Oberelsaß was the southern part of the historical region Alsace or Elsass, inhabited by locals speaking Alemannic German. From 1871 to 1918, Bezirk Oberelsaß was a region in the southern part of the province of Elsaß-Lothringen in the German Empire; the region corresponds to the current French department of Haut-Rhin. Its capital was Colmar, it was divided into the districts of: Altkirch within the Sundgau Colmar Gebweiler Mülhausen Rappoltsweiler ThannThe flag of Oberelsaß is a yellow bar on a red field decorated on each side with three crowns. The combination of this flag with that of Unterelsaß forms the flag of modern Alsace
Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located at the border with Germany in the historic region of Alsace, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin department. In 2016, the city proper had 279,284 inhabitants and both the Eurométropole de Strasbourg and the Arrondissement of Strasbourg had 491,409 inhabitants. Strasbourg's metropolitan area had a population of 785,839 in 2015, making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est region's inhabitants; the transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014. Strasbourg is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union, as it is the seat of several European institutions, such as the Council of Europe and the Eurocorps, as well as the European Parliament and the European Ombudsman of the European Union; the city is the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine and the International Institute of Human Rights.
Strasbourg's historic city centre, the Grande Île, was classified a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988, the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. Strasbourg is immersed in Franco-German culture and although violently disputed throughout history, has been a cultural bridge between France and Germany for centuries through the University of Strasbourg the second largest in France, the coexistence of Catholic and Protestant culture, it is home to the largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque. Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road and river transportation; the port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Germany. Before the 5th century, the city was known as Argantorati, a Celtic Gaulish name Latinized first as Argentorate, as Argentoratum; that Gaulish name is a compound of -rati, the Gaulish word for fortified enclosures, cognate to the Old Irish ráth, arganto-, the Gaulish word for silver, but any precious metal gold, suggesting either a fortified enclosure located by a river gold mining site, or hoarding gold mined in the nearby rivers.
After the 5th century, the city became known by a different name Gallicized as Strasbourg. That name is of Germanic origin and means "Town of roads"; the modern Stras- is cognate to the German Straße and English street, all of which are derived from Latin strata, while -bourg is cognate to the German Burg and English borough, all of which are derived from Proto-Germanic *burgz. Gregory of Tours was the first to mention the name change: in the tenth book of his History of the Franks written shortly after 590 he said that Egidius, Bishop of Reims, accused of plotting against King Childebert II of Austrasia in favor of his uncle King Chilperic I of Neustria, was tried by a synod of Austrasian bishops in Metz in November 590, found guilty and removed from the priesthood taken "ad Argentoratensem urbem, quam nunc Strateburgum vocant", where he was exiled. Strasbourg is situated at the eastern border of France with Germany; this border is formed by the Rhine, which forms the eastern border of the modern city, facing across the river to the German town Kehl.
The historic core of Strasbourg however lies on the Grande Île in the river Ill, which here flows parallel to, 4 kilometres from, the Rhine. The natural courses of the two rivers join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city; the city lies in the Upper Rhine Plain, at between 132 metres and 151 metres above sea level, with the upland areas of the Vosges Mountains some 20 km to the west and the Black Forest 25 km to the east. This section of the Rhine valley is a major axis of north–south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself, major roads and railways paralleling it on both banks; the city is some 397 kilometres east of Paris. The mouth of the Rhine lies 450 kilometres to the north, or 650 kilometres as the river flows, whilst the head of navigation in Basel is some 100 kilometres to the south, or 150 kilometres by river. In spite of its position far inland, Strasbourg's climate is classified as oceanic, but a "semicontinental" climate with some degree of maritime influence in relation to the mild patterns of Western and Southern France.
The city has warm sunny summers and cool, overcast winters. Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but remains constant throughout the year, totaling 631.4 mm annually. On average, snow falls 30 days per year; the highest temperature recorded was 38.5 °C in August 2003, during the 2003 European heat wave. The lowest temperature eve
Ethnography is the systematic study of people and cultures. It is designed to explore cultural phenomena where the researcher observes society from the point of view of the subject of the study. An ethnography is a means to represent graphically and in writing the culture of a group; the word can thus be said to have a double meaning, which depends on whether it is used as a count noun or uncountable. The resulting field study or a case report reflects the knowledge and the system of meanings in the lives of a cultural group; as a method of data collection, ethnography entails examining the behaviour of the participants in a certain specific social situation and understanding their interpretation of such behaviour. Dewan further elaborates that this behaviour may be shaped by the constraints the participants feel because of the situations they are in or by the society in which they belong. Ethnography, as the presentation of empirical data on human societies and cultures, was pioneered in the biological and cultural branches of anthropology, but it has become popular in the social sciences in general—sociology, communication studies, history—wherever people study ethnic groups, compositions, social welfare characteristics, spirituality, a people's ethnogenesis.
The typical ethnography is a holistic study and so includes a brief history, an analysis of the terrain, the climate, the habitat. In all cases, it should be reflexive, make a substantial contribution toward the understanding of the social life of humans, have an aesthetic impact on the reader, express a credible reality. An ethnography records all observed behavior and describes all symbol-meaning relations, using concepts that avoid causal explanations. Traditionally, ethnography was focussed on the western gaze towards the far'exotic' east, but now researchers are undertaking ethnography in their own social environment. According to Dewan if we are the other, the ‘another’ or the ‘native’, we are still ‘another’ because there are many facades of ourselves that connect us to people and other facades that highlight our differences; the word'ethnography' is derived from the Greek ἔθνος, meaning "a company a people, nation" and -graphy, meaning "writing". Ethnographic studies focus on large cultural groups of people.
Ethnography is a set of qualitative methods that are used in social sciences that focus on the observation of social practices and interactions. Its aim is to observe a situation without imposing any deductive structure or framework upon it and to view everything as strange or unique; the field of anthropology originated from Europe and England designed in late 19th century. It spread its roots to the United States at the beginning of the 20th century; some of the main contributors like E. B. Tylor from Britain and Lewis H. Morgan, an American scientist were considered as founders of cultural and social dimensions. Franz Boas, Bronislaw Malinowski, Ruth Benedict, Margaret Mead, were a group of researchers from the United States who contributed the idea of cultural relativism to the literature. Boas's approach focused on the use of documents and informants, whereas Malinowski stated that a researcher should be engrossed with the work for long periods in the field and do a participant observation by living with the informant and experiencing their way of life.
He gives the viewpoint of the native and this became the origin of field work and field methods. Since Malinowski was firm with his approach he applied it and traveled to Trobriand Islands which are located off the eastern coast of New Guinea, he was interested in learning the language of the islanders and stayed there for a long time doing his field work. The field of ethnography became popular in the late 19th century, as many social scientists gained an interest in studying modern society. Again, in the latter part of the 19th century, the field of anthropology became a good support for scientific formation. Though the field was flourishing, it had a lot of threats to encounter. Postcolonialism, the research climate shifted towards feminism. Therefore, the field of anthropology moved into a discipline of social science. Gerhard Friedrich Müller developed the concept of ethnography as a separate discipline whilst participating in the Second Kamchatka Expedition as a professor of history and geography.
Whilst involved in the expedition, he differentiated Völker-Beschreibung as a distinct area of study. This became known as "ethnography," following the introduction of the Greek neologism ethnographia by Johann Friedrich Schöpperlin and the German variant by A. F. Thilo in 1767. August Ludwig von Schlözer and Christoph Wilhelm Jacob Gatterer of the University of Göttingen introduced the term into the academic discourse in an attempt to reform the contemporary understanding of world history. Herodotus, known as the Father of History, had significant works on the cultures of various peoples beyond the Hellenic realm such as the Scythians, which earned him the title "philobarbarian", may be said to have produced the first works of ethnography. There are different forms of ethnography: confessional ethnography. Two popular forms of ethnography are realist critical ethnography. Realist ethnography is a traditional approach used by cultural anthropologists. Characterized by Van Maanen, it reflects a particular instance taken by the researcher toward the individual being studied.
It's an objective study of the situation
Alsace independence movement
Alsace autonomist movement or is a cultural and political regionalist movement for greater autonomy or outright independence of Alsace. Purposes include opposition to centralist territorial and legal pretensions of either France, including the new French region Grand Est since 1 January 2016, Pan-Germanism of Germany, it instead favours regional decentralization including political and fiscal autonomy for Alsace, promoting the defense of its culture, history and bilingualism of the Alsatian language. A slogan that has sometimes occurred in protests in the 21st century is "Elsass frei". Several mass protests have taken place in public places around Alsace in opposition to the French region of Grand Est, with ratification on 1 January 2016. In addition, several Alsatian organisations and political parties have been formed to promote the cause, notably Alsace d'abord and Unser Land; the movement of greater autonomy of Alsace runs parallel to that of Alemannic separatism, originating in the Napoleonic era and revived both after World War I and after World War II.
Due to expansionist doctrines of France since the time of Louis XIV, Alsatians have been subject to many shifts in European history. Over the centuries, many figures and organisations have contributed to the cause of rejected either or both of these pretentions, promoting varying degrees of autonomy or independence, both in public and in form of political participation. Various autonomist and separatist movements in Alsace have received support from over the political spectrum, including left and right, comprising diverse political ideologies. Alsatian Workers and Peasants Party The establishment of Nazi Germany and its annexation of Alsace-Lorraine during the World War II, introduced a new situation for many Alsatians, including hardships for many, such as the malgré-nous. However, some advocates of autonomy for Alsace saw the new regime as a chance to reenacted rights for the culture and autonomy of the Alsatians under French government. While few were attracted to the anti-semitism or authoritarianism of the regime, a number of Alsatian autonomists were subsequently accused of collaboration with Nazi officials after the war, some of which were trialed and executed.
Fr:Fritz Spieser de:Paul Schall fr:Joseph Bilger fr:Marcel Stürmel fr:Camille Dahlet fr:Joseph Rossé Jean-Pierre Mourer Charles Hueber fr:Charles Roos Eugène Ricklin After war related groups fr:Nanziger and fr:Loups Noirs remain notable. However, other Alsatian were staunch opponents of the Nazi occupation, such as the artist Jean-Jacques Waltz. In contemporary Alsace, Unser Land, formed in 2009 after a merge of Union du peuple alsacien and Fer's Elsass, constitutes the most notable current political party associated with promotion of greater autonomy of Alsace. Alsace d'abord is a little far-right organization related to Bloc Identitaire who uses the alsatian folklore to develop an islamophobic rhetoric. Alsace d'abord fr:Robert Spieler fr:Jacques Cordonnier fr:Front culturel alsacien fr:André Weckmann fr:Andrée Buchmann fr:Solidarité alsacienne fr:Pierre Zind Despite many protests, the new French region of Grand Est was introduced with ratification on 1 January 2016. Es:Alsacia en 1789 November 1918 in Alsace-Lorraine Alemannic separatism Grand Est#Opposition Alsace d'abord Unser Land fr:Union du peuple alsacien fr:Fer's Elsass de:Nationalforum Elsass-Lothringen fr:Front culturel alsacien Popular Republican Union Heiko Haumann: „Schwäbisch-alemannische Demokratie“ gegen „Staufisch-schwäbischen Imperialismus“?
Politische Konzeptionen in Baden und Württemberg 1945–1952. In: Allmende. Zeitschrift für Literatur. Bd. 8, Nr. 20, Karlsruhe 1988, 36–52, ISSN 0720-3098. Manfred Joss: Schwäbisch-Alemannische Demokratie. Vision und Scheitern eines Separatstaats im deutschen Südwesten nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg. Lizentiatsarbeit, Historisches Institut, Universität Bern 2005. Jürgen Klöckler: „Das Land der Alemannen …“. Pläne für einen Heimatstaat im Bodenseeraum nach 1945. UVK Verlagsgesellschaft, Konstanz 1999, ISBN 3-89669-906-7
A fireplace fireback is a piece of heavy cast iron, sized in proportion to the fireplace and the fire, placed against the back wall of the fireplace. The primary function of a fireback is to protect the wall at the back of the fireplace; this was important where the wall was constructed of insubstantial material such as daub, brick or soft stone. Protective metal plates that became available when cast iron was developed enabled fires to be placed against walls without danger to the fabric of the building. A secondary function is as a radiator of stored heat; the metal is heated by the fire, that heat is radiated into the room. The thick iron gives back this heat to the room. A fireback thus may increase the efficiency of the fire. Wood fires have low efficiency, for those that prefer the atmosphere of an open wood fire the fireback helps to minimise this problem; the thicker the fireback, the longer this radiative effect. In parts of southern Belgium and the adjacent areas of France and Luxembourg, iron plates formed part of the wall behind kitchen fireplaces allowing the radiative effect to be felt in the room behind, the heat being controlled by erecting a cupboard around the plate, opening or closing the doors of which controlled the heat entering the room.
Old firebacks are nowadays used as a backsplash above the stove, reminiscent of its old function in the Victorian kitchen. Moreover, they are used as beautiful pieces of decorative art and are sometimes displayed apart from the fireplace; the oldest firebacks date from the early days of iron casting. Early firebacks were decorated with simple designs derived from everyday objects such as rope, moulds used in the making of certain types of foods, furniture fragments and other domestic and personal items. Designs formed from specially-carved wooden stamps and entire wooden patterns or models became more used and displayed coats of arms of royalty, the church and aristocracy. Pictorial designs with religious themes were common in Germany. Firebacks bore mythological and allegorical subjects, as well as scenes from nature. Firebacks made for the Dutch market included examples with reference to Dutch independence; the increasing use of coal as a domestic heating fuel caused a decline in many countries in the need for firebacks and their gradual replacement by integral grates.
In France, wood-burning open fireplaces remained popular and firebacks continued to be produced there in the 19th century. Recastings of historic fireback designs are still made in the United States. Carpentier, H.: Plaques de cheminées, 1912 Nygärd-Nilssen, A.: Norsk Jernskulptur, Oslo, 1944 Aitchison, L.: History of metals, McDonald & Evans, London, 1960 Mercer, H.: The Bible in Iron, Bucks County Historical Society, Doylestown, 1961 Kelly, A.: The book of English fireplaces, Country Life Books, Feltham, 1968 Kippenberger, A.: Die Kunst der Ofenplatten, Verlag Stahleisen, Düsseldorf, 1973 Theisen, S.: Der Eifeler Eisenkunstguss im 15. Und 16. Jahrhundert, Rheinland Verlag, Köln, 1973 Pesch, D.: Herdgussplatten, Rheinland Verlag, Köln, 1982 von den Driesch, K.: Handbuch der Ofen-, Kamin- und Takenplatten im Rheinland, Rheinland Verlag, Köln, 1990 Hodgkinson, J.: British Cast-Iron Firebacks of the sixteenth to mid eighteenth Centuries, HodgersBooks, Crawley, 2010 Palasi, P.: Plaques de cheminées héraldiques, Éditions Gourcuff-Gradenigo, Paris, 2014
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon, surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, supporters and motto. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to an individual person, state, organization or corporation; the Roll of Arms is a collection of many coats of arms, since the early Modern Age centuries it has been a source of information for public showing and tracing the membership of a noble family, therefore its genealogy across time. The ancient Greek hoplites used individual insignia on their shields; the ancient Romans used similar insignia on their shields. Heraldic designs came into general use among western nobility in the 12th century. Systematic, heritable heraldry had developed by the beginning of the 13th century. Who had a right to use arms, by law or social convention, varied to some degree between countries. Early heraldic designs were personal. Arms become hereditary by the end of the 12th century, in England by King Richard I during the Third Crusade.
Burgher arms are used in Northern Italy in the second half of the 13th century, in the Holy Roman Empire by the mid 14th century. In the late medieval period, use of arms spread to the clergy, to towns as civic identifiers, to royally chartered organizations such as universities and trading companies; the arts of vexillology and heraldry are related. The term coat of arms itself in origin refers to the surcoat with heraldic designs worn by combattants in the knightly tournament, in Old French cote a armer; the sense is transferred to the heraldic design itself in the mid-14th century. Despite no widespread regulation, heraldry has remained consistent across Europe, where tradition alone has governed the design and use of arms; some nations, like England and Scotland, still maintain the same heraldic authorities which have traditionally granted and regulated arms for centuries and continue to do so in the present day. In England, for example, the granting of arms has been controlled by the College of Arms.
Unlike seals and other general emblems, heraldic "achievements" have a formal description called a blazon, which uses vocabulary that allows for consistency in heraldic depictions. In the present day, coats of arms are still in use by a variety of institutions and individuals: for example, many European cities and universities have guidelines on how their coats of arms may be used, protect their use as trademarks. Many societies exist that aid in the design and registration of personal arms. Heraldry has been compared to modern corporate logos; the French system of heraldry influenced the British and Western European systems. Much of the terminology and classifications are taken from it. However, with the fall of the French monarchy there is not a Fons Honorum to enforce heraldic law; the French Republics that followed have either affirmed pre-existing titles and honors or vigorously opposed noble privilege. Coats of arms are considered an intellectual property of municipal body. Assumed arms are considered valid unless they can be proved in court to copy that of an earlier holder.
In the heraldic traditions of England and Scotland, an individual, rather than a family, had a coat of arms. In those traditions coats of arms are legal property transmitted from father to son. Undifferenced arms are used only by one person at any given time. Other descendants of the original bearer could bear the ancestral arms only with some difference: a colour change or the addition of a distinguishing charge. One such charge is the label, which in British usage is now always the mark of an heir apparent or an heir presumptive; because of their importance in identification in seals on legal documents, the use of arms was regulated. This has been carried out by heralds and the study of coats of arms is therefore called "heraldry". In time, the use of arms spread from military entities to educational institutes, other establishments. In Scotland, the Lord Lyon King of Arms has criminal jurisdiction to control the use of arms. In England, Northern Ireland and Wales the use of arms is a matter of civil law and regulated by the College of Arms and the High Court of Chivalry.
In reference to a dispute over the exercise of authority over the Officers of Arms in England, Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey, Lord Privy Seal, declared on 16 June 1673 that the powers of the Earl Marshal were "to order and determine all matters touching arms, ensigns of nobility and chivalry. It was further declared that no patents of arms or any ensigns of nobility should be granted and no augmentation, alteration, or addition should be made to arms without the consent of the Earl Marshal. In Ireland the usage and granting of coats of arms was regulated by the Ulster King of Arms from the office's creation in 1552. After Irish independence in 1922 the office was still working out of Dublin Castle; the last Ulster King of Arm
Grand Est Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine, is an administrative region in eastern France. It superseded three former administrative regions—Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine—on 1 January 2016, as a result of territorial reform, passed by the French legislature in 2014. Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine was a provisional name, created by hyphenating the merged regions in alphabetical order. France's Conseil d'État approved Grand Est as the new name of the region on 28 September 2016, effective 30 September 2016; the administrative capital and largest city is Strasbourg. The provisional name of the region was Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine, formed by combining the names of the three present regions—Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine—in alphabetical order with hyphens; the formula for the provisional name of the region was established by the territorial reform law and applied to all but one of the provisional names for new regions. The ACAL regional council, elected in December 2015, was given the task of choosing a name for the region and submitting it to the Conseil d'État—France's highest authority for administrative law—by 1 July 2016 for approval.
The provisional name of the region was retired on 30 September 2016, when the new name of the region, Grand Est, took effect. In Alsace and in Lorraine, the new region has been called ALCA, for Alsace-Lorraine-Champagne-Ardennes, on the internet. Like the name Région Hauts-de-France, the name Région Grand Est contains no reference whatsoever to the area's history or identity, but describes its geographical location within metropolitan France. In a poll conducted in November 2014 by France 3 in Champagne-Ardenne, Grand Est and Austrasie were the top two names among 25 candidates and 4,701 votes. Grand Est topped a poll the following month conducted by L'Est Républicain, receiving 42% of 3,324 votes; the names which received a moderate amount of discussion were: Grand Est français, a term used to refer to the northeast quarter of Metropolitan France, although this term refers to a geographic region larger than just ACAL. The term has been used and topped the polls mentioned above. Grand Est Europe, a variant of Grand Est that alludes to the region being a gateway to Europe both through trade and since Strasbourg is home to several European institutions.
However, the name was mocked for. Austrasie, which refers to an historical region spanning parts of present-day northeast France, the Benelux, northwest Germany. Quatre frontières. Grand Est is the sixth-largest of the regions of France. Grand Est borders four countries—Belgium, Luxembourg and Switzerland—along its northern and eastern sides, it is the only French region to border more than two countries. To the west and south, it borders the French regions Hauts-de-France, Île-de-France, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. Grand Est contains ten departments: Ardennes, Bas-Rhin, Haute-Marne, Haut-Rhin, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Moselle, Vosges; the main ranges in the region include the Vosges to the Ardennes to the north. The region is bordered on the east by the Rhine. Other major rivers which flow through the region include the Meuse, Marne, Saône. Lakes in the region include lac de Gérardmer, lac de Longemer, lac de Retournemer, lac des Corbeaux, Lac de Bouzey, lac de Madine, étang du Stock and lac de Pierre-Percée.
Grand Est climate depends of the proximity of the sea. In Champagne and Western Lorraine, the climate is oceanic, with mild summers, but Moselle and Alsace climates are humid continental, characterized by cold winters with frequent days below the freezing point, hot summers, with many days with temperatures up to 32°C. Grand Est is the result of territorial reform legislation passed in 2014 by the French Parliament to reduce the number of regions in Metropolitan France—the part of France in continental Europe—from 22 to 13. ACAL is the merger of three regions: Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine; the merger has been, still is opposed by some groups in Alsace, a large majority of Alsatians. The territorial reform law allows new regions to choose the seat of the regional councils, but made Strasbourg the seat of the Grand Est regional council—a move to appease the region's politicians; the region has an official population of 5,555,186. The regional council has limited administrative authority concerning the promotion of the region's economy and financing educational and cultural activities.
The regional council has no legislative authority. The seat of the regional council will be Strasbourg; the regional council, elected in December 2015, is controlled by The Republicans. The elected inaugural president of the Grand Est Regional Council is Philippe Richert, the President of the Alsace Regional Council; the current president is Jean Rottner. The region has five tram networks: Strasbourg tramway Reims tramway Nancy Guided Light Transit Mulhouse tramway Saarbahn The region has four airports: EuroAirport Basel M