Brewarrina, New South Wales
Brewarrina is a town in North West New South Wales, Australia on the banks of the Barwon River in Brewarrina Shire. The name Brewarrina is derived from burru waranha, a Wayilwan name for a species of Acacia, Cassia tree, Acacia clumps and it is 96 km east of Bourke and west of Walgett on the Kamilaroi Highway, and 787 km from Sydney. The population of Brewarrina in 2011 was 1,254, other towns and villages in the Brewarrina district include, Gongolgon and Angledool. The town is located amid the lands of the Ngemba. The area has a long Indigenous Australian history and was once the grounds for over 5,000 people. The first settlers arrived in the district around 1839-40, in 1859 a stockman at Walcha Hut on the Lawson run was warned by Aborigines to release one of their women. He refused, and both he and the woman were killed, in retaliation, the settlers shot a large number of Aboriginal men and children in what became known as the Hospital Creek Massacre. A memorial was erected by the local Aboriginal Land Council near the site of the massacre, in 1859 a riverboat called Gemini, skippered by William Randell, reached the town.
This opened the possibility of developing the town as a port, Brewarrina became a port for shipping wool to Adelaide via the Darling and Murray rivers. The town was surveyed and laid out in 1861 and proclaimed on 28 April 1863. The paddle steamer Wandering Jew 66 tonnes,22 ×4.4 ×1.5 m, on 15 December 1914, Wandering Jew was lost due to a fire on Barwon River, Brewarrina. The Wandering Jew represents an earlier era and provides a direct link to the riverine heritage of Brewarrina. Its colourful history and repeated damage by fire is evocative of the associated with riverboat travel. The 1870s were something of a time for Brewarrina. The courthouse was built in 1871, the Telegraph reached town in 1873. The Mechanics Institute formed in 1873, the following year two hotels, two stores and the Commercial Bank all opened, and in 1875 The Parish of Brewarrina was formed and public school was opened. All this development was due to Cobb and Co, which had a number of coach services passing through the town.
There was a service from Byrock, one from Dubbo via Warren and, in 1874, the number of people moving through the town at this time would have been considerable and would have given rise to the increase in stores and hotels
The Warrego River is northernmost tributary of the Darling River. The river rises from below Mount Ka Ka Mundi in the Carnarvon Range, near Tambo in Queensland, the river is joined by thirty-seven tributaries, including the Nive and Langlo rivers, descending 528 metres over its 1, 380-kilometre course. The river flows through a series of reservoirs, including the Dillalah Waterhole, Ten Mile Waterhole, Lower Lila Dam, Six Mile Dam, Turtle Waterhole, the towns of Augathella, Charleville and Cunnamulla are located on the banks of the river. Most of the basin of the Warrego is too dry for cropping and has an erratic rainfall of between 350 and 500 millimetres. It is covered with a vegetation of grassland of more fertile clay soils. The predominant land use is low-intensity grazing of sheep and cattle, below Wyandra the river forms a series of outflowing creeks and anabranches. During floods, the Widgeegoara and Noorama Creeks allow water to channel into Nebine Creek, cuttaburra Creek connects the Warrego to the Paroo River via a distribution system that flows through channels and wetlands.
The Irrara Creek anabranch flows into Kerribree Creek which continues into a number of wetlands before filling Utah Lake. When La Niña strikes, flooding is usual along the Warrego, the most destructive flood ever recorded on the river took place in the absence of La Niña. The river, along with most tributaries of the Darling, reached near-record levels, at Charleville a river height peak of 8.54 metres was recorded. The Warrego River is one of a few rivers where silver perch breed naturally, golden perch and murray cod are found on the river. The name Warrego is an Australian Aboriginal word from the Bidyara language, believed to mean bad, two warships of the Royal Australian Navy have been named HMAS Warrego after the river. The Warrego Highway draws its name from the river, rivers of New South Wales List of rivers of Queensland Barwon and Far Western catchments
Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members of the Aboriginal race of Australia. Until the 1980s, the legal and administrative criterion for inclusion in this category was race. In the era of colonial and post-colonial government, access to human rights depended upon your race. If you were a full blooded Aboriginal native, the Constitution of Australia, in its original form as of 1901, referred to Aboriginals twice, but without definition. Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament power to legislate with respect to the people of any throughout the Commonwealth. The purpose of this provision was to give the Commonwealth power to regulate non-white immigrant workers, the only other reference, Section 127, provided simply that aboriginal natives shall not be counted in reckoning the size of the population of the Commonwealth or any part of it. The purpose of section 127 was to prevent the inclusion of Aboriginal people in section 24 determinations of the distribution of House of Representatives seats amongst the states and territories, after both of these references were removed by the 1967 referendum, the Australian Constitution had no references to Aboriginals.
Since that time, there have been a number of proposals to amend the constitution to specifically mention Indigenous Australians, the change to Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament the power to make laws specifically with respect to Aboriginal peoples as a race. The case concerned an application of legislation that would preserve cultural heritage of Aboriginal Tasmanians and it was held that Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, together or separately, and any part of either, could be regarded as a race for this purpose. As to the criteria for identifying a person as a member of such a race, Deane said, It is unnecessary, for the purposes of the present case, to consider the meaning to be given to the phrase people of any race in s.51. Plainly, the words have a wide and non-technical meaning, the phrase is, in my view, apposite to refer to all Australian Aboriginals collectively. Any doubt, which might otherwise exist in regard, is removed by reference to the wording of par.
The phrase is apposite to refer to any identifiable racial sub-group among Australian Aboriginals, while Deanes three-part definition reaches beyond the biological criterion to individuals self-identification, it has been criticised as continuing to accept the biological criterion as primary. It has been difficult to apply, both in each of its parts and as to the relations among the parts, biological descent has been a fall-back criterion. If it is to be used to refer to us as a group of people. This has just really crept up on us and we are very happy with our involvement with indigenous people around the world, on the international forum because theyre our brothers and sisters. But we do object to it being used here in Australia and her lecture offered a new perspective on the terms urban, traditional and of Indigenous descent as used to define and categorise Aboriginal Australians. She said, Not only are these categories inappropriate, they serve to divide us, governments insistence on categorising us with modern words like urban, traditional and of Aboriginal descent are really only replacing old terms half-caste and full-blood – based on our colouring
In the 21st century, major Wiradjuri groups live in Condobolin, Peak Hill and Griffith. There are significant populations at Wagga Wagga and Leeton and smaller groups at West Wyalong, Dubbo, Cootamundra, the Wiradjuri name for themselves is Wirraaydhuurray or Wirraayjuurray. This is derived from wirraay, meaning no or not, with the suffix -dhuurray or -juuray meaning having, the Wiradjuri are the largest Aboriginal group in New South Wales. They occupy an area in central New South Wales, from the Blue Mountains in the east, to Hay in the west, north to Nyngan and south to Albury. The Wiradjuri tribal area has been described as the land of the three rivers, the Wambool known as the Macquarie, the Kalare known as the Lachlan, the Murray River forms the Wiradjuris southern boundary, the change from woodland to open grassland form their eastern boundary. Occupation of the land by the Wiradjuri can be seen by carved trees, carved trees are more commonly found around the Macquarie and Lachlan rivers in the north rather than the Murrumbidgee in the south.
Campsites, which indicate regular seasonal occupation by small groups, have found on river flats, open land. Norman Tindale quotes Alfred Howitt as mentioning several of these groups of the tribe, for example. There were differences in dialect in areas, including around Bathurst. The Wiradjuri are identified as a coherent group as they maintained a cycle of ceremonies that moved in a ring around the tribal area. This cycle led to tribal coherence despite the large occupied area, the Wiradjuri diet included yabbies and fish such as Murray cod from the rivers. In dry seasons, they ate kangaroos and food gathered from the land, including fruit, yam daisies, wattle seeds, the Wiradjuri travelled into Alpine areas in the summer to feast on Bogong moths. The Wiradjuri were known for their handsome possum-skin cloaks stitched together from several possum furs, governor Macquarie was presented with one of these cloaks by a Wiradjuri man when he visited Bathurst in 1815. D. Who has previously studied Australian Aboriginal languages in Arnhem Land and it is a member of the small Wiradhuric branch of the Pama–Nyungan family.
It is now taught in primary schools and can be studied at TAFE. One student says I love singing the songs like Heads, the copyright for A First Wiradjuri Dictionary is held by the Wiradjuri Council of Elders. The name of the town of Wagga Wagga comes from the Wiradjuri word wagga, meaning crow, to create the plural, the name translates as the place of many crows. Clashes between European settlers and the Aboriginal Peoples were very violent from 1821 to 1827, particularly around Bathurst, the loss of fishing grounds and significant sites was retaliated through attacks with spears on cattle and stockmen
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840
The Murrawarri Republic is a micronation that declared its independence from Australia in 2013, claiming territory straddling the border of the states of New South Wales-Queensland within Australia. The territory is the homeland of the Murrawarri people, an aboriginal nation. The government of Australia has not acknowledged the declaration of independence, on 30 March 2013, the Murrawarri Republic released a declaration announcing its independence. The Peoples Council of the Murrawarri gave the Queen of England, the deadline expired on 8 May 2013, with the Crown failing to give a response. On May 12,2013, the Murrawarri people took their sovereignty campaign to the United Nations, on 13 May 2013, the Murrawarri Republic established a Ministry of Defence. It is roughly 200 km from east to west and about 250 km from north to south, the republic’s website quotes its area as being 81,796 km2, but this area is inconsistent with measurements taken from the map. The First Peoples Worldwide website quotes the population of the Murrawarri republic as being approximately 4000, the dominant vegetation and climate, based on the Köppen classification, is described as hot, persistently dry grassland.
The average maximum and minimum temperatures in January are about 36°C and 18°C respectively, the rainfall is approximately 360 mm per annum, with more rain falling in the summer than in the winter. The Mitchell Highway traverses the territory north to south. The Provisional Council of State is the body of the Murrawarri Republic. The first meeting of the Peoples Council was held at Weilmoringle on 13 July 2013, fred Hooper is the current chairman of the Provisional Council of State. The brown and the light blue represent mother earth, the brown representing the land and the light blue as the sky from where Murrawarri spirits reside until their return on the falling star, as well as the water and the people. The white star in the left corner has eight points which represent the eight clan groups of the Murrawarri Republic
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
University of New South Wales
The University of New South Wales is an Australian public research university located in the suburb of Kensington in Sydney. Established in 1949, it is regarded as one of the leading universities. In 2016, it was the one university preference for high school students in the State of New South Wales. In the 2016 QS World University Rankings UNSW was ranked globally as 49th overall, 11th in the world for Accounting and Finance, 14th for law, UNSW has produced more millionaires than any other university in Australia. The university comprises eight faculties, through which it offers bachelor, the main campus is located on a 38-hectare site in the Sydney suburb of Kensington, seven kilometres from the centre of Sydney. Research stations are located throughout the state of New South Wales, UNSW is a founding member of the Group of Eight, a coalition of Australian research-intensive universities, and of Universitas 21, a global network of research universities. It has international exchange and research partnerships with over 200 universities around the world, the origins of the university can be traced to the Sydney Mechanics School of Arts established in 1833 and the Sydney Technical College established in 1878.
This led to the proposal to establish the Institute of Technology, submitted by the New South Wales Minister for Education Bob Heffron, accepted on 9 July 1946. In March 1948, classes commenced with a first intake of 46 students pursuing programs including engineering, mechanical engineering, mining engineering. At that time the programs were innovative. Each course embodied a specified and substantial period of training in the relevant industry. It was unprecedented for tertiary institutions at that time to include instruction in humanities. Initially, the university operated from the inner Sydney Technical College city campus in Ultimo, in 1958, the universitys name was changed to the University of New South Wales to reflect its transformation from a technology-based institution to a generalist university. In 1960, it established faculties of arts and medicine and shortly after decided to add the Faculty of Law, the universitys first director was Arthur Denning, who made important contributions to founding the university.
In 1953, he was replaced by Philip Baxter, who continued as vice-chancellor when this title was changed in 1955. Baxters dynamic, if authoritarian, management was central to the universitys first 20 years and his visionary, but at times controversial, energies saw the university grow from a handful to 15,000 students by 1968. The 1990s saw the addition of fine arts to the university, the university established colleges in Newcastle and Wollongong, which eventually became the University of Newcastle and the University of Wollongong in 1965 and 1975 respectively. At present, private sources contribute 45% of its annual funding, the university is home to the Lowy Cancer Research Centre, one of Australias largest cancer research facilities
The Balonne River, part of the Murray-Darling Basin system, is a short and important part of the inland river group of South West Queensland, Australia. The river is a continuation of the Condamine River, after flowing through Surat the river flows south south-westerly down through the E. J. Passing through St George it continues in the same south-west direction, until about 20 kilometres north of Dirranbandi, the eastern branch continues on as the Balonne River through Dirranbandi. Shortly after flowing through Dirranbandi, the Balonne River again branches into the Bokhara River on the west, the Bokhara river joins with the Barwon River west of Brewarrina, thus contributing to the Darling River. The Narran River flows into Narran Wetlands, the confluence of the Culgoa and Barwon Rivers forms the start of the Darling River. The Balonne-Condamine catchment area is 136,014 square kilometres, of which an area of 603 square kilometres is composed of wetlands and 559 square kilometres is estuarine wetlands.
The five longest tributaries of the Balonne River are the Condamine River, St St George, the river is crossed by the Andrew Nixon Bridge which carries the Balonne Highway. Beardmore Dam was formed by the construction of a weir in 1972 at the junction of the Maranoa, when the dam is full the water backs up for 70 kilometres along the Balonne. Downstream from Beardmore Dam is the Jack Taylor Weir, which was built in 1953, on the Balonne tributary, Dogwood Creek there is another weir, the Gill Weir, which can hold 1,050 megalitres. Major Thomas Mitchell crossed the Balonne River on St Georges Day,23 April 1846, Mitchell named the river after the Mandandanji word for water or running stream, balun or balonn or balonne. List of rivers of Queensland Andrew Nixon Bridge
The indigenous people identify themselves as Guringai. Their taurai is known to extend north to the Macleay River, Fraser came up with the name Kuringgai being a conjunction of the native words Koori/Guri to mean black man and Ngai, meaning black woman, or belonging to. According to Fraser, the Kuringgai were bordered by the Wachigari and the Paikalyung to the north, the Kamalarai to the northwest, the Wiradhari to the west and the Murrinjari to the south. However, Norman Tindale would say in 1974 that the Awabakal are the one of a series of tribes to which the arbitrary term Kuringgai has been applied by Fraser. He divided the area Fraser labelled Kuringgai into several tribes, including the Tharawal, Dharuk, Awabakal, Birpai, the clan groups are the Garigal, Borregegal, Walkeloa with hundreds more. They were hunters and gatherers within their land, the Guringai lives were dictated by the seasons and the seasonal travels throughout their lands, with great ceremony. The Guringai still live in their traditional homelands, the Aborigines of New South Wales.
Sauchie House, West Maitland, University of Newcastle, bibliography of Ku-ring-gai people and language resources, at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
Contact with the first white settlements bridgehead into Australia quickly devastated much of the population through epidemics of smallpox and other diseases. Their descendants live on, though the language, social system, way of life and traditions are mostly lost. The language spoken by the Eora has, since the time of R. H. Mathews, been called Dharuk, the Australian bush term bogey comes from a Port Jackson Dharuk root buugi-. In terms of boundaries, the Kuringgai lay to the north, on the Western edges were the Darug, and to the south, around Kundul were the Gwiyagal. Eora is used specifically of the people around the first area of settlement in Sydney. The generic term Eora generally is used with a wider denotation to embrace some 29 bands, which in turn constituted clans that spoke several distinct languages. Thus, Eora is used collectively to refer to all tribes in the area of the settlement area, the Guringai to the north, the Tharawal people to the south. These have been classified into the language groups.
The sizes of bands, as opposed to clans, averaged around 50 members, -gal denominates the clan affixed to the place name. Muringong Camden Cattai Windsor Kurrajong Kurrajong Boo-bain-ora Wentworthville Mulgoa Penrith 4, dharawal South Gweagal Norongerragal Illawarra Threawal Tagary Wandeandegal The Cadigal people are the traditional owners of the inner Sydney city region. Their traditional land and waters are south of Port Jackson, stretching from South Head to Petersham, the people described by British settlers as the Eora people were probably Cadigal people, the Aboriginal tribe of the inner Sydney region in 1788 at the time of first European settlement. The Cadigal clan western boundary is approximately the Balmain peninsula, the traditional territory of the Wanegal people begins around Goat Island and runs west past Concord to what is now called Parramatta, and includes parts of Lane Cove River. The Cammeraygal peoples traditional territory is on the present-day lower North Shore of Port Jackson, the traditional Eora people were largely coastal dwellers and lived mainly from the produce of the sea.
They were expert in navigation, fishing and eating in the bays. The Eora people did not grow or plant crops, although the women picked herbs which were used in herbal remedies, the Eora placed a time limit on formal battles engaged in order to settle inter-tribal grievances. Such fights were regulated to begin late in the afternoon, the first contact occurred when James Cooks Endeavour anchored in Botany Bay. A drawing, thought recently to be the handiwork of the Polynesian navigator Turpaia who was on board Cooks ship, survives depicting Aboriginals in Botany Bay, around Kurnel. When the First Fleet of 1300 convicts and administrators arrived in January 1788, by early 1789 frequent remarks were made of great numbers of decomposed bodies of Eora natives which settlers and sailors came across on beaches, in coves and in the bays