Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich. It is located in north-central Switzerland at the northwestern tip of Lake Zürich; the municipality has 409,000 inhabitants, the urban agglomeration 1.315 million and the Zürich metropolitan area 1.83 million. Zürich is a hub for railways and air traffic. Both Zürich Airport and railway station are the busiest in the country. Permanently settled for over 2,000 years, Zürich was founded by the Romans, who, in 15 BC, called it Turicum. However, early settlements have been found dating back more than 6,400 years ago. During the Middle Ages, Zürich gained the independent and privileged status of imperial immediacy and, in 1519, became a primary centre of the Protestant Reformation in Europe under the leadership of Huldrych Zwingli; the official language of Zürich is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect, Zürich German. Many museums and art galleries can be found in the city, including the Swiss National Museum and the Kunsthaus.
Schauspielhaus Zürich is one of the most important theatres in the German-speaking world. Zürich is a leading global city and among the world's largest financial centres despite having a small population; the city is home to a large number of financial institutions and banking companies. Most of Switzerland's research and development centres are concentrated in Zürich and the low tax rates attract overseas companies to set up their headquarters there. Monocle's 2012 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Zürich first on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within". According to several surveys from 2006 to 2008, Zürich was named the city with the best quality of life in the world as well as the wealthiest city in Europe in terms of GDP per capita; the Economist Intelligence Unit's Global Liveability Ranking sees Zürich rank among the top ten most liveable cities in the world. In German, the city name is written Zürich, pronounced in Swiss Standard German. In Zürich German, the local dialect of Swiss German, the name is pronounced without the final consonant, as Züri, although the adjective remains Zürcher.
The city is called Zurich in French, Zurigo in Italian, Turitg in Romansh. In English, the name used to be written without the umlaut. So, standard English practice for German calques is to either preserve the umlaut or replace it with the base letter followed by e, it is pronounced ZEWR-ik, more sometimes with /ts/, as in German. The earliest known form of the city's name is Turicum, attested on a tombstone of the late 2nd century AD in the form STA TURICEN; the name is interpreted as a derivation from a given name Gaulish personal name Tūros, for a reconstructed native form of the toponym of *Turīcon. The Latin stress on the long vowel of the Gaulish name, was lost in German but is preserved in Italian and in Romansh; the first development towards its Germanic form is attested as early as the 6th century with the form Ziurichi. From the 9th century onward, the name is established in an Old High German form Zurih. In the early modern period, the name became associated with the name of the Tigurini, the name Tigurum rather than the historical Turicum is sometimes encountered in Modern Latin contexts.
Settlements of the Neolithic and Bronze Age were found around Lake Zürich. Traces of pre-Roman Celtic, La Tène settlements were discovered near the Lindenhof, a morainic hill dominating the SE - NW waterway constituted by Lake Zurich and the river Limmat. In Roman times, during the conquest of the alpine region in 15 BC, the Romans built a castellum on the Lindenhof. Here was erected Turicum, a tax-collecting point for goods trafficked on the Limmat, which constituted part of the border between Gallia Belgica and Raetia: this customs point developed into a vicus. After Emperor Constantine's reforms in AD 318, the border between Gaul and Italy was located east of Turicum, crossing the river Linth between Lake Walen and Lake Zürich, where a castle and garrison looked over Turicum's safety; the earliest written record of the town dates from the 2nd century, with a tombstone referring to it as to the Statio Turicensis Quadragesima Galliarum, discovered at the Lindenhof. In the 5th century, the Germanic Alemanni tribe settled in the Swiss Plateau.
The Roman castle remained standing until the 7th century. A Carolingian castle, built on the site of the Roman castle by the grandson of Charlemagne, Louis the German, is mentioned in 835. Louis founded the Fraumünster abbey in 853 for his daughter Hildegard, he endowed the Benedictine convent with the lands of Zürich and the Albis forest, granted the convent immunity, placing it under his direct authority. In 1045, King Henry III granted the convent the right to hold markets, collect tolls, mint coins, thus made the abbess the ruler of the city. Zürich gained Imperial immediacy in 1218 with the extinction of the main line of the Zähringer family and attained a status comparable to statehood. During the 1230s, a city wall was built, enclosing 38 hectares, when the earliest stone houses on the Rennweg were built as well; the Carolingian castle was used as a quarry, as it had st
Lake Zürich is a lake in Switzerland, extending southeast of the city of Zürich. Depending on the context, Lake Zürich or Zürichsee can be used to describe the lake as a whole, or just that part of the lake downstream of the Seedamm at Rapperswil, whilst the part upstream of Rapperswil may be called the Obersee or Upper Lake. Lake Zürich is formed by the Linth river, which rises in the glaciers of the Glarus Alps and was diverted by the Escher canal into Lake Walen from where its waters are carried to the east end of Lake Zürich by means of the Linth canal; the waters of the Lake of Zürich flow out of the lake at its north-west end, passing through the city of Zürich. The culminating point of the lake's drainage basin is the Tödi at 3,614 metres above sea level. No streams of importance flow into the lake besides the Linth; the Seedamm, a artificial causeway and bridge, crosses a narrow point of the lake carrying a railway line and road from Rapperswil to Pfäffikon. The eastern section of the lake is known as the Obersee, German for "upper lake".
West of this dam lie the small islands of Lützelau and Ufenau, where in 1523 Ulrich von Hutten took refuge and died. Both shores are well fertile. Another touristic destination is the Au peninsula at the village of Au between Horgen. To the east – separated by Zürichberg-Adlisberg and Pfannenstiel – are two minor lakes: Greifensee and Pfäffikersee. Zimmerberg and the Etzel regions lie to the west. Administratively, Lake Zürich is split between the cantons of St. Gallen and Schwyz; the lower lake, to the west of the Seedamm, is in the canton of Zürich, whilst the upper lake is shared between the cantons of St. Gallen and Schwyz; the lake was frozen in the following years 1223, 1259, 1262 1407, 1491 1514, 1517, 1573 1600, 1660, 1684, 1695 1709, 1716, 1718, 1740, 1755, 1763, 1789 1830, 1880, 1891, 1895 1929, 1963 The three population and transportation centres are Zürich, Pfäffikon SZ and Rapperswil. Besides Bürkliplatz in Zürich and the Seedamm, there are no bridges across the lake; the Zürichsee-Schifffahrtsgesellschaft – the Lake Zürich Navigation Company – provides with its 17-passenger ships touristic services on Lake Zürich.
There are a number of passenger ferry services, noticeably the Horgen–Meilen ferry, an auto ferry between Horgen and Meilen. Zürich, at the north-western end of the lake, is the largest city on Lake Zürich. On the west shore are Rüschlikon, Horgen, Wädenswil, Richterswil, Pfäffikon, Lachen. On the opposite shore are Küsnacht, Meilen, Stäfa, Rapperswil-Jona with the medieval town of Rapperswil, whose castle is home to the Polish museum. Schmerikon is close to the east end of the lake, a little further east is the larger town of Uznach. Lake Zürich's water is clean and reaches, during summer, temperatures well beyond 20 °C. Swimming in the public baths and beaches is popular; the best weather for swimming has been late August, with August 28 having the nicest weather at around 5:30pm. The lake's water is fed into Zürich's water system; the Prehistoric pile dwellings around Zürichsee comprises 11 of total 56 Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps in Switzerland, that are located around Zürichsee in the cantons of Schwyz, St. Gallen and Zürich.
Located on Zürichsee lakeshore, there are Freienbach–Hurden Rosshorn, Freienbach–Hurden Seefeld, Rapperswil-Jona/Hombrechtikon–Feldbach, Rapperswil-Jona–Technikum, Erlenbach–Winkel, Meilen–Rorenhaab, Wädenswil–Vorder Au, Zürich–Enge Alpenquai, Grosser Hafner and Kleiner Hafner. Because the lake has grown in size over time, the original piles are now around 4 metres to 7 metres under the water level of 406 metres. On the small area of about 40 square kilometres around Zürichsee, there the settlements Greifensee–Storen/Wildsberg on Greifensee and Wetzikon–Robenhausen on Pfäffikersee lakeshore; as well as being part of the 56 Swiss sites of the UNESCO World Heritage Site, each of these 11 prehistoric pile dwellings is listed as a Class object in the Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance. Obersee Prehistoric pile dwellings around Zürichsee Paddle steamer Stadt Rapperswil Paddle steamer Stadt Zürich Radio Zürisee Seedamm Zürichsee-Zeitung Media related to Lake Zurich at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Obersee at Wikimedia Commons Peter Ziegler: Zürichsee in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland, 28 February 2014.
Zürichsee Schifffahrtsgesellschaft—Boat schedules non-English. Zürichsee-Fähre Horgen-Meilen—Ferry schedules, in German. Waterlevels Lake Zürich at Zürich
A map is a symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, or themes. Many maps are static, fixed to paper or some other durable medium, while others are dynamic or interactive. Although most used to depict geography, maps may represent any space, real or fictional, without regard to context or scale, such as in brain mapping, DNA mapping, or computer network topology mapping; the space being mapped may be two dimensional, such as the surface of the earth, three dimensional, such as the interior of the earth, or more abstract spaces of any dimension, such as arise in modeling phenomena having many independent variables. Although the earliest maps known are of the heavens, geographic maps of territory have a long tradition and exist from ancient times; the word "map" comes from the medieval Latin Mappa mundi, wherein mappa meant napkin or cloth and mundi the world. Thus, "map" became the shortened term referring to a two-dimensional representation of the surface of the world.
Cartography or map-making is the study and practice of crafting representations of the Earth upon a flat surface, one who makes maps is called a cartographer. Road maps are the most used maps today, form a subset of navigational maps, which include aeronautical and nautical charts, railroad network maps, hiking and bicycling maps. In terms of quantity, the largest number of drawn map sheets is made up by local surveys, carried out by municipalities, tax assessors, emergency services providers, other local agencies. Many national surveying projects have been carried out by the military, such as the British Ordnance Survey: a civilian government agency, internationally renowned for its comprehensively detailed work. In addition to location information, maps may be used to portray contour lines indicating constant values of elevation, rainfall, etc; the orientation of a map is the relationship between the directions on the map and the corresponding compass directions in reality. The word "orient" is derived from Latin oriens.
In the Middle Ages many maps, including the T and O maps, were drawn with east at the top. The most common cartographic convention is. Maps not oriented with north at the top: Maps from non-Western traditions are oriented a variety of ways. Old maps of Edo show the Japanese imperial palace as the "top", but at the centre, of the map. Labels on the map are oriented in such a way that you cannot read them properly unless you put the imperial palace above your head. Medieval European T and O maps such as the Hereford Mappa Mundi were centred on Jerusalem with East at the top. Indeed, prior to the reintroduction of Ptolemy's Geography to Europe around 1400, there was no single convention in the West. Portolan charts, for example, are oriented to the shores. Maps of cities bordering a sea are conventionally oriented with the sea at the top. Route and channel maps have traditionally been oriented to the waterway they describe. Polar maps of the Arctic or Antarctic regions are conventionally centred on the pole.
Typical maps of the Arctic have 0° meridian towards the bottom of the page. Reversed maps known as Upside-Down maps or South-Up maps, reverse the North is up convention and have south at the top. Ancient Africans including in Ancient Egypt utilised this orientation, as some maps in Brazil do today. Buckminster Fuller's Dymaxion maps are based on a projection of the Earth's sphere onto an icosahedron; the resulting triangular pieces may be arranged in any orientation. Many maps are drawn to a scale expressed as a ratio, such as 1:10,000, which means that 1 unit of measurement on the map corresponds to 10,000 of that same unit on the ground; the scale statement can be accurate when the region mapped is small enough for the curvature of the Earth to be neglected, such as a city map. Mapping larger regions, where curvature cannot be ignored, requires projections to map from the curved surface of the Earth to the plane; the impossibility of flattening the sphere to the plane without distortion means that the map cannot have constant scale.
Rather, on most projections the best that can be attained is accurate scale along one or two paths on the projection. Because scale differs everywhere, it can only be measured meaningfully as point scale per location. Most maps strive to keep point scale variation within narrow bounds. Although the scale statement is nominal it is accurate enough for most purposes unless the map covers a large fraction of the earth. At the scope of a world map, scale as a single number is meaningless throughout most of the map. Instead, it refers to the scale along the equator; some maps, called cartograms, have the scale deliberately distorted to reflect information other than land area or distance. For example, this map of Europe has been distorted to show population distribution, while the rough shape of the continent is still discernible. Another example of distorted scale is the famous London Underground map; the basic geographical structure is respected but the tube lines are smoothed to clarify the relationships between stations.
Near the center of the map stations are spaced out more than near the edges of map. Further inaccuracies may be deliberate. For example, cartographers may omit military installations or remove features in order to enhance the clarity of the map. For example, a road map
Grimmenturm is a medieval tower and restaurant situated at Neumarkt in Zürich, Switzerland. The Grimmenturm building is situated at Neumarkt in the Altstadt of Zürich on the right shore of the Limmat river, it houses the restaurant Neumarkt in one of the attached buildings towards Neumarkt. The tower was built by the Zürich family Bilgeri between 1250 and 1280 AD as a residential tower. First mentioned in the year 1324 as tower of the Pilgrin family, it was one of about 30 residential towers that existed in the European Middle Ages in Zürich. Before 1300 a housing was attached to the north-western side. Although the building was for decades used by the Bilgeri family as their home, it has not their name, as a building. Grimmenturm's name was given by another member of the same family, Johann Bilgeri the younger and its nickname "Grimm" or "Grimme"; the nickname Grimm was so common that it was mentioned in official documents, such as in a parchment from the year 1330. On 12 July 1336 Rudolf Brun, mayor of the city of Zürich, defeated his political opponents, the former members of the Rat of Zürich, of which around 12 members found refuge by count Johann I in Rapperswil.
The document, sealed by the Princess Abbess of Fraumünster, the abbot of the Einsiedeln Abbey and the Propst von Zürich, listed among others the names of Heinr. Bilgeri im Niclaus Bilgeri, Rudolf Bilgeri and Joh. Bilgeri der jüngere zum Steinbock to be banned at least two years from the city of Zürich. In 1350 Sister Elsbeth Reinger handed over her house and paddock, located at the Neumarkt between the houses of Waser and Heinrich von Rapperswil to establish a hospital. Johann Pilgrim, der Grimme left over the tower together with residential buildings to the hospital for accommodation and nursing sisters, so a monastic community was established. In occasion of the Reformation in Zürich, the nunnery was abolished in 1524, the building was used as wine cellar and granary; the next 300 years the building served as a vicarage and accommodation building, in 1962 it passed over to the city government of Zürich. Being part of the former second first fortification of the medieval city of Zürich, the building has an irregular, octagonal floor plan, consisting of three former separate buildings.
On its northeast facade a lounge corner with Gothic pointed arch windows is installed. The so-called Zum Langen Keller residential building was attached to the northwestern side of the tower before 1300. From 1837 to 1839 the building was renewed. In the late 19th century, the property was in private hands and was once more rebuilt: The clock and bell were removed, on the south and north side new windows and a new roof were installed; the original clock tower was installed in 1541, in 1865 renewed and between 1964 and 1966 it was rebuilt as a distinctive clock tower. The building is listed in the Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance as a Class B object of regional importance. Dölf Wild: Stadtmauern. Ein neues Bild der Stadtbefestigungen Zürichs. Schrift zur Ausstellung im Haus zum Haus zum Rech, Zürich, 6. Februar bis 30. April 2004. Amt für Städtebau, Baugeschichtliches Archiv, Zürich 2004, ISBN 3-905384-05-1. Dölf Wild: Stadtmauern. Ein neues Bild der Stadtbefestigungen Zürichs.
Schrift zur Ausstellung im Haus zum Haus zum Rech, Zürich, 6. Februar bis 30. April 2004. Amt für Städtebau, Baugeschichtliches Archiv, Zürich 2004, ISBN 3-905384-05-1
The Albis is a chain of hills in the Canton of Zürich, stretching for some 19 km from Sihlbrugg in the south to Waldegg near Zürich in the north. The chain forms, among others, the border between the Horgen districts; the best known point is Uetliberg at 870 m. Other points of interest include the Albishorn the Bürglen, the Schnabelburg, an observation tower, the Albis Pass, the small town of Buechenegg, the extensive woods on both sides of the river Sihl; the Sihl Valley borders the Albis chain on its entire east side. On the west side, the Albis is bordered by one lake, the Türlersee; the chain is wooded, but has extensive fields reaching to the summit, some cultivated, some used as pastures for cows or sheep. Being near Zürich, the area is visited near its northern end, includes a large number of restaurants along the summit, well-maintained trails and dirt roads, a railroad from Zürich, a cable car from Adliswil to Felsenegg; the Albis chain was formed as the left moraine of the glacier the bed of, now Lake Zürich.
The soil is a conglomerate of gravel, some of it large, glacial loess. The steep sides of the chain are subject to small landslides; as a generalization, the eastern side of the chain tends to be steeper than the western side. The hilltops of the Albis provided several good defensive sites, were the locations of the castles of Uetliberg and Schnabelburg, all of which are now ruined or lost
Bahnhofstrasse is Zürich's main downtown street and one of the world's most expensive and exclusive shopping avenues. In 2011, a study named the Bahnhofstrasse the most expensive street for retail property in Europe, the third most expensive worldwide. In 2016 ranked ninth, it came into existence when the city fortifications were demolished in 1864 and the ditch in front of the walls was filled in. Until that time, the name of the location had been Fröschengraben, changed to Bahnhofstrasse. Bahnhofstrasse starts at Bahnhofplatz in front of the Zürich Hauptbahnhof, passing Rennweg and Paradeplatz before it ends after 1.4 km at Bürkliplatz on Lake Zürich. The street is pedestrianised, but is an important link in the Zürich tram network. North of Paradeplatz the street carries routes 6, 7, 11 and 13, whilst to the south it carries 2, 8, 9 and 11. Stops are served at Hauptbahnhof, Paradeplatz, Börsenstrasse and Bürkliplatz; some of the many shops include: Ambassadour House Apple Store Blancpain Breguet Burberry Bvlgari Cartier Chanel Dior Ermenegildo Zegna Franz Carl Weber Giorgio Armani Globus Gucci Hackett London Hermès H&M Jelmoli Louis Vuitton Manor Mont Blanc Prada Salvatore Ferragamo Tiffany and Co.
Tissot Tommy Hilfiger Trois Pommes Vacheron ConstantinParadeplatz, one of the most famous squares in Switzerland, is situated towards the end of the Bahnhofstrasse closest to Lake Zürich. The two biggest Swiss banks, UBS and the Credit Suisse Group, have their headquarters there. Paradeplatz is known for its chocolate shop and cafe, Confiserie Sprüngli. Official website Photographs of the Bahnhofstrasse Guide with shops on Bahnhofstrasse Location development in Zurich and Bahnhofstrasse