreme Court. In all other cases, appeal from the Crown Court lies by way of case stated to a Divisional Court of the High Court, the judges who normally sit in the Crown Court are High Court judges, Circuit judges and Recorders. Circuit judges sit in the County Court, Recorders are barristers or solicitors in private practice, who sit part-time as judges.
The most serious cases are allocated to High Court judges and Senior Circuit judges, the remainder are dealt with by Circuit judges and Recorders, although Recorders will normally handle less serious work than Circuit judges. The allocation is conducted according to directions given by the Lord Chief Justice of England, the Crown Court was established on 1 January 1972 by the Courts Act 1971, acting on the recommendations of the commission. The quarter sessions were local courts assembled four times a year to dispose of cases which were not serious enough to go before a High Court judge. The Crown Court and a county court may sit in the same building, since the establishment of Her Majestys Courts Service in April 2005 there is an increased sharing of facilities between the Crown Court, county courts and magistrates courts. At the front of the court, on a platform, is a large bench
Automatic number-plate recognition
Automatic number plate recognition is a technology that uses optical character recognition on images to read vehicle registration plates. It can use existing closed-circuit television, road-rule enforcement cameras, or cameras specifically designed for the task, ANPR is used by police forces around the world for law enforcement purposes, including to check if a vehicle is registered or licensed. It is used for toll collection on pay-per-use roads. Automatic number plate recognition can be used to store the images captured by the cameras as well as the text from the license plate, Systems commonly use infrared lighting to allow the camera to take the picture at any time of the day. ANPR technology must take into account plate variations from place to place, concerns about these systems have centered on privacy fears of government tracking citizens movements, misidentification, high error rates, and increased government spending. Critics have described it as a form of mass surveillance, prototype systems were working by 1979, and contracts were awarded to produce industrial systems, first at EMI Electronics, and at Computer Recognition Systems in Wokingham, UK.
Early trial systems were deployed on the A1 road and at the Dartford Tunnel, the first arrest through detection of a stolen car was made in 1981. However, ANPR did not become widely used until new developments in cheaper and easier to use software were pioneered during the 1990s, the collection of ANPR data for future use was documented in the early 2000s. The software aspect of the runs on standard home computer hardware. When done at the site, the information captured of the plate alphanumeric, date-time, lane identification. This information can easily be transmitted to a computer for further processing if necessary. In the other arrangement, there are large numbers of PCs used in a server farm to handle high workloads. Often in such systems, there is a requirement to forward images to the server. ANPR uses optical character recognition on images taken by cameras, some license plate arrangements use variations in font sizes and positioning—ANPR systems must be able to cope with such differences in order to be truly effective.
More complicated systems can cope with international variants, though many programs are tailored to each country. The cameras used can be existing road-rule enforcement or closed-circuit television cameras, as well as mobile units, some systems use infrared cameras to take a clearer image of the plates. Further scaled-down components at more cost-effective price points led to a number of deployments by law enforcement agencies around the world. Despite their effectiveness, there are noteworthy challenges related with mobile ANPRs, one of the biggest is that the processor and the cameras must work fast enough to accommodate relative speeds of more than 100 mph, a likely scenario in the case of oncoming traffic
Bradford /ˈbrædfərd/ is in the Metropolitan Borough of the City of Bradford in West Yorkshire, England, in the foothills of the Pennines 8.6 miles west of Leeds, and 16 miles northwest of Wakefield. Bradford became a borough in 1847, and received its charter as a city in 1897. Following local government reform in 1974, city status was bestowed upon the metropolitan borough. Historically a part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, Bradford rose to prominence during the 19th century as a centre of textile manufacture. It was a boomtown of the Industrial Revolution, and amongst the earliest industrialised settlements, the textile sector in Bradford fell into decline from the mid-20th century. However, Bradford has faced challenges to the rest of the post-industrial area of Northern England, including deindustrialisation, social unrest. It was recorded as Bradeford in 1086, after an uprising in 1070, during William the Conquerors Harrying of the North, the manor of Bradford was laid waste and is described as such in the Domesday Book of 1086.
It became part of the Honour of Pontefract given to Ilbert de Lacy for service to the Conqueror, there is evidence of a castle in the time of the Lacys. The manor passed to the Earl of Lincoln, John of Gaunt, The Crown and, ultimately, by the middle ages Bradford, had become a small town centred on Kirkgate and Ivegate. In 1316 there is mention of a mill, a soke mill where all the manor corn was milled. During the Wars of the Roses the inhabitants sided with House of Lancaster, Edward IV granted the right to hold two annual fairs and from this time the town began to prosper. In the reign of Henry VIII Bradford exceeded Leeds as a manufacturing centre, Bradford grew slowly over the next two-hundred years as the woollen trade gained in prominence. During the Civil War the town was garrisoned for the Parliamentarians, Sir Thomas Fairfax took the command of the garrison and marched to meet the Duke of Newcastle but was defeated. The Parliamentarians retreated to Bradford and the Royalists set up headquarters at Bolling Hall from where the town was besieged leading to its surrender, the Civil War caused a decline in industry but after the accession of William and Mary in 1689 prosperity began to return.
The launch of manufacturing in the early 18th century marked the start of the development while new canal. In 1801, Bradford was a market town of 6,393 people. Bradford was thus not much bigger than nearby Keighley and was smaller than Halifax. This small town acted as a hub for three nearby townships – Manningham and Great and Little Horton, which were separated from the town by countryside