William Dampier was an English explorer and navigator who became the first Englishman to explore parts of what is today Australia, and the first person to circumnavigate the world three times. He has described as Australias first natural historian, as well as one of the most important British explorers of the period between Sir Walter Raleigh and James Cook. On a voyage he rescued Alexander Selkirk, a former crewmate who may have inspired Daniel Defoes Robinson Crusoe, others influenced by Dampier include James Cook, Horatio Nelson, Charles Darwin, and Alfred Russel Wallace. William Dampier was born at Hymerford House in East Coker, Somerset and he was baptised on 5 September, but his precise date of birth is not recorded. He was educated at Kings School, Dampier sailed on two merchant voyages to Newfoundland and Java before joining the Royal Navy in 1673. He took part in the two Battles of Schooneveld in June of that year, Dampiers service was cut short by a catastrophic illness, and he returned to England for several months of recuperation.
For the next years he tried his hand at various careers, including plantation management in Jamaica and logging in Mexico. Returning to England, he married Judith around 1679, only to leave for the sea a few months later. This led to his first circumnavigation, during which he accompanied a raid across the Isthmus of Darién in Panama, the pirates raided Spanish settlements in Peru before returning to the Caribbean. Dampier made his way to Virginia, where in 1683 he was engaged by the privateer John Cooke, Cooke entered the Pacific via Cape Horn and spent a year raiding Spanish possessions in Peru, the Galápagos Islands, and Mexico. This expedition collected buccaneers and ships as it went along, at one time having a fleet of ten vessels, Cooke died in Mexico, and a new leader, Edward Davis, was elected captain by the crew. Dampier transferred to the privateer Charles Swans ship, and on 31 March 1686 they set out across the Pacific to raid the East Indies, calling at Guam, Spanish witnesses saw the predominantly English crew as not only pirates and heretics but cannibals.
Leaving Swan and 36 others behind on Mindanao, the rest of the privateers sailed on to Manila, Poulo Condor, the Spice Islands, and New Holland. On 5 January 1688, Cygnet anchored two miles from shore in 29 fathoms on the northwest coast of Australia, near King Sound. Dampier and his ship remained there until March 12, and while the ship was being careened Dampier made notes on the fauna and flora, among his fellows were a significant number of Spanish sailors, most notably Alonso Ramírez, a native of San Juan, Puerto Rico. Later that year, by agreement and two shipmates were marooned on one of the Nicobar Islands and they obtained a small canoe which they modified after first capsizing and then, after surviving a great storm at sea, called at Acheen in Sumatra. Dampier returned to England in 1691 via the Cape of Good Hope, penniless and he had as a source of income a slave known as Prince Jeoly, from Miangas, who became famous for his tattoos. Dampier exhibited Jeoly in London, thereby generating publicity for a book based on his diaries, the publication of the book, A New Voyage Round the World, in 1697 was a popular sensation, creating interest at the Admiralty
National Trust of Australia
Collectively, the constituent National Trusts own or manage over 300 heritage places, and manage a volunteer workforce of 7000 while employing about 350 people nationwide. Around 1,000,000 visitors experience the properties and their collections in Australia each year, the driving force behind the establishment of the National Trust in Australia was Annie Forsyth Wyatt. She lived for much of her life in a cottage in Gordon, New South Wales and she was living in the Sydney suburb of St Ives when she died. The distinctive building, which retains its appearance from the time of its conversion to a school in 1849, is visible from the approaches to the Sydney Harbour Bridge, Yesterday and Tomorrow, Address to the Natural Trust Conference. Speeches of the Federal Minister for the Environment, department of the Environment and Heritage. Archived from the original on 2006-09-11, carol Cosgrove and Susan Marsden, Challenging times, the National Trust of South Australia 1955–2005, National Trust of South Australia, Adelaide 2005 ISBN 0-909378-60-6
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earths surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. Within a long-term ice age, individual pulses of cold climate are termed glacial periods, in the terminology of glaciology, ice age implies the presence of extensive ice sheets in both northern and southern hemispheres. In 1742 Pierre Martel, an engineer and geographer living in Geneva, two years he published an account of his journey. He reported that the inhabitants of that valley attributed the dispersal of erratic boulders to the glaciers, similar explanations were reported from other regions of the Alps. In 1815 the carpenter and chamois hunter Jean-Pierre Perraudin explained erratic boulders in the Val de Bagnes in the Swiss canton of Valais as being due to glaciers previously extending further. An unknown woodcutter from Meiringen in the Bernese Oberland advocated a similar idea in a discussion with the Swiss-German geologist Jean de Charpentier in 1834, comparable explanations are known from the Val de Ferret in the Valais and the Seeland in western Switzerland and in Goethes scientific work.
Such explanations could be found in parts of the world. When the Bavarian naturalist Ernst von Bibra visited the Chilean Andes in 1849–1850, European scholars had begun to wonder what had caused the dispersal of erratic material. From the middle of the 18th century, some discussed ice as a means of transport, the Swedish mining expert Daniel Tilas was, in 1742, the first person to suggest drifting sea ice in order to explain the presence of erratic boulders in the Scandinavian and Baltic regions. In 1795, the Scottish philosopher and gentleman naturalist, James Hutton, two decades later, in 1818, the Swedish botanist Göran Wahlenberg published his theory of a glaciation of the Scandinavian peninsula. He regarded glaciation as a regional phenomenon, only a few years later, the Danish-Norwegian geologist Jens Esmark argued a sequence of worldwide ice ages. In a paper published in 1824, Esmark proposed changes in climate as the cause of those glaciations and he attempted to show that they originated from changes in Earths orbit.
During the following years, Esmarks ideas were discussed and taken over in parts by Swedish, Scottish, at the University of Edinburgh Robert Jameson seemed to be relatively open to Esmarks ideas, as reviewed by Norwegian professor of glaciology Bjørn G. Andersen. Jamesons remarks about ancient glaciers in Scotland were most probably prompted by Esmark, in Germany, Albrecht Reinhard Bernhardi, a geologist and professor of forestry at an academy in Dreissigacker, since incorporated in the southern Thuringian city of Meiningen, adopted Esmarks theory. In a paper published in 1832, Bernhardi speculated about former polar ice caps reaching as far as the zones of the globe. When he read his paper before the Schweizerische Naturforschende Gesellschaft, most scientists remained sceptical, Venetz convinced his friend Jean de Charpentier. De Charpentier transformed Venetzs idea into a theory with a limited to the Alps. In fact, both men shared the same volcanistic, or in de Charpentiers case rather plutonistic assumptions, about the Earths history, in 1834, de Charpentier presented his paper before the Schweizerische Naturforschende Gesellschaft
World Monuments Fund
Founded in 1965, WMF is headquartered in New York, and has offices and affiliates around the world, including Cambodia, Peru, Portugal and the United Kingdom. In addition to management, the affiliates identify and manage projects, negotiate local partnerships. WMF describes its mission as to preserve important historic architectural sites, the International Fund for Monuments was an organization created by Colonel James A. Gray after his retirement from the U. S. Army in 1960. Even though this project did not materialize, an opportunity arose for the organization to participate in the conservation of the rock-hewn churches of Lalibela in Ethiopia. In 1966 Gray secured the support of philanthropist Lila Acheson Wallace, the project continued until the Communist overthrow of Haile Selassie I and the subsequent expulsion of foreigners from Ethiopia. After Ethiopia, Grays interests shifted to Easter Island in Chile, Gray formed the Easter Island Committee, with Norwegian ethnographer and adventurer Thor Heyerdahl as its honorary chairman.
Gray arranged to have one of the human figures known as moai exhibited in the United States. C. An important chapter for the organization started with its involvement in the international effort led by UNESCO for the protection of the city of Venice. After the extremely high tide of 4 November 1966, the city, the International Fund for Monuments set up a Venice Committee, with Professor John McAndrew of Wellesley College as Chairman and Gray as Executive Secretary. On the part of the Committee, appeals were made to the American public and these efforts helped establish a reputation for IFM. In Spain, the organization formed a Committee for Spain under the leadership of American diplomat, at the invitation of UNESCO in the 1970s IFM became involved in architectural conservation in Nepal, where the organization adopted the Mahadev temple complex in Gokarna, in Nepals Kathmandu Valley. The 14th-century temple building was surveyed, rotten timbers were replaced, sculpted wooden architectural elements were painstakingly cleaned of layers of a motor oil coating that had been applied annually for protection.
Also at the request of UNESCO, IFM launched a project for the preservation of the Citadelle Laferrière, the site was the keystone of a defensive system constructed in the early period of Haitian independence to protect the young state from French attempts to reclaim it as a colony. Local artisans reconstructed wooden and tile roofs over the gallery and batteries using traditional carpentry methods. IFM sponsored an exhibition and a film about the history of the Citadelle. Through donations and matching funds, WMF has worked with community and government partners worldwide to safeguard. To date, WMF has worked at more than 500 sites in 91 countries, WMF has worked at internationally famous tourist attractions as well as lesser-known sites. Every two years WMF publishes the World Monuments Watch, through the World Monuments Watch, WMF fosters community support for the protection of endangered sites, and attracts technical and financial support for the sites
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Australian art is any art made in Australia or about Australia, from prehistoric times to the present. This includes Aboriginal, Landscape, early twentieth century painters, print makers, the visual arts have a long history in Australia, with evidence of Aboriginal art dating back at least 30,000 years. Examples of ancient Aboriginal rock artworks can be throughout the continent. Rock art can be found within protected parks in areas such as Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park in Sydney. The Sydney rock engravings are approximately 5000 to 200 years old, murujuga in Western Australia has the Friends of Australian Rock Art advocating its preservation, and the numerous engravings there were heritage listed in 2007. In terms of age and abundance, cave art in Australia is comparable to that of Lascaux and Altamira in Europe and these designs generally carry significance linked to the spirituality of the Dreamtime. William Barak was one of the last traditionally educated of the Wurundjeri-willam and he remains notable for his artworks which recorded traditional Aboriginal ways for the education of Westerners.
Margaret Preston was among the early non-indigenous painters to incorporate Aboriginal influences in her works, albert Namatjira is a famous Australian artist and an Arrernte man. His landscapes inspired the Hermannsburg School of art, the works of Elizabeth Durack are notable for their fusion of Western and indigenous influences. Since the 1970s, indigenous artists have employed the use of acrylic paints - with styles such as the Western Desert Art Movement becoming globally renowned 20th-century art movements. The National Gallery of Australia exhibits a great many art works, including those of the Torres Strait Islands who are known for their traditional sculpture. The Art Gallery of New South Wales has a collection of indigenous Australian art. In May 2011, the Director of the Place, Paul Taçon launched the Protect Australia’s Spirit campaign in May 2011 with the highly regarded Australian actor Jack Thompson. This campaign aims to create the very first fully resourced national archive to bring information about rock art sites, as well as planning for future rock art management.
Rock Art Research is published twice a year and covers international scholarship of rock art, early Western art in Australia, from 1788 onwards, is often narrated as the gradual shift from a European sense of light to an Australian one. The lighting in Australia is notably different from that of Europe and it has been one of transformation, where artistic ideas originating from beyond gained new meaning and purpose when transplanted into the new continent and the emerging society. Many of these drawings were met with skepticism when taken back to Europe, despite Banks suggestions, no professional natural-history artist sailed on the First Fleet in 1788. Until the turn of the century all drawings made in the colony were crafted by soldiers, including British naval officers George Raper and John Hunter, many of these drawings are by unknown artists, most notably the Port Jackson Painter
The American Express Company, known as Amex, is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered in Manhattans Three World Financial Center in New York City, United States. Founded in 1850, it is one of the 30 components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average, the company is best known for its credit card, charge card, and travelers cheque businesses. Amex cards account for approximately 24% of the dollar volume of credit card transactions in the US. BusinessWeek and Interbrand ranked American Express as the 22nd most valuable brand in the world, Fortune listed Amex as one of the top 20 Most Admired Companies in the World. The companys logo, adopted in 1958, is a Centurion whose image appears on the travelers cheques, charge cards. In 1850, American Express was started as an express business in Buffalo. It was founded as a joint stock corporation by the merger of the companies owned by Henry Wells, William G. Fargo. Wells and Fargo started Wells Fargo & Co. in 1852 when Butterfield, American Express initially established its headquarters in a building at the intersection of Jay Street and Hudson Street in what was called the Tribeca section of Manhattan.
For years it enjoyed a monopoly on the movement of express shipments throughout New York State. In 1874, American Express moved its headquarters to 65 Broadway in what was becoming the Financial District of Manhattan, in 1854, the American Express Co. purchased a lot on Vesey Street in New York City as the site for its stables. A stable was constructed in 1867, five blocks north at 4–8 Hubert Street, in 1880, American Express built a new warehouse behind the Broadway Building at 46 Trinity Place. The designer is unknown, but it has a façade of brick arches that are reminiscent of pre-skyscraper New York, American Express has long been out of this building, but it still bears a terracotta seal with the American Express Eagle. In 1890–91 the company constructed a new building by Edward H. Kendall on the site of its former headquarters on Hudson Street. By 1903, the company had assets of some $28 million, to reflect this, the company purchased the Broadway buildings and site. The old buildings, dubbed by the New York Times as among the ancient landmarks of lower Broadway, were inadequate for such a rapidly expanding concern, after some delays due to the war in Europe, the 21-story neo-classical American Express Co.
Building was constructed in 1916–17 to the design of James L. Aspinwall, of the firm of Renwick, Aspinwall & Tucker, the building consolidated the two lots of the former buildings with a single address,65 Broadway. This building was part of the Express Row section of lower Broadway at the time and Standard & Poors, who has renamed the building for itself. American Express extended its reach nationwide by arranging affiliations with other companies, railroads
Dampier, Western Australia
Dampier is a major industrial port in the northwest of Western Australia. The Dampier Port is part of the Dampier Archipelago, the port services petrochemical, iron ore and natural gas export industries. Rio Tinto exports large volumes of ore through the port. At the 2011 census, Dampier had a population of 1,341, the Yaburrara Aboriginal tribe lived in the area for many thousands of years. The town derives its name from its location on Dampier Island,3 km off the Pilbara coast and part of the Dampier Archipelago, in 1963 the island became an artificial peninsula when it was connected to the mainland by a causeway for a road and railway. In 1979 Dampier Peninsular was renamed after Mt Burrup, the highest peak on the island, which had named after Henry Burrup. He followed the coast northeast, on 21 August 1699 reaching the Dampier Archipelago and he continued to Lagrange Bay, just south of what is now Roebuck Bay, before sailing for Timor. The town was built from 1965 onwards, to serve the railway transporting iron ore from Tom Price, by 1968, the further expansion of Dampier had been constrained by geographical factors and a new town of Karratha was established on the mainland as a result.
The Burrup Peninsula, or Murujuga, which means Hip Bone Sticking Out in the Yaburrara language, is home to what is believed to be the largest collection of petroglyphs in the world, there are 42 other islands in the Dampier Archipelago. There is a diverse marine ecosystem around the islands, including whales, turtles, coral. Green turtles, are known to nest in the Dampier Archipelago, under the Köppen climate classification, Dampier has a desert climate. The annual average rainfall is 272.2 millimetres, which would make it a climate, like Alice Springs. Dampier has extremely hot and humid summers with dewpoints exceeding 24 °C, having over 3,700 hours of annual sunshine, it is one of the sunniest places in Australia. At the entrance to the town is a statue of Red Dog, the statue reads Erected by the many friends made during his travels. Other attractions include the not far off the coast, the most commonly targeted species being barramundi. The port of Dampier was opened in 1966, when the first iron ore from the Mount Tom Price mine was transported via the Hamersley & Robe River railway to Parker Point, the port at East Intercourse Island opened in 1972.
The port has a loading capacity of 140 million tonnes of iron ore. Rio Tintos other iron ore port, Cape Lambert, can handle 80 million tonnes per year and it takes from 24 to 36 hours to load a ship at port
Woodside Petroleum Limited is an Australian petroleum exploration and production company. Woodside is the largest operator of oil and gas production in Australia and Australia’s largest independent dedicated oil and it is a public company listed on the Australian Securities Exchange and has its headquarters in Perth, Western Australia. Woodside was incorporated on 26 July 1954 and it was originally named Woodside Oil Co NL and it was named after the small town of Woodside, Victoria. Woodsides early years were focussed on Victorias Gippsland Basin, switching to northern Western Australia in the early 1960s, Woodside joined up with Shell and Burmah Oil to form the original North West Shelf consortium. BHP replaced Burmah, and with Shell, each became a 40% shareholder in Woodside, in the early 1990s both BHP and Shell agreed to sell down to 34% stakes each, before BHP sold out completely. On 9 November 2010, Shell sold approximately one-third of its 34% stake to investors at a share price of A$42.23.
On 17 June 2014, Shell announced it would reduce its remaining 23. 1% stake to 4. 5% through a sale on the market to investors. The following day Shell sold 9. 5% to institutions, an extraordinary meeting of Woodside shareholders to approve the buyback on 1 August 2014 however failed to achieve a majority 75% vote, falling short at 72%. Shell announced it was reviewing its options, on 30 May 2011 Peter Coleman succeeded Don Voelte as the company’s Chief Executive Officer and Managing Director. Within Australia Woodside operates or is developing a number of liquefied natural gas projects, the company operates the Enfield and Vincent oil fields offshore from Exmouth in Western Australia. The Greater Sunrise gas development lies in the Timor Sea north of Australia and includes the Sunrise and Troubadour fields, Greater Sunrise is located about 450 kilometres north-west of Darwin and 150 kilometres south-east of Timor-Leste. Approximately 80% of the fields lie within Australian waters, with the remainder in jointly administered waters, the Greater Sunrise fields have a total contingent dry gas resource of 5.13 trillion cubic feet and 225.9 million barrels of condensate.
The Sunrise JV participants are Woodside, ConocoPhillips and Osaka Gas, in April 2010 Shells floating liquefied natural gas technology was selected by the Sunrise Joint Venture for developing the Greater Sunrise gas fields in the Timor Sea. The Woodside-operated JV is now seeking to engage regulators on the selection process. Woodside owns and operates a number of oil developments offshore Western Australia, including the Nganhurra FPSO, the Ngujima-Yin FPSO, in 2004, Woodside had agreed to invest US$600 million in developing Mauritanias Chinguetti offshore oil project. The Australian Federal Police in June 2006 were investigating Woodside for allegations of bribery, the AFP officially cleared the company of any wrongdoing in May 2008. It has been suggested that lobbying by Woodside Petroleum contributed to the coalition Howard governments initial decision against emissions trading in August 2000. The company opposed the Rudd Labor governments Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme in 2009, Woodside is among six companies accused of making deceptive public statements in an attempt to get free carbon permits
Colin James Barnett is an Australian politician who was the 29th Premier of Western Australia. He had previously served as the states Treasurer, as well as holding various portfolios in Western Australias Cabinet. Mark McGowan succeeded Barnett as Premier, following the Liberal/National Coalitions defeat in the March 2017 state election, Barnett was born in Nedlands, Perth. He graduated from the University of Western Australia with an economics degree and he resigned as leader after the unsuccessful 2005 election, but regained the position prior to the 2008 election, where he was elected premier. Barnett was sworn into office on 23 September 2008 by Ken Michael, at the 2013 election Barnett and his government were re-elected to a second term. The Liberals were defeated at the 2017 election, Barnett was born in Nedlands, an inner western suburb of Perth, on 15 July 1950. He was educated at Nedlands Primary School and Hollywood Senior High School and he began studying geology at the University of Western Australia, but switched to an economics course from which he graduated with an honours degree and a masters degree.
In 1981, he was seconded to the Confederation of Western Australian Industry, becoming the editor of their publication. He was appointed their chief economist, and served with them until 1985, Barnett was elected to parliament at the 1990 Cottesloe by-election, caused by the resignation of Bill Hassell. He had not previously been a member of the Liberal Party, Barnett was appointed to the shadow cabinet of Barry MacKinnon shortly after entering parliament, with responsibility for housing and works. He added the fuel and energy portfolio in August 1991, in May 1992, MacKinnon was replaced as leader by Richard Court. Barnett ran for the deputy leadership against Cheryl Edwardes, and after an initial 16–16 tie was elected by lot and he retained responsibility for fuel and energy in the subsequent reshuffle of the shadow ministry, and was given the state development portfolio. He was the Leader of the House in the Legislative Assembly and he was generally regarded as a competent and successful minister, and was associated with a number of important resource development projects.
The Court government was defeated at the 2001 election, Court had a somewhat frosty relationship with Barnett and wanted to keep him from becoming leader of the opposition. While Court was from the wing of the state Liberal Party. Court engineered a plan to have federal MP Julie Bishop succeed him instead, under Courts plan, both he and Barnett would have resigned from the state legislature. Bishop would have resigned from parliament and handed her seat of Curtin. When Barnett found out about the plan, he claimed to have choked on his Weet-Bix at what he described as an act of treachery or deceit, when Bishop rejected the plan, finding himself in an untenable situation, resigned
Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Great Australian Bight and Southern Ocean to the south, the state has about 2.6 million inhabitants, around 11% of the national total. 92% of the lives in the south-west corner of the state. The first European visitor to Western Australia was the Dutch explorer Dirk Hartog, the first European settlement of Western Australia occurred following the landing by Major Edmund Lockyer on 26 December 1826 of an expedition on behalf of the New South Wales colonial government. This was followed by the establishment of the Swan River Colony in 1829, including the site of the present-day capital, york was the first inland settlement in Western Australia. Situated 97 kilometres east of Perth, it was settled on 16 September 1831, Western Australia achieved responsible government in 1890, and federated with the other British colonies in Australia in 1901. Today its economy relies on mining and tourism.
The state produces 46% of Australias exports, Western Australia is the second-largest iron ore producer in the world. The International Hydrographic Organization designates the body of water south of the continent as part of the Indian Ocean, the total length of the states eastern border is 1,862 km. There are 20,781 km of coastline, including 7,892 km of island coastline, the total land area occupied by the state is 2.5 million km2. Most of the state is a low plateau with an elevation of about 400 metres, very low relief. This descends relatively sharply to the plains, in some cases forming a sharp escarpment. The extreme age of the landscape has meant that the soils are remarkably infertile, even soils derived from granitic bedrock contain an order of magnitude less available phosphorus and only half as much nitrogen as soils in comparable climates in other continents. Soils derived from extensive sandplains or ironstone are even less fertile, nearly devoid of soluble phosphate and deficient in zinc, molybdenum, the infertility of most of the soils has required heavy application by farmers of chemical fertilisers, particularly superphosphate and herbicides.
These have resulted in damage to invertebrate and bacterial populations, the grazing and use of hoofed mammals and, heavy machinery through the years have resulted in compaction of soils and great damage to the fragile soils. Large-scale land clearing for agriculture has damaged habitats for native flora, large areas of the states wheatbelt region have problems with dryland salinity and the loss of fresh water. The southwest coastal area has a Mediterranean climate and it was originally heavily forested, including large stands of karri, one of the tallest trees in the world. This agricultural region is one of the nine most bio-diverse terrestrial habitats, thanks to the offshore Leeuwin Current, the area is one of the top six regions for marine biodiversity and contains the most southerly coral reefs in the world
The thylacine was the largest known carnivorous marsupial of modern times. It is commonly known as the Tasmanian tiger or the Tasmanian wolf, native to continental Australia and New Guinea, it is believed to have become extinct in the 20th century. It was the last extant member of its family, the thylacine was an apex predator, like the tigers and wolves of the Northern Hemisphere from which it obtained two of its common names. As a marsupial, it was not closely related to these placental mammals and its closest living relative is thought to be either the Tasmanian devil or the numbat. The thylacine was one of only two marsupials to have a pouch in both sexes, the male thylacine had a pouch that acted as a protective sheath, covering his external reproductive organs while he ran through thick brush. The thylacine has been described as a predator because of its ability to survive. Despite its official classification as extinct, sightings are still reported, the modern thylacine first appeared about 4 million years ago.
Dicksons thylacine is the oldest of the seven discovered fossil species and this thylacinid was much smaller than its more recent relatives. The largest species, the powerful thylacine which grew to the size of a wolf, was the species to survive into the late Miocene. In late Pleistocene and early Holocene times, the thylacine was widespread throughout Australia. Since the thylacine filled the ecological niche in Australia as the dog family did elsewhere. Despite this, it is unrelated to any of the Northern Hemisphere predators, numerous examples of thylacine engravings and rock art have been found dating back to at least 1000 BC. Petroglyph images of the thylacine can be found at the Dampier Rock Art Precinct on the Burrup Peninsula in Western Australia, by the time the first European explorers arrived, the animal was already extinct in mainland Australia and rare in Tasmania. Europeans may have encountered it as far back as 1642 when Abel Tasman first arrived in Tasmania and his shore party reported seeing the footprints of wild beasts having claws like a Tyger.
Marc-Joseph Marion du Fresne, arriving with the Mascarin in 1772, positive identification of the thylacine as the animal encountered cannot be made from this report since the tiger quoll is similarly described. The first definitive encounter was by French explorers on 13 May 1792, as noted by the naturalist Jacques Labillardière, in 1805 William Paterson, the Lieutenant Governor of Tasmania, sent a detailed description for publication in the Sydney Gazette. The first detailed description was made by Tasmanias Deputy Surveyor-General, George Harris in 1808. Harris originally placed the thylacine in the genus Didelphis, which had created by Linnaeus for the American opossums, describing it as Didelphis cynocephala