George H. Shirk
George Henry Shirk was a lawyer and former Mayor of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. In addition to being an author on several subjects related to the history of Oklahoma, he was known as a civic leader and proponent of various municipal development projects within central Oklahoma. George Shirk was born in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma on May 1, 1913, son of John Henry Shirk and Carrie Shirk. Having earned an LL. B. degree from the University of Oklahoma Law School, George Shirk passed the Oklahoma bar exam in 1936 and entered practice at his father's Oklahoma City law firm of Shirk and Danner. While attending OU he enrolled in Reserve Officers Training Corps and saw active duty in a field artillery command in the European theater of World War II, he attained the rank of colonel in the U. S. Army in 1945. After service in World War II, Shirk practiced law in Oklahoma City, in partnership with lawyers W. R. Withington and James E. Work – first in the law firm of Withington, Nichols & Work, with the firm of Shirk, Work & Robinson.
Lucrative financial settlements in his legal profession allowed Shirk to pursue his passion, namely writing and publishing on unique topics in Oklahoma history. In 1949, he worked on the committee that selected sites to be designated as historical markers within the state, wrote the text for many of these markers. Shirk wrote and published 29 articles for the Oklahoma Historical Society from 1948–1977, focusing on Oklahoma-related Civil War history and philately/postal service history, he wrote extensively for The American Philatelist. Shirk became administratively involved with the OHS, serving as President of its board of directors from 1958 to 1975. During this tenure he was successful in obtaining matching grants for the OHS after being appointed as State Historical Preservation Officer. For his efforts, Shirk earned the nickname "Mr. Oklahoma History." In 1953, Shirk joined the Committee of 100, a group of concerned citizens who advocated changes in the Oklahoma City charter. The next year, he joined the City Safety Council, which advocated fire protection.
He was asked to join the Committee of 19, a group searching for a solution to the water needs of Oklahoma City. In this capacity, Shirk was a proponent of the public works project which connected Oklahoma City's water supply to Lake Atoka Reservoir in southeastern Oklahoma via Lake Stanley Draper. Shirk was appointed acting Mayor of Oklahoma City on June 16, 1964 to complete the remainder of the term of Jack S. Wilkes. Shirk was elected to a two-year term in his own right in April 1965. In addition to completing the Lake Atoka project that he advocated in the 1950s, Shirk obtained the adoption of a comprehensive downtown re-development plan envisioned by architect I. M. Pei in September 1965; the Pei Plan included the construction of the Myriad Botanical Gardens and the creation of parking structures in downtown Oklahoma City, at the expense of the demolition of a significant amount of older buildings in the downtown area. In 1969, Shirk and three other persons lead a small expedition to explore a section of catacombs associated with an old Chinese-American neighborhood in downtown Oklahoma City, located underneath the construction site of the Myriad Convention Center, a part of Shirk's downtown redevelopment plan.
On November 14, 1976, the George H. Shirk Oklahoma History Center at Oklahoma City University was dedicated; the center houses his collection of rare books and maps. Before his death on March 23, 1977, Shirk was inducted into the Oklahoma Hall of Fame in 1969, he was inducted into the Oklahoma Historians Hall of Fame. He is buried in Rose Hill Cemetery in Oklahoma City. Shirk, George H.. "Early Post Offices in Oklahoma". Chronicles of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Historical Society. 26: 179–244. Archived from the original on 2011-05-23. Shirk, George H.. "Some Letters Form the Rev. Samuel A. Worcester". Chronicles of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Historical Society. 26: 468–478. Archived from the original on 2011-05-23. Shirk, George H.. "Oklahoma's Two Commemorative Stamps". Chronicles of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Historical Society. 27: 89–94. Archived from the original on 2011-05-23. Shirk, George H.. "The Site of Old Camp Arbuckle". Chronicles of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Historical Society. 27: 313–315. Archived from the original on 2011-05-23.
Shirk, George H.. "Peace on the Plains". Chronicles of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Historical Society. 28: 2–41. Archived from the original on 2011-05-23. Shirk, George H.. "The Journal of Lieutenant A. W. Whipple". Chronicles of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Historical Society. 28: 235–283. Archived from the original on 2011-05-23. Shirk, George H.. "First Post Offices Within the Boundaries of Oklahoma". Chronicles of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Historical Society. 30: 38–104. Shirk, George H.. "The Great Seal of the Confederacy". Chronicles of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Historical Society. 30: 309–311. Archived from the original on 2011-05-23. Shirk, George H.. "Artist Möllhausen in Oklahoma, 1853". Chronicles of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Historical Society. 31: 392–441. Archived from the original on 2011-05-23. Shirk, George H.. "Mail Call at Fort Washita". Chronicles of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Historical Society. 33: 14–35. Archived from the original on 2011-05-23. Shirk, George H.. "The Lost Colonel". Chronicles of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Historical Society. 35: 180–193. Archived from the original on 2011-05-23.
Shirk, George H.. "Oklahoma's Philatelic Year". Chr
East Central University
East Central University is a public, co-educational teaching university in Ada, in the south central region of Oklahoma. East Central one of the six universities that are part of Oklahoma's Regional University System. Beyond its flagship campus is Ada, the university has courses available in McAlester, Shawnee and Durant, as well as online courses. Nearly 4,500 students are enrolled in the school's graduate programs. Founded as East Central State Normal School in 1909, its present name was adopted in 1985; some of its more famous alumni include former NFL player Mark Gastineau, past governors Robert S. Kerr and George Nigh, former U. S. Representative Lyle Boren, Oklahoma Supreme Court Justice Tom Colbert, U. S. Army General James D. Thurman; the university was founded as East Central State Normal School in 1909, two years after Oklahoma was admitted as the 46th U. S. state. It was one of the six newly created state funded normal schools that were designed to provide four years of "preparatory" study, followed by two years of college work towards teacher certification.
The school's establishment was the product of the intense lobbying efforts of the 25,000 Club, a local booster group. The club raised funds for faculty salaries so classes could begin that fall in local churches and public school classrooms. Graduates of the normal school program received lifetime teaching certification statewide; the 1910 Oklahoma Legislature funded faculty salaries and the construction of a building on a 16-acre site donated by a Chickasaw allottee. In 1919, the normal schools were authorized by the Oklahoma Legislature to offer four years of teacher education, to offer bachelor's degrees, were designated teachers' colleges. Expanding beyond education degrees, in 1939 the school became East Central State College. Fifteen years the regional colleges were allowed to offer graduate degrees. By 1974, the state legislature renamed the state colleges, it became East Central Oklahoma State University—a name it retained until 1985 when it gained its present name. East Central is divided into 5 academic units with 70 degree programs.
They are: The Harland C. Stonecipher School of Business College of Education and Psychology College of Health and Sciences College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences School of Graduate StudiesECU serves around 5,000 students and is best known internationally for its cartography program, as only a few such programs exist. ECU is home to an Environmental Health Science Program, one of only 30 programs nationally accredited by the National Environmental Health Science and Protection Accreditation Council East Central is one of four participating institutions offering courses at the Ardmore Higher Education Center. There are Distance Education sites located in Shawnee, OK, through the Gordon Cooper Technology Center and McAlester, OK through the Eastern Oklahoma State College. ECU offers online undergraduate courses. Chi Omega Phi Theta Chapter Est. December 12, 1964 Sigma Tau Gamma Tau Chapter Est. 1938 Zeta Tau Alpha Zeta Theta Chapter Est. April 16, 1966 Phi Kappa Tau - Gamma Xi Chapter - Est.
April 15, 1966 Pi Kappa Alpha - Epsilon Omega Chapter - Est. October 25, 1963 East Central's athletic teams have competed in the NCAA Division II Great American Conference since 2011, after competing in the Lone Star Conference of the NCAA from 1995 to 2011; the university hosts 7 programs for women. The school's football team won the NAIA national football championship in 1993. Athletics offices are located within the Kerr Activities Center. ECU has had several graduates move to political office, including five of alumni who were elected to the position of governor. Bill Anoatubby, Chickasaw Nation Governor Charles W. Blackwell, first Ambassador of the Chickasaw Nation to the United States from 1995 until 2013. Lyle Boren, former U. S. Congressman Cindy Byrd, Oklahoma State Auditor and Inspector Tom Colbert, Oklahoma Supreme Court Justice Jefferson Keel, Chickasaw Nation Lt. Governor Robert S. Kerr, former Governor of the State of Oklahoma, U. S. Senator Ernest McFarland, former Arizona Governor George Nigh, former Governor of the State of Oklahoma Several ECU grads have excelled in the area of professional sports: Harry "The Cat" Brecheen, former baseball player Armonty Bryant, Detroit Lions Defensive End Brad Calip, College Football Hall of Fame Football Player Mark Gastineau, former professional football player Todd Graham, Arizona State Sun Devils Head Football Coach Dewey McClain, football player David Moore, Seattle Seahawks wide receiver Gil Morgan, professional golfer Cliff Thrift, former San Diego Chargers, Chicago Bears and Los Angeles Rams professional football player Jerry Walker, former major league baseball player and front-office executive Lloyd Waner, baseball hall-of-famer Paul Waner, baseball hall-of-famer Wade Burleson, author and teacher Hallie Brown Ford, philanthropist Aaron Gwyn and author Kenneth Hite, professional author and game designer.
Jennifer McLoud-Mann, mathematician Leon Polk Smith, Artist Harland Stonecipher, Pre-Paid Legal Services, Inc. Founder, Chairman & CEO Kevin Turner, senior executive with the Microsoft Corporation, former president and chief executive officer of Sam's Club La Vern E. Weber, United States Army Lieutenant General and Chief of the National Guard Bureau Official website Official athletics website
Oklahoma Historical Society
The Oklahoma Historical Society is an agency of the government of Oklahoma dedicated to promotion and preservation of Oklahoma's history and its people by collecting and disseminating knowledge and artifacts of Oklahoma. The mission of the OHS is to collect and share the history and culture of the state of Oklahoma and its people; the Society has the rare distinction of being both a Smithsonian Institution and National Archives and Records Administration affiliate. The OHS was formed in May 1893, 14 years before Oklahoma became a state, by the Oklahoma Territorial Press Association; the initial function of the OHS was to collect and distribute newspapers published in Oklahoma Territory. The society was declared an agency of the territorial government in 1895, it became an official state government agency when Oklahoma reached statehood in 1907; the OHS is both an Oklahoma government agency. The OHS Board of Directors is made up of 25 members, 12 of whom are appointed by the governor and 13 elected by OHS members to three-year terms.
The OHS today works statewide and nationally to preserve and nurture Oklahoma's history. The Oklahoma State Historic Preservation Office operated by the society, carries out federal preservation programs in Oklahoma under the National Historic Preservation Act, to preserve Oklahoma's significant buildings, parks and sites. Projects are carried out in partnership with the Department of the Interior and the National Park Service, as well as other state and local governments and interested people; the society posts markers at historical sites. The OHS has published The Chronicles of Oklahoma, the society's scholarly journal, since 1921 and continues to issue four editions per year; the society's monthly newsletter, Mistletoe Leaves, includes information about OHS activities and historical happenings throughout Oklahoma. Both publications and other historical works are available per issue; the OHS has published numerous other titles including The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma Culture and History. The Chronicles of Oklahoma through 1962 are available online through the Oklahoma State University Library Electronic Publishing Center.
The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma Culture and History is available on the society's website. The OHS Research Division houses more than 9 million photographs, more than 1 million pages of historical documents and manuscripts, 3,000 oral histories, historic film and video collections, more than 4,400 titles of newspapers on available microfilm. Many of the Oklahoma Historical Society's documents and materials are available online at little or no charge, including indexes to the Dawes Rolls, Oklahoma military deaths, the 1890 Oklahoma Territorial Census, Territorial Incorporation Records, Hastain's Township Plats of the Creek Nation, Oklahoma County marriage records 1889-1951, Daily Oklahoman obituaries, Smith’s First Directory of Oklahoma Territory; the online archives catalog contains some of the photographs in the OHS Research Division Collection. Historic newspapers are available free of charge on the Society's Gateway to Oklahoma History; the society operates the state's museum located in Oklahoma City.
The Oklahoma History Center occupies 215,000 ft² and contains more than 2,000 artifacts and exhibits featuring hands-on audio and activities. A museum store is available online or at the Oklahoma History Center, annual membership can be purchased for individuals and institutions. From 1919 to 1942, Czarina Conlan was in charge of collecting artifacts and documents for the museum from the various Native American tribes throughout the state; the History Center houses the OHS Research Division, which includes a large Research Center, free and open to the public. In May 2009 the OHS announced plans to build a second museum, to be called the Oklahoma Museum of Popular Culture, or OKPOP, located in Tulsa's Brady District, it is planned as the state museum of popular culture, including music, television and the performing arts. After lengthy delays, funding for the museum was obtained through a $25 million bond issue approved in 2015. In late 2016, the society announced that OKPOP will be located on North Main Street, across the street from Cain's Ballroom.
The Oklahoma Historical Society administers a number of state-owned properties either in their entirety or with interpretive centers.: Museums Cherokee Strip Museum Cherokee Strip Regional Heritage Center Museum of the Western Prairie Oklahoma Territorial Museum Route 66 Museum Pioneer Woman Museum Spiro Mounds Historic Homes Pawnee Bill Ranch Fred Drummond Home George M. Murrell Home Sod House Military Sites Cabin Creek Battlefield Fort Gibson Fort Supply Fort Towson Honey Springs Battlefield The Oklahoma Historical Society is under the supervision of the Secretary of Commerce and Tourism. Under Governor of Oklahoma Mary Fallin, Larry Parman is serving as the Secretary; the Society is governed by a 25-member Board of Directors. Thirteen of those members are elected by the members of the Society and twelve are appointed by the Governor of Oklahoma, with the approval of the Oklahoma Senate. All member serve three-year terms; the Governor serves as an ex officio member of the Board. The Board is responsible for appointing an Executive Director of the Society, who serves concurrently as the State Historic Preservation Officer.
The current Executive Director is Dr. Bob L. Blackburn, Ph. D. Oklahoma Historical Society official site The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture OHS Gateway to Oklahoma History Oklahoma History Center official site OKPOP official site
Wheaton College (Massachusetts)
Wheaton College is a private liberal arts college in Norton, Massachusetts. Wheaton was founded in 1834 as a female seminary; the trustees changed the name of the institution to Wheaton College in 1912 after receiving a college charter from the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. It remained one of the oldest institutions of higher education for women in the United States until men began to be admitted in 1988, it enrolls 1,750 students. Wheaton College is ranked among the top liberal arts colleges by various publications; the student-faculty ratio is 10:1 and the average class size is between 15 and 20. It has a reputation for athletics, ranking as one of the top NCAA Division III institutions in overall collegiate sports programs. In 1834, Eliza Wheaton Strong, the daughter of Judge Laban Wheaton, died at the age of thirty-nine. Eliza Baylies Chapin Wheaton, the judge's daughter-in-law, persuaded him to memorialize his daughter by founding a female seminary; the family called upon noted women's educator Mary Lyon for assistance in establishing the seminary.
Lyon created the first curriculum with the goal that it be equal in quality to those of men's colleges. She provided the first principal, Eunice Caldwell. Wheaton Female Seminary opened in Norton, Massachusetts on 22 April 1835, with 50 students and three teachers. Mary Lyon and Eunice Caldwell left Wheaton to open Mount Holyoke Female Seminary in 1837. After their departure, Wheaton endured a period of fluctuating enrollment and frequent changes in leadership until 1850, when Caroline Cutler Metcalf was recruited as the new principal. Metcalf made the hiring of outstanding faculty her top priority, bringing in educators who encouraged students to discuss ideas rather than to memorize facts; the most notable additions to the faculty were Lucy Larcom, who introduced the study of English Literature and founded the student literary magazine The Rushlight. Metcalf retired in 1876. A. Ellen Stanton, a teacher of French since 1871, served as principal from 1880 to 1897, she led the seminary during a difficult time, when it faced competition from increasing numbers of public high schools and colleges granting bachelor's degrees to women.
In 1897, at the suggestion of Eliza Baylies Wheaton, the trustees hired the Reverend Samuel Valentine Cole as the seminary's first male president. Preparing to seek a charter as a four-year college, Cole began a program of revitalization that included expanding and strengthening the curriculum, increasing the number and quality of the faculty, adding six new buildings; the Commonwealth of Massachusetts granted Wheaton a college charter in 1912, the trustees changed the name of the school to Wheaton College. The Student Government Association was organized to represent the "consensus of opinion of the whole student body", to encourage individual responsibility and self-government. Wheaton received authorization to establish a chapter of Phi Beta Kappa in 1932, twenty years after achieving college status. President Samuel Valentine Cole died unexpectedly in 1925 after a brief illness. During his career as president, Cole oversaw the expansion of the campus from three to 27 buildings, the growth of enrollment from 50 to 414, the establishment of an endowment.
On the campus, Cole Memorial Chapel is named after him. Its approximate geographical coordinates are: 41° 58' 2.01" N, 71° 11' 3.51" W. The Reverend John Edgar Park, who became president in 1926, continued Cole's building program, saw the college through the Great Depression, the celebration of its centennial in 1935 and World War II, he retired in 1944, was succeeded by Dartmouth College Professor of History Alexander Howard Meneely. During his tenure, the trustees voted to expand the size of the college from 525 to 800 to 1000 students, construction of "new campus" began in 1957. Meneely died in 1961 after a long illness and was succeeded in 1962 by William C. H. Prentice, a psychology professor and administrator at Swarthmore College. In the early 1960s, Wheaton completed its first endowment campaign; the development of new campus continued, student enrollment grew to 1,200. Wheaton students and faculty joined in nationwide campus protests against United States actions in Indochina in 1970. In 1975, Wheaton inaugurated its first woman president, Alice Frey Emerson, Dean of Students at the University of Pennsylvania.
During her tenure, Wheaton achieved national recognition as a pioneer in the development of a gender-balanced curriculum. Emerson would go on to receive the Valeria Knapp Award from The College Club of Boston in 1987 for establishing the Global Awareness Program at Wheaton College. Wheaton celebrated its Sesquicentennial in 1984/85 with a year-long series of symposia, dance performances and history exhibits, an endowment and capital campaign. In 1987, the trustees voted to admit men to Wheaton; the first coeducational class was enrolled in September 1988. Dale Rogers Marshall, Academic Dean at Wellesley College, was inaugurated as Wheaton's sixth president in 1992, she led the college in "The Campaign for Wheaton", to build endowed and current funds for faculty development, student scholarships, academic programs and facilities. Enrollment growth encouraged the construction of the first new residence halls since 1964, the improvement of classroom buildings and the renovation and expansion of the college's arts' facilities.
Wheaton's Board of Trustees appointed Ronald A. Crutcher as the seventh president of the college on March 23, 2004. Crutcher came to Wheaton from Miami University in Oxford, where he served as provost a
Union College is a private, non-denominational liberal arts college located in Schenectady, New York. Founded in 1795, it was the first institution of higher learning chartered by the New York State Board of Regents. In the 19th century, it became the "Mother of Fraternities", as three of the earliest such organizations were established there. After 175 years as a traditional all-male institution, Union College began enrolling women in 1970. Regarded as among the Little Ivies, the college offers a liberal arts curriculum across some 21 academic departments, as well as opportunities for interdepartmental majors and self-designed organizing theme majors. In common with most liberal arts colleges, Union offers a wide array of courses in arts, sciences and foreign languages, but, in common with only a few other liberal arts colleges, Union offers ABET-accredited undergraduate degrees in computer engineering, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering. 25% of students major in the social sciences.
By the time they graduate, about 60% of Union students will have engaged in some form of international study or study abroad. Chartered in 1795, Union is the first non-denominational institution of higher education in the United States, second college established in the State of New York. During the sweeping span of 1636-1769 only nine institutions of higher education managed to set permanent roots in Colonial America. All had been founded in association with Anglo religious denominations devoted to the perpetuation of traditional forms of religious culture. Just Columbia University, birthed as King's College in 1754, had preceded Union in New York. Twenty-five years impetus for another school grew. Certain that General John Burgoyne's defeat at the Battle of Saratoga in 1777 would mean a new nation, nearly 1,000 citizens of northern New York began the first popular demand for higher education in America; as a democratic tide rose and began to overtake the people old ways, in particular the old purposes and structure of higher education, were being pushed aside.
Schenectady, a city founded and dominated by the Dutch of some 4,000 residents, was after Albany and New York City the third largest in the state. The Dutch Reformed Church, progressive-thinking in comparison to the new nation's dominant Anglo denominations, began to show an interest in establishing an academy or college under its control there. In 1778, the Schenectady Dutch Reformed Church invited the Rev. Dirck Romeyn of New Jersey to visit. Returning home, he authored a plan in 1782 for such an institution, was summoned two years to come help found it; the Schenectady Academy was established in 1785 as the city's first organized school. It flourished, reaching an enrollment of about 100 within a year. By at least 1792 it offered a full four-year college course, as well as one of elementary and practical subjects taught to girls. Attempts to charter the Academy as a college with the Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York in 1786, 1792, 1793 were rejected on the grounds the school was not yet either academically nor financially qualified.
The following year the school reapplied, as "Union College", a name chosen to reflect the spirit of the thirteen religious sects which had gathered to foster it, which together resolved the school should be free of any specific religious affiliation. The result was the first non-denominational institution of higher education in the United States, awarded its charter on February 25, 1795 – still celebrated by the College as "Founders' Day"; the College's charter provided for the design of an official seal to be used on diplomas and other official business documents and correspondence. The Trustees were authorized to select the "devices and inscription" to be engraved on the seal. A committee of four Trustees was appointed to look into the matter, a seal was approved in November 1796; the original seal and its press have been lost, but it is known that it was nearly identical to the seal in use today. The Union College seal combines modern elements in balanced proportions; the head of the Roman goddess Minerva appears in the center of an oval with an outside star pattern surrounding the whole.
Around the central figure are the French words "Sous les lois de Minerve nous devenons tous frères et sœurs". The motto ended with the French word "frères", but in 2015 the College modified the motto to add the French words "et sœurs". On a banner just above the central figure are the words "St: of N: York" and on a similar banner below the central figure appear the words: "Union College 1795"; the precise origins of the motto and the choice of Minerva as the fundamental element of the College seal are obscure, but two things are certain: like most colleges of the time, Union was rooted in the classical tradition, unlike most colleges, Union chose a modern language rather than Latin for its motto. The resulting tone of the entire seal is thus aware, but distinctly modern in outlook, it is not at all surprising that the original trustees should have chosen Minerva as their herald and representative. Minerva began her mythological career as patroness of the arts and crafts. By the time she was well established as a Roman goddess, the scope of her interests and patronage had broadened
Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma
The Choctaw Nation is a Native American territory and federally recognized Indian Tribe with a tribal jurisdictional area and reservation comprising 10.5 counties in Southeastern Oklahoma. The Choctaw Nation maintains a special relationship with both the United States and Oklahoma governments; as of 2011, the tribe has 223,279 enrolled members, of which 84,670 live within the state of Oklahoma and 41,616 live within the Choctaw Nation's jurisdiction. A total of 233,126 people live within these boundaries; the tribal jurisdictional area is 10,864 square miles. The tribe has jurisdiction over its own members; the chief of the Choctaw Nation is Gary Batton, who took office on April 29, 2014, after the resignation of Gregory E. Pyle; the Choctaw Nation Headquarters, which houses the office of the Chief, is located in Durant. The tribal legislature meets at the Council House, across the street from the historic Choctaw Capitol Building, in Tuskahoma; the Capitol Building is now the Choctaw Nation Museum..
The Choctaw Nation is one of three federally recognized Choctaw tribes. The latter two bands are descendants of Choctaw who resisted the forced relocation to Indian Territory; the Mississippi Choctaw preserved much of their culture in small communities and reorganized as a tribal government under new laws after the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. Those Choctaw who removed to the Indian Territory, a process that went on into the early 20th century, are federally recognized as the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma; the removals became known as the "Trail of Tears." The Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma's tribal jurisdictional area covers 10,864 square miles, encompassing eight whole counties and parts of five counties in Southeastern Oklahoma: Atoka County, most of Bryan County, Choctaw County, most of Coal County, Haskell County, half of Hughes County, a portion of Johnston County, Latimer County, Le Flore County, McCurtain County, Pittsburg County, a portion of Pontotoc County, Pushmataha County. The Tribal Headquarters are located in Durant.
Opened in June 2018, the new headquarters is a 5-story, 500,000 square foot building located on an 80-acre campus in south Durant joining other tribal buildings such as the Regional Health Clinic, Wellness Center, Community Center, Child Development Center, Food Distribution. Headquarters was located in the former Oklahoma Presbyterian College, with more offices scattered around Durant; the current chief is Gary Batton and the assistant chief is Jack Austin, Jr. The Tribal Council meet monthly at Tvshka Homma; the tribe is governed by the Choctaw Nation Constitution, ratified by the people on June 9, 1984. The constitution provides for a legislative and a judicial branch of government; the chief of the Choctaw Tribe, elected every four years, is not a voting member of the Tribal Council. They are elected for four-year terms; the legislative authority of the tribe is vested in the Tribal Council, which consists of twelve members. The General Fund Operating Budget, the Health Systems Operating Budget, the Capital Projects Budget for the fiscal year beginning October 1, 2017 and ending September 30, 2018 was $516,318,568.
The supreme executive power of the Choctaw Nation is assigned to a chief magistrate, styled as the "Chief of the Choctaw Nation". The Assistant Chief is appointed by the Chief with the advice and consent of the Tribal Council, can be removed at the discretion of the Chief; the current Chief of the Choctaw Nation is Gary Batton, the current Assistant Chief is Jack Austin, Jr. The Chief's birthday is a tribal holiday. Before Oklahoma was admitted as a state to the union in 1907, the Choctaw Nation was divided into three districts: Apukshunnubbee and Pushmataha; each district had its own chief from 1834 to 1857. The three districts were re-established in 1860, again each with their own chief, with a fourth chief to be Principal Chief of the tribe; these districts were abolished at the time of statehood. The tribe reorganized to re-establish its government; the legislative authority is vested in the Tribal Council. Members of the Tribal Council are elected by the Choctaw people, one for each of the twelve districts in the Choctaw Nation.
In order to be elected as council members, candidates must have resided in their respective districts for at least one year preceding the election. "Candidates for the Tribal Council must be at least one-fourth Choctaw Indian by blood and must be twenty-one years of age or older at the time they file for election." Once elected, a council member must remain a resident of the district from which he or she was elected during the term in office. This policy ensures the involvement and interaction of successful candidates with their constituency. Once in office, the Tribal Council members have scheduled county council meetings; the presence of these tribal leaders in the Indian community creates a sense of understanding of their community and its needs. The Tribal Council is responsible for adopting rules and regulations which govern the Choctaw Nation, for approving all budgets, making decisions concerning the management of tribal property, all other legislative matters; the Tribal Council Members are the voice and representation of the Choctaw people in the tribal government.
The Tribal Councils assist the community to implement an economic development strategy and to plan and direct Tribal resources to achieve self-sufficiency. The Tribal Council is working to strengthen
Ada is a city in and the county seat of Pontotoc County, United States. The population was 16,810 at the 2010 census, an increase of 7.1 percent from 15,691 at the 2000 census. The city was named for Ada Reed, the daughter of an early settler, was incorporated in 1901. Ada is home to East Central University, is the headquarters of the Chickasaw Nation. Ada is an Oklahoma Main Street City, an Oklahoma Certified City, a Tree City USA member. In the late 1880s, the Daggs family became the first white family to settle what is now known as Ada, known as Daggs Prairie. In April 1889, Jeff Reed was appointed to carry the mail from Stonewall to Center, two small communities in Indian Territory. With his family and his stock, he sought a place for a home on a prairie midway between the two points, where he constructed a log house and started Reed's Store. Other settlers soon built homes nearby. In 1891, a post office was named after Reed's oldest daughter, Ada. Ada incorporated as a city in 1901 and grew with the arrival of the St. Louis and San Francisco Railway line.
Within a decade the Santa Fe Railroad and the Oklahoma Central Railway served the town. Ada was a sundown town, where African Americans were not allowed to live. In the 1900s, the town was opened up to African Americans so that black witnesses could stay while testifying in district court. Despite a violent episode in 1904, the town remained open to African Americans to provide labor for a local cotton compress. In 1909, the women of Ada organized an effort to build a normal school in their city, it resulted in the founding of East Central College. On April 19, 1909, an organized mob hanged four men, among whom was American outlaw Deacon Jim Miller, set to be tried for the murder of a former U. S. marshal and member of the local freemason lodge. The town had a population of about 5,000 at the time, 38 murders a year at the time of the lynching; the Daily Ardmoreite reported that the four lynched men were "one of the bloodiest band of murderers in the state of Oklahoma and an organization of professional assassins, that for a record of blood crimes has no equal in the annals of criminal history in the entire southwest."The first manufacturing company in Ada, the Portland Cement Company, installed the first cement clinker in Oklahoma in 1910.
American Glass Casket Company began manufacturing glass caskets in 1916. Hazel Atlas Glass bought the plant in 1928 and produced glass products until 1991; the following sites in Ada are listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Ada Public Library Bebee Field Round House East Central State Normal School Mijo Camp Industrial District Pontotoc County Courthouse Sugg Clinic Wintersmith Park Historic District Ada is located in the rolling hills of southeastern Oklahoma. Ada is 88 miles from Oklahoma City, 122 mi from Tulsa, 133 mi from Dallas, Texas. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 15.8 square miles, of which 15.7 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. As of the 2010 census, Ada's 16,810 residents consisted of 3,803 families; the population density was 999.3 people per square mile. The 7,862 housing units were dispersed at an average density of 475.9 per square mile. Ada's 2006 racial makeup was 73.81% White, 3.54% African American, 15.10% Native American, 0.83% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.89% from other races, 5.81% from two or more races.
Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 2.89% of the population. Of Ada's 6,697 households, 25.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.6% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 43.2% were non-families. The 15.8% of those 65 years or older living alone made up a substantial portion of the 37.1% single-person households. Average household size was 2.20 persons. The age breakdown in 2006 was 22.3% under the age of 18, 17.5% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, 17.0% aged 65 or older. The median age was 33 years; the disparity between the number of males and the number of females seems to be decreasing: for every 100 females aged 18 or over, there were only 84.5 males, but when all females and males were taken into account, there were 100 females for every 88.4 males. Median household income was $22,977, while median family income was $31,805. Males had a median income of $25,223 versus $17,688 for females. Ada's per capita income was $14,666.
Some 14.8% of families and 21.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.8% of those under 18 and 11.4% of those 65 or over. 2,000-3,000 residents speak the Chickasaw language. The economy of Ada is diversified. In the mid and late 20th century, the town was a manufacturing center, producing products such as Wrangler jeans, auto parts and concrete, other products. Since the start of the 21st century, manufacturers have made major investments in expansions and new technology. In 1975, the Chickasaw Nation opened its headquarters in Ada. Revenues for the Nation were over 12 billion dollars in 2011, most of, funneled through Ada; the Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center, a large water research lab staffed by the Environmental Protection Agency, opened in 1966. LegalShield, a multi-level marketing provider of pre-paid legal services, is headquartered in the city. Oil and natural gas are still much a part of the regional economy; the largest employers in the region are the following