Springfield is the capital of the U. S. state of Illinois and the county seat of Sangamon County. The city's population of 116,250 as of the 2010 U. S. Census makes it the state's sixth most populous city, it is the largest city in central Illinois. As of 2013, the city's population was estimated to have increased to 117,006, with just over 211,700 residents living in the Springfield Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Sangamon County and the adjacent Menard County. Present-day Springfield was settled by European Americans in the late 1810s, around the time Illinois became a state; the most famous historic resident was Abraham Lincoln, who lived in Springfield from 1837 until 1861, when he went to the White House as President. Major tourist attractions include multiple sites connected with Lincoln including his presidential library and museum, his home, his tomb at Oak Ridge Cemetery; the capital is centrally located within the state. The city lies in a plain near the Sangamon River. Lake Springfield, a large artificial lake owned by the City Water, Light & Power company, supplies the city with recreation and drinking water.
Weather is typical for middle latitude locations, with hot summers and cold winters. Spring and summer weather is like that of most midwestern cities. Tornadoes hit the Springfield area in 1957 and 2006; the city governs the Capital Township. The government of the state of Illinois is based in Springfield. State government entities include the Illinois General Assembly, the Illinois Supreme Court and the Office of the Governor of Illinois. There are three private high schools in Springfield. Public schools in Springfield are operated by District No. 186. Springfield's economy is dominated by government jobs, plus the related lobbyists and firms that deal with the state and county governments and justice system, health care and medicine. Springfield was named "Calhoun", after Senator John C. Calhoun of South Carolina; the land that Springfield now occupies was settled first by trappers and fur traders who came to the Sangamon River in 1818. The first cabin was built by John Kelly, it was located at what is now the northwest corner of Jefferson Street.
In 1821, Calhoun was designated as the county seat of Sangamon County due to fertile soil and trading opportunities. Settlers from Kentucky and North Carolina came to the developing city. By 1832, Senator Calhoun had fallen out of the favor with the public and the town renamed itself as Springfield after Springfield, Massachusetts. At that time, the New England city was known for industrial innovation, concentrated prosperity, the Springfield Armory. Kaskaskia was the first capital of the Illinois Territory from its organization in 1809, continuing through statehood in 1818, through the first year as a state in 1819. Vandalia was the second state capital of Illinois from 1819 to 1839. Springfield became the third and current capital of Illinois in 1839; the designation was due to the efforts of Abraham Lincoln and his associates. The Potawatomi Trail of Death passed through here in 1838, as the Native Americans were forced west to Indian Territory by the government's Indian Removal policy. Lincoln arrived in the Springfield area when he was a young man in 1831, though he did not live in the city until 1837.
He spent the ensuing six years in New Salem, where he began his legal studies, joined the state militia and was elected to the Illinois General Assembly. In 1837 Lincoln spent the next 24 years as a lawyer and politician. Lincoln delivered his Lyceum address in Springfield, his farewell speech when he left for Washington is a classic in American oratory. Winkle examines the historiography concerning the development of the Second Party System and applies these ideas to the study of Springfield, a strong Whig enclave in a Democratic region, he chiefly studied poll books for presidential years. The rise of the Whig Party took place in 1836 in opposition to the presidential candidacy of Martin Van Buren and was consolidated in 1840. Springfield Whigs tend to validate several expectations of party characteristics as they were native-born, either in New England or Kentucky, professional or agricultural in occupation, devoted to partisan organization. Abraham Lincoln's career reflects the Whigs' political rise, but by the 1840s, Springfield began to be dominated by Democratic politicians.
Waves of new European immigrants changed the city's demographics and became aligned with the Democrats. By the 1860 presidential election, Lincoln was able to win his home city. Winkle examines the impact of migration on political participation in Springfield during the 1850s. Widespread migration in the 19th-century United States produced frequent population turnover within Midwestern communities, which influenced patterns of voter turnout and office-holding. Examination of the manuscript census, poll books, office-holding records reveals the effects of migration on the behavior and voting patterns of 8,000 participants in 10 elections in Springfield. Most voters were short-term residents who participated in only one or two elections during the 1850s. Fewer than 1% of all voters participated in all 10 elections. Instead of producing political instability, rapid turnover enhanced the influence of the more stable residents. Migration was selective by age, occupation and birthplace. Longer-term or persistent voters, as he terms them, tended to be wealthier, more skilled, more native-born, more stable than non-persisters.
Officeholders were particularly
An alloy is a combination of metals and of a metal or another element. Alloys are defined by a metallic bonding character. An alloy may be a mixture of metallic phases. Intermetallic compounds are alloys with a defined crystal structure. Zintl phases are sometimes considered alloys depending on bond types. Alloys are used in a wide variety of applications. In some cases, a combination of metals may reduce the overall cost of the material while preserving important properties. In other cases, the combination of metals imparts synergistic properties to the constituent metal elements such as corrosion resistance or mechanical strength. Examples of alloys are steel, brass, duralumin and amalgams; the alloy constituents are measured by mass percentage for practical applications, in atomic fraction for basic science studies. Alloys are classified as substitutional or interstitial alloys, depending on the atomic arrangement that forms the alloy, they can be heterogeneous or intermetallic. An alloy is a mixture of chemical elements, which forms an impure substance that retains the characteristics of a metal.
An alloy is distinct from an impure metal in that, with an alloy, the added elements are well controlled to produce desirable properties, while impure metals such as wrought iron are less controlled, but are considered useful. Alloys are made by mixing two or more elements, at least one of, a metal; this is called the primary metal or the base metal, the name of this metal may be the name of the alloy. The other constituents may or may not be metals but, when mixed with the molten base, they will be soluble and dissolve into the mixture; the mechanical properties of alloys will be quite different from those of its individual constituents. A metal, very soft, such as aluminium, can be altered by alloying it with another soft metal, such as copper. Although both metals are soft and ductile, the resulting aluminium alloy will have much greater strength. Adding a small amount of non-metallic carbon to iron trades its great ductility for the greater strength of an alloy called steel. Due to its very-high strength, but still substantial toughness, its ability to be altered by heat treatment, steel is one of the most useful and common alloys in modern use.
By adding chromium to steel, its resistance to corrosion can be enhanced, creating stainless steel, while adding silicon will alter its electrical characteristics, producing silicon steel. Like oil and water, a molten metal may not always mix with another element. For example, pure iron is completely insoluble with copper; when the constituents are soluble, each will have a saturation point, beyond which no more of the constituent can be added. Iron, for example, can hold a maximum of 6.67% carbon. Although the elements of an alloy must be soluble in the liquid state, they may not always be soluble in the solid state. If the metals remain soluble when solid, the alloy forms a solid solution, becoming a homogeneous structure consisting of identical crystals, called a phase. If as the mixture cools the constituents become insoluble, they may separate to form two or more different types of crystals, creating a heterogeneous microstructure of different phases, some with more of one constituent than the other phase has.
However, in other alloys, the insoluble elements may not separate until after crystallization occurs. If cooled quickly, they first crystallize as a homogeneous phase, but they are supersaturated with the secondary constituents; as time passes, the atoms of these supersaturated alloys can separate from the crystal lattice, becoming more stable, form a second phase that serve to reinforce the crystals internally. Some alloys, such as electrum, an alloy consisting of silver and gold, occur naturally. Meteorites are sometimes made of occurring alloys of iron and nickel, but are not native to the Earth. One of the first alloys made by humans was bronze, a mixture of the metals tin and copper. Bronze was an useful alloy to the ancients, because it is much stronger and harder than either of its components. Steel was another common alloy. However, in ancient times, it could only be created as an accidental byproduct from the heating of iron ore in fires during the manufacture of iron. Other ancient alloys include pewter and pig iron.
In the modern age, steel can be created in many forms. Carbon steel can be made by varying only the carbon content, producing soft alloys like mild steel or hard alloys like spring steel. Alloy steels can be made by adding other elements, such as chromium, vanadium or nickel, resulting in alloys such as high-speed steel or tool steel. Small amounts of manganese are alloyed with most modern steels because of its ability to remove unwanted impurities, like phosphorus and oxygen, which can have detrimental effects on the alloy. However, most alloys were not created until the 1900s, such as various aluminium, titanium and magnesium alloys; some modern superalloys, such as incoloy and hastelloy, may consist of a multitude of different elements. As a noun, the term alloy is used to describe a mixture of atoms in which the primary constituent is a metal; when used as a verb, the term refers to the act of mixing a metal with other elements. The primary metal is called the matrix, or the solvent; the secondary constituents are called s
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. The steam engine uses the force produced by steam pressure to push a piston back and forth inside a cylinder; this pushing force is transformed, into rotational force for work. The term "steam engine" is applied only to reciprocating engines as just described, not to the steam turbine. Steam engines are external combustion engines, where the working fluid is separated from the combustion products; the ideal thermodynamic cycle used to analyze this process is called the Rankine cycle. In general usage, the term steam engine can refer to either complete steam plants such as railway steam locomotives and portable engines, or may refer to the piston or turbine machinery alone, as in the beam engine and stationary steam engine. Steam-driven devices were known as early as the aeliopile in the first century AD, with a few other uses recorded in the 16th and 17th century. Thomas Savery's dewatering pump used steam pressure operating directly on water.
The first commercially-successful engine that could transmit continuous power to a machine was developed in 1712 by Thomas Newcomen. James Watt made a critical improvement by removing spent steam to a separate vessel for condensation improving the amount of work obtained per unit of fuel consumed. By the 19th century, stationary steam engines powered the factories of the Industrial Revolution. Steam engines replaced sail for ships, steam locomotives operated on the railways. Reciprocating piston type steam engines were the dominant source of power until the early 20th century, when advances in the design of electric motors and internal combustion engines resulted in the replacement of reciprocating steam engines in commercial usage. Steam turbines replaced reciprocating engines in power generation, due to lower cost, higher operating speed, higher efficiency; the first recorded rudimentary steam-powered "engine" was the aeolipile described by Hero of Alexandria, a mathematician and engineer in Roman Egypt in the first century AD.
In the following centuries, the few steam-powered "engines" known were, like the aeolipile experimental devices used by inventors to demonstrate the properties of steam. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in Ottoman Egypt in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in Italy in 1629. Jerónimo de Ayanz y Beaumont received patents in 1606 for 50 steam powered inventions, including a water pump for draining inundated mines. Denis Papin, a Huguenot refugee, did some useful work on the steam digester in 1679, first used a piston to raise weights in 1690; the first commercial steam-powered device was a water pump, developed in 1698 by Thomas Savery. It used condensing steam to create a vacuum which raised water from below and used steam pressure to raise it higher. Small engines were effective, they were prone to boiler explosions. Savery's engine was used in mines, pumping stations and supplying water to water wheels that powered textile machinery. Savery engine was of low cost. Bento de Moura Portugal introduced an improvement of Savery's construction "to render it capable of working itself", as described by John Smeaton in the Philosophical Transactions published in 1751.
It continued to be manufactured until the late 18th century. One engine was still known to be operating in 1820; the first commercially-successful engine that could transmit continuous power to a machine, was the atmospheric engine, invented by Thomas Newcomen around 1712. It improved on Savery's steam pump. Newcomen's engine was inefficient, used for pumping water, it worked by creating a partial vacuum by condensing steam under a piston within a cylinder. It was employed for draining mine workings at depths hitherto impossible, for providing reusable water for driving waterwheels at factories sited away from a suitable "head". Water that passed over the wheel was pumped up into a storage reservoir above the wheel. In 1720 Jacob Leupold described a two-cylinder high-pressure steam engine; the invention was published in his major work "Theatri Machinarum Hydraulicarum". The engine used two heavy pistons to provide motion to a water pump; each piston was returned to its original position by gravity.
The two pistons shared a common four way rotary valve connected directly to a steam boiler. The next major step occurred when James Watt developed an improved version of Newcomen's engine, with a separate condenser. Boulton and Watt's early engines used half as much coal as John Smeaton's improved version of Newcomen's. Newcomen's and Watt's early engines were "atmospheric", they were powered by air pressure pushing a piston into the partial vacuum generated by condensing steam, instead of the pressure of expanding steam. The engine cylinders had to be large because the only usable force acting on them was atmospheric pressure. Watt developed his engine further, modifying it to provide a rotary motion suitable for driving machinery; this enabled factories to be sited away from rivers, accelerated the pace of the Industrial Revolution. The meaning of high pressure, together with an actual value above ambient, depends on the era in which the term was used. For early use of the term Van Reimsdijk refers to steam being at a sufficiently high pressure that it could be exhausted to atmosphere without reliance on a vacuum to enable it to perform useful work.
Ewing states that Watt's condensing engines were known, at the time, as low pressure compared to high pressure, non-condensing engines of the same period. Watt's patent prevented others from making high pres
A teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone. In some countries, teaching young people of school age may be carried out in an informal setting, such as within the family, rather than in a formal setting such as a school or college; some other professions may involve a significant amount of teaching. In most countries, formal teaching of students is carried out by paid professional teachers; this article focuses on those who are employed, as their main role, to teach others in a formal education context, such as at a school or other place of initial formal education or training. A teacher's role may vary among cultures. Teachers may provide instruction in literacy and numeracy, craftsmanship or vocational training, the arts, civics, community roles, or life skills. Formal teaching tasks include preparing lessons according to agreed curricula, giving lessons, assessing pupil progress. A teacher's professional duties may extend beyond formal teaching.
Outside of the classroom teachers may accompany students on field trips, supervise study halls, help with the organization of school functions, serve as supervisors for extracurricular activities. In some education systems, teachers may have responsibility for student discipline. Teaching is a complex activity; this is in part because teaching is a social practice, that takes place in a specific context and therefore reflects the values of that specific context. Factors that influence what is expected of teachers include history and tradition, social views about the purpose of education, accepted theories about learning, etc; the competencies required by a teacher are affected by the different ways in which the role is understood around the world. Broadly, there seem to be four models: the teacher as manager of instruction; the OECD has argued that it is necessary to develop a shared definition of the skills and knowledge required by teachers, in order to guide teachers' career-long education and professional development.
Some evidence-based international discussions have tried to reach such a common understanding. For example, the European Union has identified three broad areas of competences that teachers require: Working with others Working with knowledge and information, Working in and with society. Scholarly consensus is emerging that what is required of teachers can be grouped under three headings: knowledge craft skills and dispositions, it has been found that teachers who showed enthusiasm towards the course materials and students can create a positive learning experience. These teachers do not teach by rote but attempt to find new invigoration for the course materials on a daily basis. One of the challenges facing teachers is that they may have covered a curriculum until they begin to feel bored with the subject, their attitude may in turn bore the students. Students who had enthusiastic teachers tend to rate them higher than teachers who didn't show much enthusiasm for the course materials. Teachers that exhibit enthusiasm can lead to students who are more to be engaged, interested and curious about learning the subject matter.
Recent research has found a correlation between teacher enthusiasm and students' intrinsic motivation to learn and vitality in the classroom. Controlled, experimental studies exploring intrinsic motivation of college students has shown that nonverbal expressions of enthusiasm, such as demonstrative gesturing, dramatic movements which are varied, emotional facial expressions, result in college students reporting higher levels of intrinsic motivation to learn, but while a teacher's enthusiasm has been shown to improve motivation and increase task engagement, it does not improve learning outcomes or memory for the material. There are various mechanisms by which teacher enthusiasm may facilitate higher levels of intrinsic motivation. Teacher enthusiasm may contribute to a classroom atmosphere of energy and enthusiasm which feeds student interest and excitement in learning the subject matter. Enthusiastic teachers may lead to students becoming more self-determined in their own learning process; the concept of mere exposure indicates that the teacher's enthusiasm may contribute to the student's expectations about intrinsic motivation in the context of learning.
Enthusiasm may act as a "motivational embellishment", increasing a student's interest by the variety and surprise of the enthusiastic teacher's presentation of the material. The concept of emotional contagion, may apply. Research shows that student motivation and attitudes towards school are linked to student-teacher relationships. Enthusiastic teachers are good at creating beneficial relations with their students, their ability to create effective learning environments that foster student achievement depends on the kind of relationship they build with their students. Useful teacher-to-studen
Carrollton is a home rule-class city in—and the county seat of—Carroll County, United States, at the confluence of the Ohio and Kentucky rivers. The population was 3,938 at the 2010 census. Carrollton is located in northern Carroll County at 38°40′38″N 85°10′17″W; the city is situated on the Ohio River at the mouth of the Kentucky River. It is bordered by the city of Prestonville to the west across the Kentucky River. To the north, across the Ohio River, is Switzerland County, Indiana. U. S. Route 42 passes through the center of the community, leading northeast 54 miles to Cincinnati and southwest 55 miles to Louisville. Interstate 71 runs 4 miles south of the city parallel to US 42, with access from Exit 44. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.0 square miles, of which 0.008 square miles, or 0.42%, is water. One of the more popular areas visited in Carrollton, Kentucky is General Butler State Park, where you will find the Overlook; this spot located at the tallest point in Carroll County is the ideal setting to watch the sun rise and set.
From this beautifully and lovingly built stone structure, built by the CCC's during the depression and visitors alike are amazed at the wonder of the Ohio River Valley. At this same park, stands the Butler-Turpin House, constructed in 1859 after the marriage of Philip Turpin and Mary Ellen Butler. Philip purchased 126 acres of land from William O. Butler, Mary Ellen's famous uncle, preceding the construction of their house. Carrollton was laid out in 1792, it was known as Port William initially, it served as the county seat of Gallatin County until 1838 when the county was split, creating Carroll County, Port William was renamed Carrollton and became the seat of the new county. The Louisville & Nashville Railroad was built near town in 1868 and became more important to the town's economy than river traffic. Carrollton's most severe flood was the Ohio River flood of 1937, it has one of the state's largest tobacco markets, the population has remained steady since being recorded at 3,884 in the 1970 census.
In 1988, the Carrollton bus disaster garnered national attention for what was one of the worst bus collisions in United States history. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,846 people, 1,598 households, 987 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,715.4 people per square mile. There were 1,709 housing units at an average density of 762.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 78.99% White, 2.24% Black, 0.13% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 2.03% from other races, 1.43% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 19.42% of the population. There were 1,598 households out of which 27.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.0% were married couples living together, 14.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.2% were non-families. 33.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.90. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 9.9% from 18 to 24, 27.3% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, 17.7% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,818, the median income for a family was $41,193. Males had a median income of $32,563 versus $20,000 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,376. About 13.9% of families and 20.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.5% of those under age 18 and 26.2% of those age 65 or over. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Carrollton has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; the town of Hargrave, Kentucky in the fiction of Wendell Berry is a fictionalized version of Carrollton. Berry uses Carrollton's original name, Port William, as the name for the town in which most of his stories take place. Berry portrays Hargrave as larger and more urban than Port William.
It is the center of professional services. Unlike the egalitarian rural society of Port William, there is an "upper crust" of professionals and landowners in Hargrave. City of Carrollton official website Carrollton, Kentucky at UrbanUp Things to do in Carrollton, Kentucky
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel is hard and ductile. Pure nickel, powdered to maximize the reactive surface area, shows a significant chemical activity, but larger pieces are slow to react with air under standard conditions because an oxide layer forms on the surface and prevents further corrosion. So, pure native nickel is found in Earth's crust only in tiny amounts in ultramafic rocks, in the interiors of larger nickel–iron meteorites that were not exposed to oxygen when outside Earth's atmosphere. Meteoric nickel is found in combination with iron, a reflection of the origin of those elements as major end products of supernova nucleosynthesis. An iron–nickel mixture is thought to compose Earth's outer and inner cores. Use of nickel has been traced as far back as 3500 BCE. Nickel was first isolated and classified as a chemical element in 1751 by Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, who mistook the ore for a copper mineral, in the cobalt mines of Los, Hälsingland, Sweden.
The element's name comes from a mischievous sprite of German miner mythology, who personified the fact that copper-nickel ores resisted refinement into copper. An economically important source of nickel is the iron ore limonite, which contains 1–2% nickel. Nickel's other important ore minerals include pentlandite and a mixture of Ni-rich natural silicates known as garnierite. Major production sites include the Sudbury region in Canada, New Caledonia in the Pacific, Norilsk in Russia. Nickel is oxidized by air at room temperature and is considered corrosion-resistant, it has been used for plating iron and brass, coating chemistry equipment, manufacturing certain alloys that retain a high silvery polish, such as German silver. About 9% of world nickel production is still used for corrosion-resistant nickel plating. Nickel-plated objects sometimes provoke nickel allergy. Nickel has been used in coins, though its rising price has led to some replacement with cheaper metals in recent years. Nickel is one of four elements that are ferromagnetic at room temperature.
Alnico permanent magnets based on nickel are of intermediate strength between iron-based permanent magnets and rare-earth magnets. The metal is valuable in modern times chiefly in alloys. A further 10% is used for nickel-based and copper-based alloys, 7% for alloy steels, 3% in foundries, 9% in plating and 4% in other applications, including the fast-growing battery sector; as a compound, nickel has a number of niche chemical manufacturing uses, such as a catalyst for hydrogenation, cathodes for batteries and metal surface treatments. Nickel is an essential nutrient for some microorganisms and plants that have enzymes with nickel as an active site. Nickel is a silvery-white metal with a slight golden tinge, it is one of only four elements that are magnetic at or near room temperature, the others being iron and gadolinium. Its Curie temperature is 355 °C; the unit cell of nickel is a face-centered cube with the lattice parameter of 0.352 nm, giving an atomic radius of 0.124 nm. This crystal structure is stable to pressures of at least 70 GPa.
Nickel belongs to the transition metals. It is hard and ductile, has a high for transition metals electrical and thermal conductivity; the high compressive strength of 34 GPa, predicted for ideal crystals, is never obtained in the real bulk material due to the formation and movement of dislocations. The nickel atom has two electron configurations, 3d8 4s2 and 3d9 4s1, which are close in energy – the symbol refers to the argon-like core structure. There is some disagreement. Chemistry textbooks quote the electron configuration of nickel as 4s2 3d8, which can be written 3d8 4s2; this configuration agrees with the Madelung energy ordering rule, which predicts that 4s is filled before 3d. It is supported by the experimental fact that the lowest energy state of the nickel atom is a 3d8 4s2 energy level the 3d8 4s2 3F, J = 4 level. However, each of these two configurations splits into several energy levels due to fine structure, the two sets of energy levels overlap; the average energy of states with configuration 3d9 4s1 is lower than the average energy of states with configuration 3d8 4s2.
For this reason, the research literature on atomic calculations quotes the ground state configuration of nickel as 3d9 4s1. The isotopes of nickel range in atomic weight from 48 u to 78 u. Occurring nickel is composed of five stable isotopes. Isotopes heavier than 62Ni cannot be formed by nuclear fusion without losing energy. Nickel-62 has the highest mean nuclear binding energy per nucleon of any nuclide, at 8.7946 MeV/nucleon. Its binding energy is greater than both 56Fe and 58Fe, more abundant elements incorrectly cited as having the most tightly-bound nuclides. Although this would seem to predict nickel-62 as the most abundant heavy element in the universe, the high rate of photodisintegration of nickel in stellar interiors causes iron to be by far the most abundant. Stable isotope nickel-60 is the daughter product of the extinct radionuclide 60Fe, whi