Garrawilla National Park
Garrawilla National Park was created in December 2005. It covers an area of 937 hectares; this park is located on the northern side of the Oxley Highway halfway between Coonabarabran and Mullaley in New South Wales, Australia. Protected areas of New South Wales
Batemans Bay is a town in the South Coast region of the state of New South Wales, Australia. Batemans Bay is administered by the Eurobodalla Shire council; the town is situated on the shores of an estuary formed where the Clyde River meets the South Pacific Ocean. Batemans Bay is located on the Princes Highway about 280 kilometres from Sydney and 760 km from Melbourne. Canberra is located about 151 km via the Kings Highway. At the 2016 census, Batemans Bay had a population of 11,294 with surrounding communities including Long Beach, Maloneys Beach and the coastal fringe extending south to Rosedale bringing the total population of the urban area to 16,044, it is the closest seaside town to Canberra, making Batemans Bay a popular holiday destination for residents of Australia's National Capital. Geologically, it is situated in the far southern reaches of the Sydney Basin. Batemans Bay is a popular retiree haven, but has begun to attract young families seeking affordable housing and a relaxed seaside lifestyle.
Other local industries include oyster farming, eco-tourism and retail services. The traditional custodians of the land surrounding Batemans Bay are the Indigenous Australian Yuin people of the Walbunja clan; the traditional language spoken by the Walbunja people is Dhurga. A number of sites in the region are considered culturally significant to the Aboriginal peoples. On 22 April 1770, European explorer Captain James Cook first named the bay. Cook gave no reason for the name, which may commemorate either Nathaniel Bateman, the captain of HMS Northumberland when Cook was serving as her master from 1760–62, or John Bateman, 2nd Viscount Bateman, a former Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty in the 1750s. A colonial vessel, was driven into Batemans Bay by bad weather during 1808. Local indigenous Australians attacked her crew. In 1821 Lt Robert Johnston entered the bay and explored the lower reaches of the Clyde River on board the cutter Snapper. Snapper Island within the bay is named after Johnston's boat.
Johnston returned with Alexander Berry and Hamilton Hume and they traced the river to its source. When the district was surveyed in 1828, a deserted hut and stockyards were found. Cedar getters and land clearers were in the district in the 1820s. From the 1820s through to the 1840s, the area to the Moruya River was the southernmost official limit of location for the colony of New South Wales; the Illawarra and South Coast Steam Navigation Co found the Clyde River to be navigable in 1854. Regular services by the company in the 1860s and 1870s contributed to growth of the district; the village of China Bay was surveyed in 1859. Oyster farming commenced in 1860. By 1870, there was a fleet of 40 oyster boats. A sawmill was erected in 1870; the port was proclaimed in 1885. A ferry service across the Clyde ran from 1891 until the bridge was opened in 1956. In 1942 during World War II, a trawler was attacked by a Japanese submarine between Batemans Bay and Moruya. In May 2016, an estimated 120,000 bats descended upon and swarmed the town, prompting the town to declare a state of emergency.
Due to the fact that they were flying foxes, they had to be removed using non-lethal methods, including smoke, noise and removing vegetation. The town received AUS$2.5 million. The change of population of Batemans Bay since 1881. 1881 was 266 1961 was 1,183 1981 was 4,924 1996 was 9,568 2006 was 10,845 2011 was 11,334According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 11,294 people in the Batemans Bay urban centre. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 7.3% of the population. 77.1% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 5.0% and New Zealand 1.5%. 88.1% of people only spoke English at home. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 26.3%, Anglican 24.8% and Catholic 23.4%. The median age in Batemans Bay is 53 years, compared with the Australian national average of 37 years. For people aged 60 years and above, Batemans Bay is well above the national average, has twice as many people aged 70 years or over than the national average.
Conversely, in all age demographic groups below 60 years, Batemans Bay is below national averages. This is most presented in the categories for ages 19 years to 35 years; this skewed demographic is attributed to Batemans Bay’s proximity to Canberra, from where it attracts a large number of retirees. In recent years, community concern has grown as hotels and resorts in the region have been purchased and converted to aged care and retirement living, creating a perceived threat to the town’s primary industry – tourism. In addition, the aged demographic has been said to create a culture were the towns infrastructure is geared towards the aged, resulting in a net migration away from Batemans Bay of younger families exacerbating the imbalance. In 2015, research from Nielsen revealed older people were less to support rates funding towards youth focussed infrastructure. With its stunning natural features at the forefront, an aged population, the arts and cultural scene in Batemans Bay was seen for some time as underdeveloped for a regional hub.
As the town has enjoyed a renaissance of its CBD, so too its arts and cultural landscape, with a growing and interesting calendar of events and a strong community of practicing artists. This shift is best illustrated in the announcement of 26 million dollars toward the development of an indoor aquatic and cultural centre. To be built at the Mackay Park precinct, the cultural facility will include a purpose-built exhibition and performance centre, as well as workshop and storage space that will serve the wider region’s 18 art and theatre groups. (
The Riverina is an agricultural region of South-Western New South Wales, Australia. The Riverina is distinguished from other Australian regions by the combination of flat plains, warm to hot climate and an ample supply of water for irrigation; this combination has allowed the Riverina to develop into one of the most productive and agriculturally diverse areas of Australia. Bordered on the south by the state of Victoria and on the east by the Great Dividing Range, the Riverina covers those areas of New South Wales in the Murray and Murrumbidgee drainage zones to their confluence in the west. Home to Aboriginal groups for over 40,000 years, the Riverina was colonised by Europeans in the mid-19th century as a pastoral region providing beef and wool to markets in Australia and beyond. In the 20th century, the development of major irrigation areas in the Murray and Murrumbidgee valleys has led to the introduction of crops such as rice and wine grapes; the Riverina has strong cultural ties to Victoria, the region was the source of much of the impetus behind the federation of Australian colonies.
Major population and service centres in the Riverina include the cities of Wagga Wagga and Griffith. Wagga Wagga is home to a campus of Charles Sturt University, the only local provider of higher education for the region. Wagga Wagga is home to two major Australian Defence Force establishments; the delineation of the Riverina region by government agencies and other bodies varies, but in common usage it comprises the agricultural and pastoral areas of New South Wales, west of the Great Dividing Range and in the drainage basin of the snow-fed Murray and Murrumbidgee Rivers. The northern boundary beyond the Riverina is determined by the Lachlan River catchment area and is referred to as the Central West. Along the Murray to the south, the Riverina borders the state of Victoria. West of the confluence of the Murray and Murrumbidgee is the beginning of the more arid Far West region. In general, the Riverina is an alluvial plain formed by deposition carried from the Great Dividing Range by streams between 30,000 and 15,000 years ago.
The terrain includes rolling hills to the east but becomes flatter to the west with most of that plain reaching less than 200 metres above sea level. The western Riverina consists of featureless saltbush plain; the geology of the Riverina comprises sedimentary basins. The western Riverina is presumed to be a continuation of the Ballarat and Bendigo geological zone while eastern sections are underlain by western portions of the Lachlan Fold Belt. There is potential for the Riverina to host several mineral deposit types including coal, coal seam methane, orogenic gold, Cobar style polymetallic systems, heavy mineral sands and diamonds in these fold belt rocks and basins. Riverina soils are sandy along the river channels, with more saline grey and brown clays found on flooded areas on the perimeter of the floodplain; as the Murrumbidgee passes downstream, the water and soil become more saline. The Riverina is drained by the large Murray-Darling Basin. Rivers and streams in the Riverina flow east to west.
As well as the Murray and Lachlan, other streams include Billabong Creek and the Edward River, an anabranch of the Murray. Much of the water carried by these streams is diverted. In 2001–2002, 52% of the Murray and Murrumbidgee water runoff was diverted, 77% of, used for irrigation.https://drive.google.com/open?id=16zHR6KKmMf-Tqz7cc67nvksEs_HZBL1S The Bureau of Meteorology classify the Riverina in the Hot Dry Zone climatic zone. Places in this zone can be hot in the summer months while in the winter, nights can be cold with cool to mild days. Mean daily maximum temperatures in the Riverina range from 31.0 °C in January and 12.4 °C in July in Wagga Wagga to 33.2 °C in January and 14.8 °C in July in Hillston. Rainfall levels in the Riverina are low with the median annual rainfall over most of the region between 250–500 millimetres, rising to between 500–800 mm on the eastern fringe. Rain falls in the winter in the southern Riverina and around Hay while in the north rainfall patterns are consistent throughout the year.
Corowa, in the south eastern Riverina has an average rainfall of 539.4 millimetres per year while mean annual rainfall at Hay is 367.2 millimetres. Drought in 2006 has seen the lowest recorded rainfall in towns such as Lockhart and Narrandera. One method of classification of boundaries for the Riverina is the Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia that defines the bioregion as an area comprising 9,704,469 hectares, with biogeographic subregions covering each of the Lachlan, Murray Fans, Victorian Riverina, Robinvale Plains, Murray Scroll Belt; the New South Wales Parks and Wildlife Service has divided New South Wales into 17 distinct bioregions. Bioregions are quite large areas of land that capture a geophysical pattern, linked to fauna and flora ecosystems; the Riverina bioregion is an area of land that comprises part of the larger Riverina area but extends into Victoria. It has been defined by the New South Wales Parks and Wildlife Service as extending from Ivanhoe in the Murray Darling Depression Bioregion south to Bendigo, from Narrandera in the east to Balranald in the west.
74.03 % of the bioregion is in the remainder in Victoria. In another mapping the World Wildlife Fund has made this area part of the larger Southeast Australia temperate savanna ecoregion that covers the western plains of New South Wales. River channels in the region support River Red Gum (Eucalyp
Coolah Tops National Park
Coolah Tops is a national park located in New South Wales, Australia, 258 kilometres northwest of Sydney, established on 5 July 1996. It is managed by the New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, its World Conservation Union category is II. It is situated 30 kilometres east of Coolah on the Coolah Creek Road; the park features waterfalls. Giant grass trees and open forest with stands of snow gums shelter gliders, wallabies and owls. Camping and walking are the main recreational activities performed here. Views from the tops are possible over the Liverpool Plains; the sources of the Talbragar River and the Coolaburragundy River lie in the park. Protected areas of New South Wales
Ben Halls Gap National Park
Ben Halls Gap National Park is a national park in New South Wales, Australia, 251 km north of Sydney. Protected areas of New South Wales
Barrington Tops National Park
The Barrington Tops National Park is a protected national park located in the Hunter Valley 200 kilometres north of Sydney in New South Wales, Australia. Gazetted in 1969, the 76,512-hectare park is situated between Scone, Dungog and East Gresford; the park is part of the Barrington Tops group World Heritage Site Gondwana Rainforests of Australia inscribed in 1986 and added to the Australian National Heritage List in 2007. It is part of the Barrington Tops and Gloucester Tops Important Bird Area. Barrington Tops is part of a spur of the Great Dividing Range. Barrington Tops is a plateau between two of the large peaks in the range, The park is believed to be an extinct volcano and the mountain ranges are made up of a mixture of sedimentary rocks with a granite top. Erosion has weathered the granite and rounded granite boulders can be seen in some areas of the park. Estimates put the age of the rock at 300 to 400 million years, well before Australia separated from Gondwana; the climate varies from temperate on the lower altitudes to subalpine at highest elevations.
A record low of −17 °C has been registered at 1,500 m above mean sea level. Rainfalls fluctuate between 750 millimetres in the northwest to more than 2,000 mm in the southeast; the ecology of the national park varies from subtropical rainforests in the gullies to subalpine and alpine regions on the mountain peaks. Snow falls on the mountain peaks every year and snows enough to close roads. Rainfall can exceed 1,500 mm per annum. A large variety of plants and animals reside in the park and the steepness of the terrain ensures that they are not disturbed by humans. Plant life includes a large variety of eucalypt trees including Snow Gums and temperate rainforest trees like Antarctic beech, tree ferns, a large variety of mosses and ferns and a wide range of edible plants such as the native raspberry, the native cherry and the lilli pilli; the remoteness and inaccessibility of a large part of the park has allowed some of the more sensitive animals to remain undisturbed. A large number of fauna have been catalogued in the park including some that were thought to be extinct.
Some of the more common animals include: barking and sooty owls, eastern grey kangaroos, pademelons, rosellas, kookaburras and echidnas. It supports a globally important population of rufous scrub-birds, as well as flame robins, pale-yellow robins, paradise riflebirds, green catbirds, regent bowerbirds and Australian logrunners. Animals such as quolls, native rats and platypus may be seen. Not all of the animals in the park are desirable; the traditional owners of the area are the indigenous people of Australia, known as Australian Aborigines, include the Gringai clan, the Wonnarua people, the Worimi people and Birpai. In 1969 the area between Mount Barrington, Mount Royal and the Gloucester Tops was declared the Barrington Tops National Park. In 1986 it was listed as a World Heritage Area and subsequently a Wilderness Area; some of the rivers flowing through the Barrington range have been classed as wild rivers meaning they are exceptionally pure and unpolluted. The highest peak is Brumlow Top.
A number of aircraft have crashed in and around the Barrington Tops, Aeroplane Hill being named after one of the crashes. The altitude, frequent fog & cloud and cold weather make this area hazardous to aircraft. One article refers to the "Devil's Triangle". 16 April 1945 - De Havilland Mosquito A52-70. Wreckage found January 1946 in the national park; the propellor and machine gun were on display at the Barrington Tops Guest House. 2 September 1948 - Australian National Airlines Douglas DC-3 VH-ANK. 13 killed. 14 September 1969 - Lockheed Hudson VH-SML crashed in the foothills. 3 killed. 25 September 1969 - RAAF Mirage III-O. Crew ejected safely. 9 August 1981 - Cessna 210 VH-MDX. 5 killed, multiple searches have not found wreckage or bodies. 3 August 1987 - Aermacchi MB-326H A7-079. Crew ejected. Wreckage located by bushwalkers 28 April 1995. Photo of crew being rescued from a tree; the Barrington Guest House was built from 1925 on the upper Williams River near Barrington Tops by Norman T. McLeod, licensee of the Royal Hotel in Dungog, using timber cut and milled from the property.
It stood on land consisting of 10.5 hectares of forest surrounded by National and State Parks and was opened in 1930 by Dr Sir Earle Page MHR Leader of the Country Party and former Treasurer of Australia and Prime Minister of Australia. The guest house was a popular venue for people to stay in the park, until it burned down in a fire at 11pm on 24 September 2006 due to an electrical fault, it was undergoing modernisation under new ownership at the time of the fire. There are plans to rebuild. Barrington Tops is a popular weekend destination from Newcastle. Numerous walking trails and camping grounds are scattered throughout the park; the park contains well marked and well-maintained gravel roads as well as specific 4WD tracks into less travelled areas. General sightseeing can be accomplished in a non-offroad vehicle; as well as camping facilities, the nearby towns of Gloucester and Dungog have many places to stay. The park is maintained by the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service and rangers patrol the park daily.
Barrington Tops State Conservation Area Careys Peak List of mountains in New South Wales Mount Royal Range Protected areas of New South Wales "Manning River catc
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear