South Australia is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country, with a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres, it is the fourth-largest of Australias states and territories. Other population centres in the state are relatively small, the state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in Adelaide, most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along the south-eastern coast and River Murray. The states colonial origins are unique in Australia as a settled, planned British province. Official settlement began on 28 December 1836, when the colony was proclaimed at the Old Gum Tree by Governor John Hindmarsh, as with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages. The first British settlement to be established was Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, the guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield that was employed by the New Zealand Company.
The goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties, although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for its wine and numerous cultural festivals. The states economy is dominated by the agricultural and mining industries, the state has an increasingly significant finance sector as well. Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint mining activity, in addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat bog in the South East. Kangaroo Island was inhabited long before the island was cut off by rising sea levels, thijssen named his discovery Pieter Nuyts Land, after the highest ranking individual on board. The complete coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders, the land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales.
Although the new colony included almost two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and it took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. In 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834, the act stated that 802,511 square kilometres would be allotted to the colony and it would be convict-free. In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province, although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. Settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island. The first immigrants arrived at Holdfast Bay in November 1836, the Colonisation Commissioners intended to establish a police service as soon as misconduct within the increasing population warranted it
Karst topography is a landscape formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone and gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves and it has been documented for more weathering-resistant rocks, such as quartzite, given the right conditions. Subterranean drainage may limit surface water, with few to no rivers or lakes, the English word karst was borrowed from German Karst in the late 19th century. The German word came into use before the 19th century, according to the prevalent interpretation, the term is derived from the German name for the Karst region, a limestone plateau above the city of Trieste in the northern Adriatic. Scholars disagree, however, on whether the German word was borrowed from Slovene, the Slovene common noun kras was first attested in the 18th century, and the adjective form kraški in the 16th century. The Slovene words arose through metathesis from the reconstructed form *korsъ, the word is of Mediterranean origin, believed to derive from some Romanized Illyrian base.
It has been suggested that the word may derive from the Proto-Indo-European root karra- rock, the name may be connected to the oronym Karsádios oros cited by Ptolemy, and perhaps to Latin Carusardius. The development of karst occurs whenever acidic water starts to break down the surface of bedrock near its cracks, as the bedrock continues to degrade, its cracks tend to get bigger. As time goes on, these fractures will become wider, if this underground drainage system does form, it will speed up the development of karst formations there because more water will be able to flow through the region, giving it more erosive power. The carbonic acid that causes karstic features is formed as rain passes through the atmosphere picking up carbon dioxide, once the rain reaches the ground, it may pass through soil that can provide much more CO2 to form a weak carbonic acid solution, which dissolves calcium carbonate. The oxidation of sulfides leading to the formation of acid can be one of the corrosion factors in karst formation.
As oxygen -rich surface waters seep into deep anoxic karst systems, they bring oxygen, sulfuric acid reacts with calcium carbonate, causing increased erosion within the limestone formation. This chain of reactions is, This reaction chain forms gypsum, the karstification of a landscape may result in a variety of large- or small-scale features both on the surface and beneath. On exposed surfaces, small features may include solution flutes, limestone pavement, medium-sized surface features may include sinkholes or cenotes, vertical shafts, disappearing streams, and reappearing springs. Large-scale features may include limestone pavements and karst valleys, mature karst landscapes, where more bedrock has been removed than remains, may result in karst towers, or haystack/eggbox landscapes. Beneath the surface, complex underground systems and extensive caves. Some of the most dramatic of these formations can be seen in Thailands Phangnga Bay, calcium carbonate dissolved into water may precipitate out where the water discharges some of its dissolved carbon dioxide.
Rivers which emerge from springs may produce tufa terraces, consisting of layers of calcite deposited over extended periods of time, in caves, a variety of features collectively called speleothems are formed by deposition of calcium carbonate and other dissolved minerals
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to European colonisation. In present-day Australia these groups are divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken, it is estimated that 120 to 145 of these remain in use. Aboriginal people today mostly speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English, a population collapse following European settlement, and a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans may have caused a massive and early depopulation. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the flags of Australia. The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century, to mean, first or earliest known and it comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from ab and origo.
The word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789 and it soon became capitalised and employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. Strictly speaking, Aborigine is the noun and Aboriginal the adjectival form, use of either Aborigine or Aboriginal to refer to individuals has acquired negative connotations in some sectors of the community, and it is generally regarded as insensitive and even offensive. The more acceptable and correct expression is Aboriginal Australians or Aboriginal people, the term Indigenous Australians, which includes Torres Strait Islander peoples, has found increasing acceptance, particularly since the 1980s. The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many groups that often identify under names from local Indigenous languages. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land, Palawah in Tasmania and these larger groups may be further subdivided, for example, Anangu recognises localised subdivisions such as Pitjantjatjara, Ngaanyatjarra and Antikirinya.
It is estimated that prior to the arrival of British settlers, the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, they are not generally included under the designation Aboriginal Australians. This has been another factor in the promotion of the inclusive term Indigenous Australians. Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves fully as Torres Strait Islanders, a further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage. The Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879, eddie Mabo was from Mer or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term blacks has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement, while originally related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal heritage or culture in general and refers to people of any skin pigmentation.
In the 1970s, many Aboriginal activists, such as Gary Foley, proudly embraced the term black, the book included interviews with several members of the Aboriginal community including Robert Jabanungga reflecting on contemporary Aboriginal culture
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
The swallows and martins, or Hirundinidae, are a family of passerine birds found around the world on all continents except Antarctica. Highly adapted to feeding, they have a distinctive appearance. The term Swallow is used colloquially in Europe as a synonym for the barn swallow, there are around 83 species in 19 genera, with the greatest diversity found in Africa, which is thought to be where they evolved as hole-nesters. They occur on a number of oceanic islands, a number of European and North American species are long-distance migrants, by contrast, the West and South African swallows are non-migratory. This family comprises two subfamilies, Pseudochelidoninae and Hirundininae, within the New World, martin is reserved for members of the genus Progne. The swallows and martins have a conservative body shape which is similar across the clade but is unlike that of other passerines. Their body shape allows for efficient flight, the metabolic rate of swallows in flight is 49–72% lower than equivalent passerines of the same size.
Like the unrelated swifts and nightjars, which hunt in a way, they have short bills, but strong jaws. Their body length ranges from about 10–24 cm and their weight from about 10–60 g, the wings are long and have nine primary feathers. The tail has 12 feathers and may be forked, somewhat indented. A long tail increases maneuverability, and may function as a sexual adornment. In barn swallows the tail of the male is 18% longer than those of the female, the legs are short, and their feet are adapted for perching rather than walking, as the front toes are partially joined at the base. Swallows are capable of walking and even running, but they do so with a shuffling, waddling gait, the leg muscles of the river martins are stronger and more robust than those of other swallows. The river martins have other characteristics that separate them from the other swallows, the most common hirundine plumage is glossy dark blue or green above and plain or streaked underparts, often white or rufous. Species which burrow or live in dry or mountainous areas are often matte brown above, the sexes show limited or no sexual dimorphism, with longer outer tail feathers in the adult male probably being the most common distinction.
The chicks hatch naked and with closed eyes, fledged juveniles usually appear as duller versions of the adult. The swallows and martins have a cosmopolitan distribution, occurring on every continent except Antarctica. Many species have enormous worldwide ranges, particularly the barn swallow, the family uses a wide range of habitats
Australian Geographic is a media business that produces the Australian Geographic magazine, DMag magazine, specialist book titles, travel guides and calendars and online media. It published editions of the Australian Encyclopaedia and it previously operated the Australian Geographical retail chain stores and Australian Geographic Travel and Australian Geographic Adventures. Australian Geographic magazine, originally titled Dick Smiths Australian Geographic, is a geographical journal created by Dick Smith in 1986. The magazine focuses mainly on stories about Australia, or about Australian people in other countries, the six editions published each year are available by subscription and on newsstands. They include posters or sheet maps in each edition, as well as photographs, Australian Geographic has a website that includes the entire magazine digital archive. Each year, a portion of the profits is provided to the Australian Geographic Society, members of the public were invited to become members and make financial contributions to the Society.
In a circular relationship, the magazine was represented to be the official journal of the Australian Geographic Society, through its Society, Australian Geographic supports scientific research as well as environmental and community projects. Funds are used to highlight and support Australian adventurers and produce related diaries, the Australian Geographic magazine, originally titled Dick Smiths Australian Geographic, was initially published by Australian Geographic Pty Ltd, a private company controlled by Dick Smith. Smith, the founder of Dick Smith Electronics and Dick Smith Foods, after two years he removed his name from the magazine cover. Australian Geographic Pty Ltd operated the Australian Geographic chain of retail stores, the publications offices were originally based in Terrey Hills north of Sydney. Smith wanted the publication to focus on accuracy by exclusively including articles that were peer-reviewed, Australian Geographic acquired rights to the Australian Encyclopaedia and published editions in 1988 and 1996.
In 1995, when subscriptions totalled more than 200,000, in December 1998, the business was bought out by its management. From September 2000 to December 2001, Australian Geographic published a bimonthly science, there were, only eight issues published before the magazine went permanently out of print. In November 2006, PBL Medias ACP Magazines purchased the Australian Geographic publishing division, today the Australian Geographic magazine is based at Park Street Sydney. The current editor-in-chief of Australian Geographic is Chrissie Goldrick, while the editor is John Pickrell, from 2007 to 2016 Australian Geographic Retail was owned by Myer Family Investments but after large operating losses it was sold in August 2016 to The Co-op, a retail supplier to universities. The Australian Geographic Society Adventure Award has been awarded since 1987 and is Australias longest-running award for adventure and it is judged on merit and therefore not all of the categories are awarded annually. The award is a celebration of achievement and is not a competition, the award is given in two categories – Adventurer of the Year, and Young Adventurer of the Year.
Geographic magazine Australian Geographic 10th Anniversary Collectors Edition No.40 Oct – Dec 1995 Australian Geographic
Hawks are a group of medium-sized diurnal birds of prey of the family Accipitridae which are widely distributed and varying greatly in size. The subfamily Accipitrinae includes goshawks, the sharp-shinned hawk and these are mainly woodland birds with long tails and high visual acuity, hunting by sudden dashes from a concealed perch. In the Americas, members of the Buteo group are called hawks, generally buteos have broad wings and sturdy builds. They are relatively larger winged, shorter-tailed and soar more extensively in areas than accipiters. The terms accipitrine hawk and buteonine hawk may be used to distinguish the two types, in regions where hawk applies to both, the term true hawk is sometimes used for the accipitrine hawks, in regions where buzzard is preferred for the buteonine hawks. All these groups are members of the Accipitridae family, which includes the hawks and buzzards as well as kites, some authors use hawk generally for any small to medium Accipitrid that is not an eagle.
The common names of birds include the term hawk, reflecting traditional usage rather than taxonomy. Falconry was called hawking, and any bird used for falconry could be referred to as a hawk, aristotle listed eleven types of ἱέρακες, aisalōn, hypotriorchēs, leios, phassophonos, pternis and triorchēs. Pliny numbered sixteen kinds of hawks, but named only aigithos, kenchrēïs, the accipitrine hawks generally take birds as their primary prey. They have been called hen-hawks, or wood-hawks because of their woodland habitat, the subfamily Accipitrinae contains Accipiter, it contains genera Micronisus and Megatriorchis. Melierax may be included in the subfamily, or given a subfamily of its own, erythrotriorchis is traditionally included in Accipitrinae, but is possibly a convergent genus from an unrelated group. The Buteo group includes genera Buteo, Geranoetus, members of this group have been called hawk-buzzards. Proposed new genera Morphnarchus and Pseudastur are formed from members of Buteo, the Buteogallus group are called hawks, with the exception of the solitary eagles.
Buteo is the genus of the subfamily Buteoninae. Traditionally this subfamily includes eagles and sea-eagles and Mindell proposed placing those into separate subfamilies, leaving just the buteonine hawks/buzzards in Buteoninae. In February 2005, the Canadian ornithologist Louis Lefebvre announced a method of measuring avian IQ in terms of their innovation in feeding habits, Hawks were named among the most intelligent birds based on his scale. Hawks have four types of receptors in the eye. These give birds the ability to not only the visible range but the ultraviolet part of the spectrum
Eyre Highway is a 1, 660-kilometre highway linking Western Australia and South Australia via the Nullarbor Plain. Signed as National Highways 1 and A1, it part of Highway 1. It was named after explorer Edward John Eyre, who was the first European to cross the Nullarbor by land, Eyre Highway runs from Norseman in Western Australia, past Eucla, to the state border. Continuing to the South Australian town of Ceduna, it crosses the top of the Eyre Peninsula before reaching the city of Port Augusta in South Australia. The construction of the East–West Telegraph line in the 1870s, along Eyres route, a national highway was called for, but the federal government did not see the route as important enough until 1941, when a war in the Pacific seemed imminent. The highway was constructed between July 1941 and June 1942, but was trafficable by January 1942, though originally named Forrest Highway, after John Forrest, by the war cabinet, it was officially named and gazetted Eyre Highway, a name agreed upon by the states nomenclature committees.
The finished road, while an improvement over the route, still was not much more than a track. Efforts to seal the highway began in Norseman in 1960, with the Western Australian section completed in 1969, further improvement works have been undertaken since the 1980s, including widening and reconstructing portions of the road. It crosses the top of the Eyre Peninsula as it continues eastwards for 470 kilometres, Eyre Highway is part of the National Highway route between Perth and Adelaide, and forms part of Australias Highway 1. It is signed as National Highway 1 in Western Australia, the vast majority of the highway is a two-lane single carriageway with a speed limit of 110 kilometres per hour, except in and around built up areas. Road trains up to 36.5 metres are permitted on Eyre Highway, the Eyre Peninsula has been extensively cleared for agriculture, although there are remnant corridors of native eucalyptus woodland alongside its roads. In Western Australia, the traffic volumes ranged between 430 and 760 vehicles per day in 2013/14.
In South Australia, the annual average daily traffic as of September 2015 varied between 500 and 1500 west of Lincoln Highway, and was 2700 to the east. Eyre Highway was assessed by the Australian Automobile Association in 2011 to be among the lowest risk highways in the country, in 2013, Eyre Highway similarly received a lower safety rating for the South Australian sections, compared to the Western Australian section. Out of five stars, approximately 10% was rated as one- or two-star in Western Australia, generally towards the Norseman end, and 91% was rated three- or four-star. In South Australia, 49% was rated as one- or two-star, mostly from Yalata to Ceduna, Eyre Highway begins at the town of Norseman, on the Coolgardie–Esperance Highway. Apart from Eucla,12 kilometres from the South Australia border and these are located 65 to 180 kilometres apart, at Balladonia, Cocklebiddy and Mundrabilla. The section between Balladonia and Caiguna includes what is regarded as the longest straight stretch of road in Australia, the road stretches for 145.6 kilometres without turning, and is signposted and commonly known as the 90 Mile Straight
It is the worlds largest single exposure of limestone bedrock, and occupies an area of about 200,000 square kilometres. At its widest point, it stretches about 1,100 kilometres from east to west across the border between South Australia and Western Australia, the Nullarbor, considered by Europeans to be almost uninhabitable, was used by the semi-nomadic Aborigines, the Spinifex and Wangai peoples. The first Europeans known to have sighted and mapped it were an expedition led by Pieter Nuyts in 1626–27, while the interior remained little known to Europeans over the next two centuries, the name Nuytsland was often applied to the area adjoining the Great Australian Bight. It survives as two names in West Australia, Nuytsland Nature Reserve and Nuyts Land District. Despite the hardships created by the nature of the Nullarbor, European settlers were determined to cross the plain, Eyre departed Fowlers Bay on 17 November 1840 with John Baxter and a party of three Aboriginal men. When three of his horses died of dehydration, he returned to Fowlers Bay and he departed with a second expedition on 25 February 1841.
By 29 April, the party had reached Caiguna, lack of supplies and water led to a mutiny. Two of the Aborigines killed Baxter and took the partys supplies and they completed their crossing in June 1841. In August 1865, while travelling across the Nullarbor, E. A. Delisser in his journal named both Nullarbor and Eucla for the first time. A proposed new state of Auralia would have comprised the Goldfields, the portion of the Nullarbor Plain. Its capital would have been Kalgoorlie, during the British nuclear tests at Maralinga in the 1950s, the government forced the Wangai to abandon their homeland. Since they have been awarded compensation, and many have returned to the general area. Some agricultural interests are on the fringe of the plain including the 2.5 million acre Rawlinna Station, an older property is Madura Station, situated closer to the coast, it has a size of 1.7 million acres and is stocked with sheep. Madura was established prior to 1927, the extent of the property at that time was reported as two million acres, mr Rann said the move would double the area of land in South Australia under environmental protection, to 1.8 million hectares.
The area contains 390 species of plants and a number of habitats for rare species of animals. Crossing the Nullarbor, for many Australians, is an experience of the Australian Outback. Stickers bought from roadhouses on the highway show I have crossed the Nullarbor, the process of beating the crowds on overbooked air services at the time of special sporting events can see significant numbers of vehicles on the road. Crossings in the 1950s and earlier were significant, as most of the route was a dirt track, round-Australia car trials used the Nullarbor crossing for good photo shoots of cars negotiating poor track
A sinkhole, known as a cenote, sink-hole, swallet, swallow hole, or doline, is a depression or hole in the ground caused by some form of collapse of the surface layer. Most are caused by karst processes—for example, the dissolution of carbonate rocks or suffosion processes. Sinkholes vary in size from 1 to 600 m both in diameter and depth, and vary in form from soil-lined bowls to bedrock-edged chasms, sinkholes may form gradually or suddenly, and are found worldwide. Sinkholes may capture surface drainage from running or standing water, but may form in high. Sinkholes that capture drainage can hold it in limestone caves. These caves may drain into tributaries of larger rivers, the formation of sinkholes involves natural processes of erosion or gradual removal of slightly soluble bedrock by percolating water, the collapse of a cave roof, or a lowering of the water table. Sinkholes often form through the process of suffosion, for example, groundwater may dissolve the carbonate cement holding the sandstone particles together and carry away the lax particles, gradually forming a void.
Occasionally a sinkhole may exhibit a visible opening into a cave below, sinkholes occur in sandstone and quartzite terrains. As the rock dissolves and caverns develop underground and these sinkholes can be dramatic, because the surface land usually stays intact until there is not enough support. Then, a collapse of the land surface can occur. Sinkholes form from human activity, such as the collapse of abandoned mines and salt cavern storage in salt domes in places like Louisiana, more commonly, sinkholes occur in urban areas due to water main breaks or sewer collapses when old pipes give way. They can occur from the overpumping and extraction of groundwater, sinkholes can form when natural water-drainage patterns are changed and new water-diversion systems are developed. Sinkholes tend to occur in karst landscapes, karst landscapes can have up to thousands of sinkholes within a small area, giving the landscape a pock-marked appearance. These sinkholes drain all the water, so there are only subterranean rivers in these areas, examples of karst landscapes with a plethora of massive sinkholes include Khammouan Mountains and Mamo Plateau.
The largest known sinkholes formed in sandstone are Sima Humboldt and Sima Martel in Venezuela, some sinkholes form in thick layers of homogenous limestone. On the contact of limestone and insoluble rock below it, powerful underground rivers may form, in such conditions, the largest known sinkholes of the world have formed, like the 662-metre deep Xiaozhai Tiankeng, giant sótanos in Querétaro and San Luis Potosí states in Mexico and others. The state of Florida in the United States is known for having frequent sinkhole collapses, the Murge area in southern Italy has numerous sinkholes. Sinkholes can be formed in retention ponds from large amounts of rain, an analysis of a case of sinkhole formation under a retention pond due to a large amount of rain can be seen in a sinkhole collapse study
Nullarbor, South Australia
The name and extent of the locality was officially established on 26 April 2013 in respect to the long established local name. Its name is derived from the use of Nullarbor in geographic features such as the Nullarbor Plain, the Eyre Highway is the major road passing throughout the locality to Western Australia. These provide services for tourists and travellers such as accommodation and vehicle fuel, Nullarbor is located within the federal Division of Grey, the state electoral districts of Flinders and Giles, and the unincorporated area of South Australia. List of cities and towns in South Australia Murrawijinie Cave Nullarbor Links
Ochre (/ˈoʊkər/ OH-kər, from Greek, ὠχρός, ōkhrós, or ocher, is a natural earth pigment containing hydrated iron oxide, which ranges in color from yellow to deep orange or brown. It is the name of the produced by this pigment. A variant of ochre containing an amount of hematite, or dehydrated iron oxide, has a reddish tint known as red ochre. Ochre is a family of pigments, which includes yellow ochre, red ochre, purple ochre, sienna. The major ingredient of all the ochres is iron oxide-hydroxide, known as limonite, which gives them a yellow color. Yellow ochre, FeO·nH 2O, is a hydrated iron hydroxide called gold ochre Red ochre, Fe 2O3, takes its color from the mineral hematite. Purple ochre, is identical to red ochre chemically but of a different hue caused by different light diffraction properties associated with an average particle size. Brown ochre, FeO, is a hydrated iron oxide. Sienna contains both limonite and an amount of manganese oxide, which makes it darker than ochre. Umber pigments contain a proportion of manganese which make them a dark brown.
When natural sienna and umber pigments are heated, they are dehydrated and some of the limonite is transformed into hematite, giving them more reddish colors, called burnt sienna and burnt umber. Ochres are non-toxic, and can be used to make an oil paint that dries quickly, modern ochre pigments often are made using synthetic iron oxide. Pigments which use natural ochre pigments indicate it with the name PY-43 on the label, pieces of ochre engraved with abstract designs have been found at the site of the Blombos Cave in South Africa, dated to around 75,000 years ago. In Wales, the paleolithic burial called the Red Lady of Paviland from its coating of red ochre has been dated to around 33,000 years before present. Paintings of animals made with red and yellow ochre pigments have been found in sites at Pech Merle in France. The cave of Lascaux has an image of a horse colored with yellow estimated to be 17,300 years old. In Ancient Egypt, yellow was associated with gold, which was considered to be eternal, the skin and bones of the gods were believed to be made of gold.
The Egyptians used yellow extensively in tomb painting, though occasionally they used orpiment