Zoe Leonard is an American artist who works with photography and sculpture. She has exhibited since the late 1980s and her work has been included in a number of seminal exhibitions including Documenta IX and Documenta XII, the 1993, 1997 and 2014 Whitney biennials. Leonard was born in 1961 in New York. At 16, she started taking photographs, she has spent most of her adult life living in New York City, whose built environment has been the subject matter of much of her work Leonard became well-known internationally following her installation at Documenta IX in 1992. From her earliest aerial photographs to her images of museum displays, anatomical models, fashion shows, much of Leonard's work reflects on the framing and ordering of vision, she explains in a recent interview: "Rather than any one subject or genre, I was, remain, interested in engaging a simultaneous questioning of both subject and vantage point, the relation between viewer and world — in short and how it informs our experience of the world."Leonard was active in AIDS advocacy and queer politics in New York in the 1980s and 1990s.
In 1992 she wrote "I want a president," a poem inspired by Eileen Myles's run for president. In 1995 she staged an exhibition at her studio on the Lower East Side of Manhattan which featured the work Strange Fruit, an installation of various fruit skins that Leonard saved and sewed together by hand with wire and thread. Strange Fruit grew out of a personal response to the losses of the AIDS epidemic and as a meditation on mourning, it became a seminal work of the 1990s. Strange Fruit was exhibited in 1998 at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, where it resides. During the mid-1990s Leonard spent two years living in a remote part of Alaska, an experience that influenced much of her artwork, which foregrounds relationships between humans and the natural world. Trees are a motif in Leonard's work: examples include a "reconstructed" tree that she installed in Vienna's Secession in 1997 as well as numerous photographs of urban trees mangled in chain-link and razor wire fences. Between 1998 and 2009 Leonard worked on Analogue, a monumental project consisting of an installation of 412 C-prints and gelatin silver prints and a portfolio of 40 dye-transfer prints.
Influenced by Eugène Atget and Walker Evans but born out of a 21st-century re-consideration of the role of photography, Analogue explores transformations in global labor and social relationships in parallel with the shift from analogue to digital image-making. Holland Cotter described the experience of the work in The New York Times in 2009: "In her straight-ahead photographs of storefronts, an arrangement of shoes or shrink-wrapped furniture becomes a vanitas still life. A hand-painted shop sign becomes a relic. Over several photographs, we sense that an unnamed neighborhood — Ms. Leonard expanded her field work to include East Harlem, Bedford-Stuyvesant and Crown Heights — is packing up to leave. A city's material culture is doing a vanishing act, and where is the material going? Back to a version of the world it came from. Many of the cut-rate goods sold in the Lower East Side shops originated in urban sweatshops in China and Pakistan and are passed on as surplus to other poor cities in Africa and Central America.
In the wraparound grid of pictures in Analogue we follow recycled clothes from Brooklyn to the city of Kampala in Uganda, where they are sold as new in stores like the Money Is Life House of Garments."Analogue was first exhibited in 2007 at the Wexner Center for the Arts in Columbus, at Documenta XII in Kassel, followed by presentations at Villa Arson in Nice, Dia at the Hispanic Society and the Museum of Modern Art in New York and was included in a touring retrospective of Leonard's work which originated in 2007 at the Fotomuseum Winterthur, traveled to the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Madrid. Analogue is in the collection of The Museum of New York and the Reina Sofia, Madrid. More recent exhibitions have included Serialities at Hauser & Wirth, You See I Am Here After All at Dia: Beacon, Observation Point, Camden Arts Centre, London, an installation at the Chinati Foundation, Marfa and the 2014 Whitney Biennial, for which Leonard won the Bucksbaum Award with her work "945 Madison Avenue."
In 2018, the Whitney Museum of American Art mounted Leonard's first career retrospective in the United States, an exhibition organized by the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, where the show traveled in late 2018. An insightful writer and a pre-eminent thinker on the discipline of photography, texts by Leonard have appeared in LTTR, Texte zur Kunst, in recent monographs on Agnes Martin, James Castle and Josiah McElheny. - Information: Zoe Leonard, Galerie Gisela Capitain, Cologne | ASIN B005MJ5M9I - Strange Fruit, Paula Cooper Gallery, NY | ASIN B0006PFWNY - Zoe Leonard, Kunsthalle Basel, Basel - Zoe Leonard, Vienna - Zoe Leonard, Centre national de la photographie, France - Analogue, Wexner Center for the Arts, Columbus, OH, MIT Press | ISBN 978-0262122955 - Zoe Leonard: Photographs, Fotomuseum Winterthur
Drawing is a form of visual art in which a person uses various drawing instruments to mark paper or another two-dimensional medium. Instruments include graphite pencils and ink, various kinds of paints, inked brushes, colored pencils, charcoal, pastels, various kinds of erasers, markers and various metals. Digital drawing is the act of using a computer to draw. Common methods of digital drawing include a stylus or finger on a touchscreen device, stylus- or finger-to-touchpad, or in some cases, a mouse. There are many digital art devices. A drawing instrument releases a small amount of material onto a surface; the most common support for drawing is paper, although other materials, such as cardboard, plastic, leather and board, may be used. Temporary drawings may be made on a blackboard or whiteboard or indeed anything; the medium has been a fundamental means of public expression throughout human history. It is one of most efficient means of communicating visual ideas; the wide availability of drawing instruments makes drawing one of the most common artistic activities.
In addition to its more artistic forms, drawing is used in commercial illustration, architecture and technical drawing. A quick, freehand drawing not intended as a finished work, is sometimes called a sketch. An artist who practices or works in technical drawing may be called a drafter, draftsman or a draughtsman. Drawing is one of the oldest forms of human expression within the visual arts, it is concerned with the marking of lines and areas of tone onto paper/other material, where the accurate representation of the visual world is expressed upon a plane surface. Traditional drawings were monochrome, or at least had little colour, while modern colored-pencil drawings may approach or cross a boundary between drawing and painting. In Western terminology, drawing is distinct from painting though similar media are employed in both tasks. Dry media associated with drawing, such as chalk, may be used in pastel paintings. Drawing may be done with a liquid medium, applied with pens. Similar supports can serve both: painting involves the application of liquid paint onto prepared canvas or panels, but sometimes an underdrawing is drawn first on that same support.
Drawing is exploratory, with considerable emphasis on observation, problem-solving and composition. Drawing is regularly used in preparation for a painting, further obfuscating their distinction. Drawings created. There are several categories of drawing, including figure drawing, cartooning and freehand. There are many drawing methods, such as line drawing, shading, the surrealist method of entopic graphomania, tracing. A quick, unrefined drawing may be called a sketch. In fields outside art, technical drawings or plans of buildings, machinery and other things are called "drawings" when they have been transferred to another medium by printing. Drawing is one of the oldest forms of human expression, with evidence for its existence preceding that of written communication, it is believed that drawing was used as a specialised form of communication before the invention of the written language, demonstrated by the production of cave and rock paintings around 30,000 years ago. These drawings, known as pictograms, depicted abstract concepts.
The sketches and paintings produced by Neolithic times were stylised and simplified in to symbol systems and into early writing systems. Before the widespread availability of paper, 12th-century monks in European monasteries used intricate drawings to prepare illustrated, illuminated manuscripts on vellum and parchment. Drawing has been used extensively in the field of science, as a method of discovery and explanation. In 1609, astronomer Galileo Galilei explained the changing phases of the moon through his observational telescopic drawings. In 1924, geophysicist Alfred Wegener used illustrations to visually demonstrate the origin of the continents. Drawing is used to express one's creativity, therefore has been prominent in the world of art. Throughout much of history, drawing was regarded as the foundation for artistic practice. Artists used and reused wooden tablets for the production of their drawings. Following the widespread availability of paper in the 14th century, the use of drawing in the arts increased.
At this point, drawing was used as a tool for thought and investigation, acting as a study medium whilst artists were preparing for their final pieces of work. The Renaissance brought about a great sophistication in drawing techniques, enabling artists to represent things more realistically than before, revealing an interest in geometry and philosophy; the invention of the first available form of photography led to a shift in the hierarchy of the arts. Photography offered an alternative to drawing as a method for representing visual phenomena, traditional drawing practice was given less emphasis as an essential skill for artists so in Western society. Drawing became significant as an art form around the late 15th century, with artists and master engravers such as Albrecht Dürer and Martin Schongauer, the first Northern engraver known by name. Schongauer came from Alsac
Lucy Skaer is a contemporary Scottish artist who works with sculpture, film and drawing. Her work has been exhibited internationally. Skaer is a member of the Henry VIII’s Wives artist collective, has exhibited a number of works with the group, she lives and works in Glasgow and London. Skaer was born in Cambridge, she studied Fine Art at Glasgow School of Art from 1993 to 1997. Lucy Skaer's works depicts relationships between abstraction and the direct material nature of objects. Many of her works are replicas of historical objects which are translated and re-contextualized in new mediums. Skaer's work has had a strong engagement with images and historical objects depicting archaeology, the English landscape, British Empire, Neolithic architecture as her 2008 installation, The Siege. Much of Skaer's work consists of objects which interact with and change public spaces. In one piece, she took up a paving stone on Glasgow's Buchanan Street and had the Earl of Glasgow ceremoniously lay down a replacement, while in an Amsterdam-based piece, she left a diamond and a scorpion side-by-side on a pavement.
She has secretly hidden moth and butterfly pupae in criminal courts in the hope that they will hatch in mid-trial. In 2003, Skaer was shortlisted for the Beck's Futures prize. In 2008, Skaer was the subject of a retrospective of her works since 2001 at the Fruitmarket Gallery in Edinburgh, Scotland which included newly commissioned work, a comprehensive monograph book was published to accompany the show. In April 2009, Skaer was shortlisted for the prestigious Turner Prize for the sculptures Black Alphabet, Leviathan Edge, an installation which included the skull of a sperm whale and sculptures.. Skaer has made a number of 16mm films with the British artist Rosalind Nashashibi including Flash in the Metropolitan in 2006, which depicts the artifacts and artworks of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York as they appeared in a dimmed light of the museum interrupted by the flashes of a strobe; the two have collaborated on the films Our Pygmalion Event, as well as several others. Skaer is represented by Murray Guy in New York.
52nd Venice Biennale, Scottish Show, 2007 Fruitmarket Gallery, Edinburgh, 2008 Turner Prize Exhibition, Finalist, 2009 "A Boat Used As A Vessel", Kunsthalle Basel, Switzerland, April 2009 – June 2009. "Rachael, Caitlin, John." Location One, New York, 2010. Rosalind Nashashibi/ Skaer, Murray Guy, 2010 "Reanimation. Nashashibi/Skaer." Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh, PA, 2010. The Centre Pompidou, 2010. "Film for an Abandoned Projector." Leeds, UK, 2011. "Harlequin is as Harlequin Does." Murray Guy, New York, 2012. "Scene, Ballast," SculptureCenter, New York, 2012. "Flash in the Metropolitan", Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 2012. "Lucy Skaer," Mount Stuart House, June–Oct 2013. "Lucy Skaer," Yale Union, Portland, OR, July–September 2013. "Lucy Skaer, Available Fonts", KW, October 2017 – January 2018. "Lucy Skaer: The Green Man", Talbot Rice Gallery, Edinburgh, 26 July – 6 October 2018. Vitamin D: New perspectives in drawing. London: Phaidon. 2005. Interview for "Rachael, Caitlin, John." Location One, NY. 2010.
Saatchi Gallery Additional information on Lucy Skaer including artworks, text panels and full biography Interview with Lucy Skaer from MAP Magazine
Photography is the art and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film. It is employed in many fields of science and business, as well as its more direct uses for art and video production, recreational purposes and mass communication. A lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel, electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing; the result with photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, chemically "developed" into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing.
The word "photography" was created from the Greek roots φωτός, genitive of φῶς, "light" and γραφή "representation by means of lines" or "drawing", together meaning "drawing with light". Several people may have coined the same new term from these roots independently. Hercules Florence, a French painter and inventor living in Campinas, used the French form of the word, photographie, in private notes which a Brazilian historian believes were written in 1834; this claim is reported but has never been independently confirmed as beyond reasonable doubt. The German newspaper Vossische Zeitung of 25 February 1839 contained an article entitled Photographie, discussing several priority claims – Henry Fox Talbot's – regarding Daguerre's claim of invention; the article is the earliest known occurrence of the word in public print. It was signed "J. M.", believed to have been Berlin astronomer Johann von Maedler. The inventors Nicéphore Niépce, Henry Fox Talbot and Louis Daguerre seem not to have known or used the word "photography", but referred to their processes as "Heliography", "Photogenic Drawing"/"Talbotype"/"Calotype" and "Daguerreotype".
Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries, relating to seeing an image and capturing the image. The discovery of the camera obscura that provides an image of a scene dates back to ancient China. Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid independently described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experiments; the Arab physicist Ibn al-Haytham invented a camera obscura and pinhole camera. Leonardo da Vinci mentions natural camera obscura that are formed by dark caves on the edge of a sunlit valley. A hole in the cave wall will act as a pinhole camera and project a laterally reversed, upside down image on a piece of paper. Renaissance painters used the camera obscura which, in fact, gives the optical rendering in color that dominates Western Art, it is a box with a hole in it which allows light to go through and create an image onto the piece of paper.
The birth of photography was concerned with inventing means to capture and keep the image produced by the camera obscura. Albertus Magnus discovered silver nitrate, Georg Fabricius discovered silver chloride, the techniques described in Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics are capable of producing primitive photographs using medieval materials. Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1566. Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals in 1694; the fiction book Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, described what can be interpreted as photography. Around the year 1800, British inventor Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance, he used paper or white leather treated with silver nitrate. Although he succeeded in capturing the shadows of objects placed on the surface in direct sunlight, made shadow copies of paintings on glass, it was reported in 1802 that "the images formed by means of a camera obscura have been found too faint to produce, in any moderate time, an effect upon the nitrate of silver."
The shadow images darkened all over. The first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed in a attempt to make prints from it. Niépce was successful again in 1825. In 1826 or 1827, he made the View from the Window at Le Gras, the earliest surviving photograph from nature; because Niépce's camera photographs required an long exposure, he sought to improve his bitumen process or replace it with one, more practical. In partnership with Louis Daguerre, he worked out post-exposure processing methods that produced visually superior results and replaced the bitumen with a more light-sensitive resin, but hours of exposure in the camera were still required. With an eye to eventual commercial exploitation, the partners opted for total secrecy. Niépce died in 1833 and Daguerre redirected the experiments toward the light-sensitive silver halides, which Niépce had abandoned many years earlier because of his inability to make the images he captured with them light-fast and permanent.
University of Sunderland
The University of Sunderland is a university located in Sunderland in the North East of England. Its predecessor, Sunderland Technical College, was established as a municipal training college in 1901, it gained university status in 1992. It now has campuses in Sunderland and Hong Kong; the university has 13,020 students and was one of six universities to be short-listed for'University of the Year' in the Times Higher Education Supplement Awards 2012. Sunderland has been an important centre for education since 674 AD, when Benedict Biscop built St Peter's Church and monastery. St Peter's Church was the site of the greatest scriptorium north of the Alps; the oldest existing Latin version of the Bible – the Codex Amiatinus – was written at St Peter's Church. This area has been developed as the Sir Tom Cowie Campus at St Peter's of the University of Sunderland; the University's £9m state-of-the-art Media Centre, launched in 2004, is near St Peter's Church. The university's modern roots can be traced back to 1901, when Sunderland Technical College was established as a municipal training college.
It was the first to offer sandwich courses. Pharmacy and naval architecture departments were established in 1922 respectively; the Pharmacy Department began as a single bench in the Chemistry Department, but soon grew to become the largest in the country. From 1930, some students in the Faculty of Applied Science read for degrees of the University of Durham. In 1930, a Mining Department was established and pharmacy students could read for the Bachelor of Pharmacy degree of the University of London. Sunderland was recognised by London University as a centre for its BEng degree in 1934. During the Second World War, Sunderland ran special courses for the armed forces and the Ministry of Labour. In the 1960s, a PDP-8 hybrid computer was installed at the Chester Road site. There was an Elliot Brothers 803B digital computer. A new complex of buildings, including a new Students' union and Hall of Residence facilities, on nearby Chester Road was opened by the Duke of Edinburgh in 1964. Sunderland Polytechnic was established on 26 January 1969, incorporating the Technical College, the School of Art and the Sunderland Teacher Training College.
Sunderland was among the first of 30 Polytechnics, like polytechnics or technological universities in other countries their aim was to teach both purely academic and professional vocational subjects. Their focus was applied education for work and their roots concentrated on engineering and applied science, they created departments concerned with the humanities; as a polytechnic, Sunderland created the first in-service BEd programme in the country. After the passage of the Further and Higher Education Act 1992, the polytechnic gained university status. Lord Puttnam became the university's first Chancellor in 1998; the Sunderland Empire Theatre was the regular venue for the graduation ceremonies, although they have been hosted at the Stadium of Light since 2004. In July 2007, he stepped down to become the Chancellor of the Open University. On 23 May 2008 the University announced that former Olympic athlete Steve Cram had been appointed as Chancellor and would be installed at a ceremony on 27 June 2008.
In 2018 it was announced that Sunderland was to host one of five new medical schools established under a UK government initiative to increase the number of training places for doctors. The school of medicine is expected to take its first students in September 2019. There are one in Hong Kong and one in London; the Sunderland campuses are the Sir Tom Cowie Campus at St Peter's. St Peter's opened during the 1990s on the north bank of the River Wear, the site of St. Peter's Church and monastery built by Benedict Biscop in 674AD. In September 2002, the campus was renamed "The Sir Tom Cowie Campus at St. Peter's", after the local businessman, one of the university's primary supporters; the Sunderland Business School is named "The Reg Vardy Centre", another building used by the School of Computing and Technology, is "The David Goldman Informatics Centre". St Peter's Campus includes the following: North Shore, Wearbank House, Reg Vardy Centre, St Peter's Library, David Goldman Informatics Centre, Prospect Building, David Puttnam Media Centre, North Sands Business Centre and National Glass Centre.
The David Puttnam Media Centre houses television and radio production facilities for the School of Arts and Media, student led community radio station, Made in Tyne & Wear, opened in 2003. The campus was opened in March 2004 by Estelle Morris, former Education Secretary and Pro Vice-Chancellor from 2005 to 2009. In 2006, the Chester Road Campus was renamed City Campus, work started on refurbishment of the Edinburgh Building administrative centre, the creation of the Gateway one-stop-shop for student support, the redevelopment of Murray Library, the Design Centre; the £12M CitySpace gym and leisure development opened in 2009, in February 2011 the £8.5M Sciences Complex opened. On 26 April 2012, the University of Sunderland announced the opening of a new campus at Canary Wharf in London. In 2012/13 the student population of the University of Sunderland London Campus was 2,277. Courses are offered in nursing, business and hospitality, as well as accounting and financial management. On 2 March 2017, the University of Sunderland announced the opening of a new campus at Hong Kong.
This vibrant community of designers
Düsseldorf is the capital and second-largest city of the most populous German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia after Cologne, as well as the seventh-largest city in Germany. With a population of 617,280. At the confluence of the Rhine and its tributary Düssel, the city lies in the centre of both the Rhine-Ruhr and the Rhineland Metropolitan Regions with the Cologne Bonn region to its south and the Ruhr to its north. Most of the city lies on the right bank of the Rhine; the city is the largest in the German Low Franconian dialect area. "Dorf" meaning "village" in German, the "-dorf" suffix is unusual in the German-speaking area for a settlement of Düsseldorf's size. Mercer's 2012 Quality of Living survey ranked Düsseldorf the sixth most livable city in the world. Düsseldorf Airport is Germany's third-busiest airport after those of Frankfurt and Munich, serving as the most important international airport for the inhabitants of the densely populated Ruhr, Germany's largest urban area. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs, is headquarters to one Fortune Global 500 and two DAX companies.
Messe Düsseldorf organises nearly one fifth of premier trade shows. As second largest city of the Rhineland, Düsseldorf holds Rhenish Carnival celebrations every year in February/March, the Düsseldorf carnival celebrations being the third most popular in Germany after those held in Cologne and Mainz. There are 22 institutions of higher education in the city including the Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, the university of applied sciences, the academy of arts, the university of music; the city is known for its pioneering influence on electronic/experimental music and its Japanese community. When the Roman Empire was strengthening its position throughout Europe, a few Germanic tribes clung on in marshy territory off the eastern banks of the Rhine. In the 7th and 8th centuries, the odd farming or fishing settlement could be found at the point where the small river Düssel flows into the Rhine, it was from such settlements. The first written mention of Düsseldorf dates back to 1135. Under Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa the small town of Kaiserswerth to the north of Düsseldorf became a well-fortified outpost, where soldiers kept a watchful eye on every movement on the Rhine.
Kaiserswerth became a suburb of Düsseldorf in 1929. In 1186, Düsseldorf came under the rule of the Counts of Berg. 14 August 1288 is one of the most important dates in the history of Düsseldorf. On this day the sovereign Count Adolf VIII of Berg granted the village on the banks of the Düssel town privileges. Before this, a bloody struggle for power had taken place between the Archbishop of Cologne and the count of Berg, culminating in the Battle of Worringen; the Archbishop of Cologne's forces were wiped out by the forces of the count of Berg who were supported by citizens and farmers of Cologne and Düsseldorf, paving the way for Düsseldorf's elevation to city status, commemorated today by a monument on the Burgplatz. The custom of turning cartwheels is credited to the children of Düsseldorf. There are variations of the origin of the cartwheeling children. Today the symbol represents the story and every year the Düsseldorfers celebrate by having a cartwheeling contest. After this battle the relationship between the four cities deteriorated, because they were commercial rivals.
Today, it finds its expression in a humorous form and in sports. A market square sprang up on the banks of the Rhine and the square was protected by city walls on all four sides. In 1380, the dukes of Berg moved their seat to the town and Düsseldorf was made regional capital of the Duchy of Berg. During the following centuries several famous landmarks were built, including the Collegiate Church of St Lambertus. In 1609, the ducal line of the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg died out, after a virulent struggle over succession, Jülich and Berg fell to the Wittelsbach Counts of Palatinate-Neuburg, who made Düsseldorf their main domicile after they inherited the Electorate of the Palatinate, in 1685, becoming now Prince-electors as Electors Palatine. Under the art-loving Johann Wilhelm II, a vast art gallery with a huge selection of paintings and sculptures, were housed in the Stadtschloss. After his death, the city fell on hard times again after Elector Charles Theodore inherited Bavaria and moved the electoral court to Munich.
With him he took the art collection. Destruction and poverty struck Düsseldorf after the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon made Düsseldorf its capital. Johann Devaranne, a leader of Solingen's resistance to Napoleon's conscription decrees, was executed here in 1813. After Napoleon's defeat, the whole Rhineland including Berg was given to the Kingdom of Prussia in 1815; the Rhine Province's parliament was established in Düsseldorf. By the mid-19th century, Düsseldorf enjoyed a revival thanks to the Industrial Revolution as the city boasted 100,000 inhabitants by 1882.
Video is an electronic medium for the recording, playback and display of moving visual media. Video was first developed for mechanical television systems, which were replaced by cathode ray tube systems which were replaced by flat panel displays of several types. Video systems vary in display resolution, aspect ratio, refresh rate, color capabilities and other qualities. Analog and digital variants exist and can be carried on a variety of media, including radio broadcast, magnetic tape, optical discs, computer files, network streaming. Video technology was first developed for mechanical television systems, which were replaced by cathode ray tube television systems, but several new technologies for video display devices have since been invented. Video was exclusively a live technology. Charles Ginsburg led an Ampex research team developing one of the first practical video tape recorder. In 1951 the first video tape recorder captured live images from television cameras by converting the camera's electrical impulses and saving the information onto magnetic video tape.
Video recorders were sold for US $50,000 in 1956, videotapes cost US $300 per one-hour reel. However, prices dropped over the years; the use of digital techniques in video created digital video, which allows higher quality and much lower cost than earlier analog technology. After the invention of the DVD in 1997 and Blu-ray Disc in 2006, sales of videotape and recording equipment plummeted. Advances in computer technology allows inexpensive personal computers and smartphones to capture, store and transmit digital video, further reducing the cost of video production, allowing program-makers and broadcasters to move to tapeless production; the advent of digital broadcasting and the subsequent digital television transition is in the process of relegating analog video to the status of a legacy technology in most parts of the world. As of 2015, with the increasing use of high-resolution video cameras with improved dynamic range and color gamuts, high-dynamic-range digital intermediate data formats with improved color depth, modern digital video technology is converging with digital film technology.
Frame rate, the number of still pictures per unit of time of video, ranges from six or eight frames per second for old mechanical cameras to 120 or more frames per second for new professional cameras. PAL standards and SECAM specify 25 frame/s. Film is shot at the slower frame rate of 24 frames per second, which complicates the process of transferring a cinematic motion picture to video; the minimum frame rate to achieve a comfortable illusion of a moving image is about sixteen frames per second. Video can be progressive. In progressive scan systems, each refresh period updates all scan lines in each frame in sequence; when displaying a natively progressive broadcast or recorded signal, the result is optimum spatial resolution of both the stationary and moving parts of the image. Interlacing was invented as a way to reduce flicker in early mechanical and CRT video displays without increasing the number of complete frames per second. Interlacing retains detail while requiring lower bandwidth compared to progressive scanning.
In interlaced video, the horizontal scan lines of each complete frame are treated as if numbered consecutively, captured as two fields: an odd field consisting of the odd-numbered lines and an field consisting of the even-numbered lines. Analog display devices reproduce each frame doubling the frame rate as far as perceptible overall flicker is concerned; when the image capture device acquires the fields one at a time, rather than dividing up a complete frame after it is captured, the frame rate for motion is doubled as well, resulting in smoother, more lifelike reproduction of moving parts of the image when viewed on an interlaced CRT display. NTSC, PAL and SECAM are interlaced formats. Abbreviated video resolution specifications include an i to indicate interlacing. For example, PAL video format is described as 576i50, where 576 indicates the total number of horizontal scan lines, i indicates interlacing, 50 indicates 50 fields per second; when displaying a natively interlaced signal on a progressive scan device, overall spatial resolution is degraded by simple line doubling—artifacts such as flickering or "comb" effects in moving parts of the image which appear unless special signal processing eliminates them.
A procedure known as deinterlacing can optimize the display of an interlaced video signal from an analog, DVD or satellite source on a progressive scan device such as an LCD television, digital video projector or plasma panel. Deinterlacing cannot, produce video quality, equivalent to true progressive scan source material. Aspect ratio describes the proportional relationship between the width and height of video screens and video picture elements. All popular video formats are rectangular, so can be described by a ratio between width and height; the ratio width to height for a traditional television screen is 4:3, or about 1.33:1. High definition televisions use an aspect ratio of 16:9, or about 1.78:1. The aspect ratio of a full 35 mm film frame with soundtrack is 1.375:1. Pixels on computer monitors are square, but pixels used in digital video have non-square aspect ratios, such as those used in the PAL and NTSC variants of the CCIR 601 digital video