Shire of Cardwell
The Shire of Cardwell was a local government area of Queensland. It was located on the Coral Sea coast about halfway between the cities of Townsville; the shire, administered from the town of Tully, covered an area of 3,062.2 square kilometres, existed as a local government entity from 1884 until 2008, when it amalgamated with the Shire of Johnstone to form the Cassowary Coast Region. The shire had responsibility for some Great Barrier Reef islands, including Dunk Island, Goold Island and Hinchinbrook Island; the area's economy is based on agriculture, in particular sugar and bananas, tourism. Part of the Wet Tropics of Queensland and Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Sites are located in Cardwell Shire; the Hinchinbrook Division was created on 11 November 1879 as one of 74 divisions around Queensland under the Divisional Boards Act 1879. On 18 January 1884, part of the Hinchinbrook Division was separated to create the new Cardwell Division. In 1892, the Cardwell Divisional Board built the Cardwell Divisional Board Hall at 51 Victoria Street, Cardwell.
At that time, Cardwell was regarded as the major town in the division. With the passage of the Local Authorities Act 1902, Cardwell Division became the Shire of Cardwell on 31 March 1903; the divisional board hall became known as the Cardwell Shire Council Chambers. To commemorate those who served in World War I, an honour board was erected in the Shire Council Chambers in 1922. Composed of marble, it lists 2 nurses from the local community; the inclusion of nurses is such a memorial is uncommon. In 1929, the decision was taken to relocate the shire council's headquarters to the newer but more populous town of Tully; the first council meeting held in Tully was on 27 June 1929. A new shire chambers was built in 1930 on the south-east corner of Bryant and Morris Streets in Tully; the former shire chambers in Cardwell was used by the Queensland Country Women's Association and by the Returned Sailors' Soldiers' and Airmen's Imperial League of Australia. From 1989 to 2008, the building was used as a library.
It became the J. C. Hubinger Memorial Museum; the presence of the honour board means that the building has been the community focus for Anzac Day ceremonies throughout the years. Given its historical and cultural significance, the building was listed on the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 March 2013. In 1978, the shire chambers in Tully were replaced with the present council chambers. On 15 March 2008, under the Local Government Act 2007 passed by the Parliament of Queensland on 10 August 2007, the Shire of Cardwell merged with the Shire of Johnstone to form the Cassowary Coast Region; the Shire of Cardwell included the following settlements: 1884: James Thorn Senior 1902: Peter Smith 1903—1904: Johann Christian Hubinger 1908: Johann Christian Hubinger 1909: Mr Hubinger 1910: Mr Kennedy 1914: Mr Stamp 1915: Arthur Henry 1921—1924: Brice Henry 1924—1931: James Thorn 1931—1933: Julius August Winter 1933—1936: Chris Teitzel 1936—1940: Brice Henry 1940: P. White 1943—1954: Charles Dickinson 1985—1991: Atte Raccanello 2004—2008: Giuseppe GaleanoGladys Henry was the first female council member, serving between 1976 and 1982.
Jones, Dorothy. Council. Cardwell Shire story. Published for the Cardwell Shire Council the Jacaranda Press. ISBN 978-0-7016-0406-6. University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Cardwell Shire
The Apsley Falls are two waterfalls on the Apsley River in the Northern Tablelands region of New South Wales, Australia. The falls are located about 20 kilometres east of Walcha, 1 kilometre off the Oxley Highway in a deep gorge, part of the Oxley Wild Rivers National Park, they are the first falls in a succession of dramatic drops in an area that has some of the most remarkable scenery in Eastern Australia. The first drop of the falls is about 65 metres in depth, the second, about 800 metres further on, plummets 58 metres metres to the bottom of the gorge. Aboriginal people tell the story of how the Rainbow Serpent created the gorge at Apsley Falls in the Dreamtime; the Rainbow Serpent is said to travel underground from the base of the falls to reappear 20 km upstream at the Mill Hole on the Apsley River in Walcha. The site is now marked at the Mill Hole by the Rainbow Serpent mosaic made with the help of the local Aboriginal community. Apart from Aboriginal significance of the area as a meeting place, John Oxley passed by the falls on 13 September 1818 and he named them the Bathurst Falls.
He described it as “one of the most magnificent waterfalls we have seen”. Oxley named the Apsley River and wrote in his journal that he was "lost in astonishment at the sight of this wonderful natural sublimity". In 1902 three men, Ted Baker, Jim McMillan and "Wattie" Joiner built the wooden stairway that zigzagged its way from the top of the gorge to the water's edge. All timber used in this dangerous and mammoth task was hand dressed with an axe and adze by this trio; the original stairway was used until 1932, when it was declared unsafe and demolished. Quite some time after parts of this stairway rotted and became dangerous, the Walcha Lions Club set about the huge task of erecting a steel staircase and viewing platform to halfway down the gorge. One of the Lions, Lindsay McMillan, designed the steel structure and platform. All materials were supplied by the Walcha Shire Council and it took the Lions Club members 1,745 hours to complete the job during 1961; the Lions were internationally, justly, recognised for their tremendous contribution here.
The official opening of the scenic stairway was on 14 October 1961 by the state member for Armidale, Davis Hughes. The sheer sided walls of the upper Apsley Gorge are caused by the slate in this area which splits vertically; the gorge rim supports a vegetation of forest and woodland with a limited understorey of shrubby plants. Common plants include a number of wattles, Acacia amoena, Acacia dealbata, Acacia filicifolia and green wattles, plus tea trees, Eucalyptus caliginosa, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus nicholii, forest red gum, Eucalyptus melliodora, Dipodium punctatum, Hakea fraseri, Jacksonia scoparia and daisy bush. Wedge-tailed eagles may be seen soaring on the thermals in the area. Kangaroos, crimson rosellas, echidnas known as "spiny anteaters" and wallabies frequent the area. Since the National Parks and Wildlife Service took over they have constructed additional lookouts and walkways to view and photograph this magnificent gorge and the two falls. There are several short walks that can be taken from the car parks and these are highlighted in the information shelter erected in the area near the toilet facilities.
The main falls and gorge can be viewed from several lookouts which are accessed via stairs from the car park. In addition the Oxley Walk is a 2.7 km, 1½ hours walk on a sealed walkway, which crosses the river via a footbridge continues around the northern side of the gorge. A further lookout offers fine views of the main falls and the track continues past another three lookouts, where one can view a second waterfall and the dramatic cliffs of the chasm; this bridge was washed away in a flood on 28 December 2009, but the replacement was opened in June 2012. Good facilities are available for caravan or tent campers, including fire wood, interpretive information, hardened walking tracks, access for disabled people, ten viewing platforms, Aboriginal history and fauna. A small camping fee applies. Dogs and other domestic pets are not allowed. List of waterfalls of New South Wales Where They Grow Old Gracefully - Walcha District Hospital Centenary, 1892-1992 by co-authors: E L Hogan, OAM, JP and G J Reynolds.
"Walcha's National Parks". Walcha Tourism site. Archived from the original on 2014-05-13. "Apsley, Stoney Creek and Tia Falls". Walcha Shire Council official site. "Apsley Falls picnic area - Walcha". Visit NSW. "Apsley Gorge National Park, Oxley Hwy, Walcha, NSW, Australia". Australian Heritage Database. Australian Government. 21 March 1978
Nightcap National Park
The Nightcap National Park is a national park located in the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales, Australia. The 8,080-hectare park is situated 35 kilometres north of Lismore; the national park is classed by the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas as Category II and is part of the Shield Volcano Group of the World Heritage Site Gondwana Rainforests of Australia inscribed in 1986 and added to the Australian National Heritage List in 2007. The Nightcap Range is located within the national park; the park is on the south-eastern edge of the Mount Warning erosion caldera. Creating features of gullies, ridges and a massif of peaks that form the eroded remnants of the Tweed shield volcano; the tallest peak at Nightcap is Mount Burrell known as Blue Knob with an elevation of 933m above sea level. The Nightcap Range is situated in the park and is a spur off the Great Dividing Range; the basalt and rhyolite lava that once flowed from the Tweed volcano, which erupted over 23 million years ago, has produced various vegetation communities.
On soil with a rhyolitic base is warm temperate rainforest that covers much of the park, the nutrient rich basalt soil produces sub-tropical rainforest. Nightcap has the highest rainfall in NSW with rain exceeding 2500mm per annum; the mean temperature ranges from 19.1 °C to 29.7 °C. High rainfall events and storms of cyclonic strength can occur during the summer. Several Aboriginal communities inhabited the region and a spiritual connection to the land, including the Nganduwal people, Galibal and Widjabal speaking peoples; the Widjabal people lived at Nightcap Range for at least 4000 years. The region is the base for the Bundjalung nation; the park provides rock shelters for the Aboriginal people. The park's landscapes and animals feature prominently in Aboriginal culture and dreaming stories and there are sacred sites of cultural significance in the area. Before it became a national park, it provided the historic link between the Richmond and Tweed valleys known as the Historic Nightcap Track.
It provided the first bridle track in 1871 and as of 1874 a telegraph line between the two valleys. A section of this historic link is now part of a walking track at the park; the beginning of the modern conservation movement involving direct action occurred during 1972 to 1982 in the upper Northern Rivers region. The conservation campaigns started in an attempt to prevent further logging of the rainforest in the region. Terania Creek at Nightcap was the site of the first rainforest anti-logging demonstrations in Australia. By 1979 the campaign against logging increased in intensity, starting an event known as the three-year Rainforest War involving a group of dedicated activists being supported by former NSW Premier Neville Wran."So overpowering was the draw of these trees that people risked their lives. A spirit of transformation emanated from the forest." - Ian Cohen, Green MLC, 1997 Nightcap became a national park in 1983 under the Forestry Revocation and National Park Reservation Act 1983 involving an area of the former Goonimbar State Forest.
The remainder of Goonimbar SF and part of Whian Whian SF were added to the national park that year. By 1989 UNESCO created world heritage protection for 41 reserves in south-eastern Queensland and north-eastern NSW including the western half of Nightcap; the world heritage area is known as the Gondwana Rainforests of Australia that protects several remnants of subtropical rainforest with high biodiversity and unique geological landforms, with evolutionary links to Gondwana. In 2009 BirdLife International identified the Nightcap Range as important bird and biodiversity areas; the Nightcap Range IBA includes Nightcap NP, Mount Jerusalem NP, Goonengerry NP and Whian Whian State Conservation Area. It has been recognised for its populations of Albert's lyrebird, green catbird, pale-yellow robin, Australian logrunner, paradise riflebird and regent bowerbird. 70% of Nightcap NP is covered by a variety of rainforest communities, the rest is covered by wet sclerophyll forest and dry sclerophyll forest.
The park supports lowland species of the former Big Scrub, the largest area of subtropical lowland rainforest, intensively cleared. Of all the known native vascular flora in NSW about 10% of it can be found here with 72 that are identified as threatened with extinction; the park supports a rich diversity of species that includes more than 40 species of mammals, 27 reptiles, 23 frogs, over 140 bird species, over 650 known plant species including numerous ferns and various orchids, a diverse variety of fungus and lichens. As of 2011, Forests of East Australia became the 35th Biodiversity Hotspot, which includes Nightcap NP; the concept of the Biodiversity Hotspot is that there are "exceptional concentrations of endemic species that are undergoing exceptional loss of habitat". Spotted-tailed quoll is an endangered species listed on the EPBC Act, it is a medium-sized marsupial carnivore, the largest of the Dasyurus species, distinguished by the white spots on the tail. The koala is listed as vulnerable under the EPBC Act.
The Parma wallaby is listed as vulnerable in NSW under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995, is a small nocturnal, cryptic wallaby, once thought to be extinct. Another species listed as vulnerable under the TSC Act is the yellow-bellied glider found in
The Bruce Highway is a major highway in Queensland, Australia. Commencing in the state capital, Brisbane, it passes through areas close to the eastern coast on its way to Cairns in Far North Queensland; the route is part of the Australian National Highway and part of Highway 1. Its length is 1,679 kilometres; the highway is named after Harry Bruce. Bruce was the state Minister for Works when the highway was named after him, in the mid-1930s, was considered to be a good bloke; the highway once passed through Brisbane, but was truncated at Bald Hills when the Gateway Motorway became National Highway 1 upon its opening in December 1986. The highway is the biggest traffic carrier in Queensland, it joined all the major coastal centres. As a result, the highway is being shortened; the road is a dual carriageway from Brisbane to Cooroy with some dual carriageway lengths at Gympie, many of these upgrades being completed in the 1980s and 1990s. The highway commences just south of the bridge over the Pine River at the Gateway Motorway interchange, 21 kilometres north of the Brisbane central business district.
The highway has changed its route numbering from National Highway 1 to the M1 or A1. Major cities along the route include Maryborough, Mackay and Cairns; the highway passes the Glasshouse Mountains and pastures in the Sunshine Coast, the Gunalda Range, Mount Larcom, the arid countryside north of Rockhampton. Commencing in Bald Hills at the junction of the Gateway Motorway and Gympie Arterial Road, the Bruce Highway is a motorway standard road for its first 136 kilometres to Kybong, where it becomes a two-lane sealed highway for most of its remainder; the first 2.5 kilometres to the Dohles Rocks Road interchange has eight lanes and a variable speed limit of up to 100 kilometres per hour. The next 22 kilometres to the Caboolture / Bribie Island interchange has six lanes and a maximum speed limit of 100 kilometres per hour. From there to Kybong the road has four lanes and, with one short exception, a speed limit of 110 kilometres per hour; this section of the Bruce Highway crosses the Pine River into the Moreton Bay Region, passing through urban areas before crossing the Caboolture River and reaching the Caboolture / Bribie Island interchange after 24.5 kilometres.
It runs past or through Murrumba Downs, Kallangur, Mango Hill, North Lakes, Narangba and Morayfield. On the way it is crossed by the Redcliffe Peninsula railway line and passes the Caboolture BP Travel Centre; the Caboolture / Bribie Island interchange provides access to the D'Aguilar Highway via a service road. After the D'Aguilar Highway interchange the Bruce passes through rural areas and the Beerburrum and Beerwah State Forests, entering the Sunshine Coast Region before reaching the Caloundra Road interchange after a further 36.1 kilometres. It passes the southern entry to Steve Irwin Way, a bypassed section of the highway, which provides access to Beerburrum, Glass House Mountains, Australia Zoo and Landsborough before terminating at the Caloundra Road interchange; the next 5.6 kilometres to the Sunshine Motorway interchange, providing access to the Sunshine Coast, has a speed limit of 100. The speed limit reverts to 110. After another 7.5 kilometres the Maroochydore Road interchange provides access to Maroochydore and Woombye.
The Bli Bli Road interchange, after a further 7 kilometres, provides access to Bli Nambour. The Yandina -- Coolum Road interchange, after 6.7 kilometres, provides access to Coolum. The Eumundi interchange, after 8.4 kilometres, provides access to Noosa. The Cooroy interchange, after 7.2 kilometres, provides access to Cooroy and Noosa. Total distance from Caloundra Road to this interchange is 42.4 kilometres. The 33 kilometres to the end of the M1 at Kybong includes three interchanges that provide access to the Old Bruce Highway. From Kybong the highway is designated A1, it has numerous parts with lower speed limits, including urban areas, high crash zones and roadwork sites. After 8 kilometres from Kybong the Mary Valley Road interchange provides access to the west of the Mary River; the highway passes through the Gympie urban fringe, with several at grade intersections providing access to various parts of the city. North of Gympie, 14.3 kilometres from the Mary Valley Road interchange, the Wide Bay Highway interchange is reached, providing access to Kilkivan.
Total distance from the Cooroy interchange is 55.4 kilometres. The 73.9 kilometres from the Wide Bay Highway interchange to the Maryborough–Biggenden Road interchange at Maryborough passes through Tiaro and the Gympie Road exit to Maryborough before crossing the Mary River. With the completion of Section C of the Bruce Highway - Cooroy to Curra upgrade project in February 2018 the M1 has now been extended to Kybong, 10 kilometres south of Gympie; the Bruce Highway from Kybong to Gympie remains signed as A1. Section D of the project (Wo
Cassowary Coast Region
The Cassowary Coast Region is a local government area in the Far North Queensland region of Queensland, south of Cairns and centred on the towns of Innisfail and Tully. It was created in 2008 from a merger of the Shire of Johnstone; the Regional Council, which administers the Region, has an estimated operating budget of A$64 million. Prior to the 2008 amalgamation, the Cassowary Coast Region consisted of the entire area of two previous local government areas: the Shire of Cardwell and the Shire of JohnstoneThe Hinchinbrook Division was created on 11 November 1879 as one of 74 divisions around Queensland under the Divisional Boards Act 1879. On 28 October 1881, the Johnstone Division split away from it. On 18 January 1884, the Cardwell Division split away. With the passage of the Local Authorities Act 1902, both Cardwell and Johnstone became shires on 31 March 1903. In July 2007, the Local Government Reform Commission released its report and recommended that Cardwell and Johnstone merge. Cardwell was in particular opposed because Johnstone was rated as "financially distressed" and its council had just been sacked by the state government.
On 15 March 2008, the two shires formally ceased to exist, elections were held on the same day to elect six councillors and a mayor to the Regional Council. 2008 - 2016: Bill Shannon 2016 -: John Kremastos Although the commission recommended the council be undivided with six councillors and a mayor, the gazetted form was that of six divisions each electing a single councillor, plus a mayor. Those elected on April 2016 were: Mayor: John Kremastos Division 1 councillor: Glenn Raleigh Division 2 councillor: Rick Taylor Division 3 councillor: Wayne Kimberley Division 4 councillor: Mark Nolan Division 5 councillor: Jeff Baines Division 6 councillor: Ben Heath The Cassowary Coast Region includes the following settlements: 1 - shared with Cairns Region2 - shared with Tablelands Region3 - shared with Cairns Region and Tablelands Region The Cassowary Coast Regional Council operate public libraries in Cardwell, Tully and Wongaling Beach; the populations given relate to the component entities prior to 2008.
The next census, due in 2011, will be the first for the new Region. As part of preparing the Cassowary Coast Planning Scheme 2014, the council consulted with the region's heritage groups to compile a list of local heritage places. 2008 Election results – Mayoral 2008 Election results – Councillors University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Cassowary Coast Regional Council "Cassowary Coast Regional Council: Local Heritage Places". Cassowary Coast Regional Council. May 2013. Archived from the original on 26 May 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014
Australian Broadcasting Corporation
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation is Australia's national broadcaster founded in 1929. It is principally funded by direct grants from the Australian government, but is expressly independent of government and partisan politics; the ABC plays a leading role in journalistic independence and is fundamental in the history of broadcasting in Australia. Modelled on the BBC in the United Kingdom, it was financed by consumer licence fees on broadcasting receivers. Licence fees were abolished in 1973 and replaced principally by direct government grants, as well as revenue from commercial activities related to its core broadcasting mission; the ABC now provides television, radio and mobile services throughout metropolitan and regional Australia and overseas through ABC Australia and Radio Australia. The ABC headquarters is in an inner-city suburb of Sydney, New South Wales. Founded in 1929 as the Australian Broadcasting Company, the ABC was a Government licensed consortium of private entertainment and content providers, authorised under supervision to broadcast on the airwaves using a two-tiered system.
The "A" system derived its funds from the licence fees levied on the purchasers of the radio receivers, with an emphasis on building the radio wave infrastructure into regional and remote areas, whilst the "B" system relied on privateers and their capacity to establish viable enterprises using the new technology. Following the general downward economic trends of the era, as entrepreneurial ventures in National infrastructure struggled with viability, the "Company" was subsequently acquired to become a state-owned corporation on 1 July 1932 and renamed as Australian Broadcasting Commission, re-aligning more to the British, BBC model; the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983 changed the name of the organisation to the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, effective 1 July 1983. Although funded and owned by the government, the ABC remains editorially independent as ensured through the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983; the ABC is sometimes informally referred to as "Aunty" in imitation of the British Broadcasting Corporation's nickname.
The first public radio station in Australia opened in Sydney on 23 November 1923 under the call sign 2SB with other stations in Melbourne, Adelaide and Hobart following. A licensing scheme, administered by the Postmaster-General's Department, was soon established allowing certain stations government funding, albeit with restrictions placed on their advertising content. Following a 1927 royal commission inquiry into radio licensing issues, the government established the National Broadcasting Service which subsequently took over a number of the larger funded stations, it nationalised the Australian Broadcasting Company, created by entertainment interests to supply programs to various radio stations. On 1 July 1932, the Australian Broadcasting Commission was established, taking over the operations of the National Broadcasting Service and establishing offices in each of Australia's capital cities. Over the next four years the stations were reformed into a cohesive broadcasting organisation through regular program relays, coordinated by a centralised bureaucracy.
The Australian broadcast radio spectrum was constituted of the commercial sector. News broadcasts were restricted, due to pressure from Sir Keith Murdoch, who controlled many Australian newspapers. However, journalists such as Frank Dixon and John Hinde began to subvert the agreements in the late 1930s. In 1939, Warren Denning was appointed to Canberra as the first ABC political correspondent, after Murdoch had refused to allow his newspapers to cover a speech by Joseph Lyons. In 1942 The Australian Broadcasting Act was passed, giving the ABC the power to decide when, in what circumstances, political speeches should be broadcast. Directions from the Minister about whether or not to broadcast any matter now had to be made in writing, any exercise of the power had to be mentioned in the Commission's Annual Report, it was used only once, in 1963. In the same year, "Kindergarten of the Air" began on ABC Radio in Perth, was broadcast nationally. In 1944 18-year-old Patricia Delaney, of Sydney, was the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's only girl cadet announcer, the youngest member of announcing staff.
Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 1920-1949 The ABC commenced television broadcasting in 1956, followed the earlier radio practice of naming the station after the first letter of the base state. ABN-2 Sydney was inaugurated by Prime Minister Robert Menzies on 5 November 1956, with the first broadcast presented by Michael Charlton, James Dibble reading the first television news bulletin. ABV-2 followed two weeks on 18 November 1956. Stations in other capital cities followed: ABQ-2, ABS-2, ABW-2, ABT-2. ABC-3 Canberra opened in 1961, ABD-6 started broadcasting in 1971, both named after the base city. Although radio programs could be distributed nationally by landline, television relay facilities were not in place until the early 1960s; this meant that news bulletins had to be sent to each capital city by teleprinter, to be prepared and presented separately in each city, with filmed materials copied manually and sent to each state. Other television programs at the time included the popular Six O'Clock Rock hosted by Johnny O'Keefe, Mr. Squiggle, as well as operas and plays.
In 1973 New South Wales Rugby League boss Kevin Humphreys negotiated rugby league's first television deal with the ABC. In 1975, colour television was
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli