Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Maurice de Vlaminck
Maurice de Vlaminck was a French painter. Along with André Derain and Henri Matisse he is considered one of the principal figures in the Fauve movement, a group of modern artists who from 1904 to 1908 were united in their use of intense colour. Vlaminck was one of the Fauves at the controversial Salon d'Automne exhibition of 1905. Maurice de Vlaminck was born on Rue Pierre Lescot in Paris, his father Edmond Julien was Flemish and taught violin and his mother Joséphine Caroline Grillet came from Lorraine and taught piano. His father taught him to play the violin, he began painting in his late teens. In 1893, he studied with a painter named Henri Rigalon on the Île de Chatou. In 1894 he married Suzanne Berly; the turning point in his life was a chance meeting on the train to Paris towards the end of his stint in the army. Vlaminck 23, met an aspiring artist, André Derain, with whom he struck up a lifelong friendship; when Vlaminck completed his army service in 1900, the two rented a studio together, the Maison Levanneur, which now houses the Cneai, for a year before Derain left to do his own military service.
In 1902 and 1903 he wrote several mildly pornographic novels illustrated by Derain. He painted during the day and earned his livelihood by giving violin lessons and performing with musical bands at night. Vlaminck participated in the controversial 1905 Salon d'Automne exhibition. After viewing the boldly colored canvases of Vlaminck, Henri Matisse, André Derain, Albert Marquet, Kees van Dongen, Charles Camoin, Jean Puy, the art critic Louis Vauxcelles disparaged the painters as "fauves", thus giving their movement the name by which it became known, Fauvism. In 1911, Vlaminck painted by the Thames. In 1913, he painted again with Derain in Martigues. In World War I he was stationed in Paris, began writing poetry, he settled in Rueil-la-Gadelière, a small village south-west of Paris. He married Berthe Combes, with whom he had two daughters. From 1925 he traveled throughout France, but continued to paint along the Seine, near Paris. Resentful that Fauvism had been overtaken by Cubism as an art movement Vlaminck blamed Picasso "for dragging French painting into a wretched dead end and state of confusion".
During the Second World War Vlaminck visited Germany and on his return published a tirade against Picasso and Cubism in the periodical Comoedia in June 1942. A gifted story teller, Vlaminck wrote many autobiographies, which were somewhat marred either by vagueness or lack of absolute truthfulness. Vlaminck died in Rueil-la-Gadelière on 11 October 1958. Two of Vlaminck's groundbreaking paintings, Sur le zinc and L'homme a la pipe were painted in 1900. For the next few years Vlaminck lived in or near Chatou and exhibiting alongside Derain and other Fauvist painters. At this time his exuberant paint application and vibrant use of colour displayed the influence of Vincent van Gogh. Sur le zinc called to mind the work of Toulouse-Lautrec and his portrayals of prostitutes and solitary drinkers, but does not attempt to probe the sitter's psychology—a break with the century-old European tradition of individualized portraiture. According to art critic Souren Melikian, it is "the impersonal cartoon of a type."
In his landscape paintings, his approach was similar. He ignored the details, with the landscape becoming a mere excuse to express mood through violent colour and brushwork. An example is Sous bois, painted in 1904; the following year, he began to experiment with "deconstruction," turning the physical world into dabs and streaks of colour that convey a sense of motion. His paintings Le Pont de Chatou, Les Ramasseurs de pommes de terre, La Seine a Chatou and Le Verger exemplify this trend. Vlaminck's compositions show familiarity with the Impressionists, several of whom had painted in the same area in the 1870s and 1880s. After visiting a Van Gogh exhibit, he declared that he "loved Van Gogh that day more than my own father". From 1908 his palette grew more monochromatic, the predominant influence was that of Cézanne, his work displayed a dark palette, punctuated by heavy strokes of contrasting white paint. Some of his works are held at the Minneapolis Institute of Art. Maurice de Vlaminck on artnet 75 images of de Vlaminck's painting art, on Wikiart Maurice de Vlaminck Bio - Findlay Galleries Maurice de Vlaminck - Biography Works by Maurice de Vlaminck
Wilhelm Lehmbruck was a German sculptor. Born in Duisburg, he was the fourth of eight children born to the miner Wilhelm Lehmbruck and his wife Margaretha, he was able to study sculpture arts at the School of Applied Arts in Düsseldorf by a stipend from the municipal authorities. In 1899 he began to make a living by doing illustrations for scientific publications, he trained at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf and is associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting from 1901 to 1906. On leaving the academy Lehmbruck worked as an independent artist in Düsseldorf, he exhibited for the first time at the Deutsche Kunstausstellung, in Cologne in 1906. He was impressed by the sculptures of Auguste Rodin, traveled to England, the Netherlands, Paris. In 1907, he married Anita Kaufmann, they had three sons. In 1912 Lehmbruck exhibited in the Folkwang Museum with Egon Schiele. In 1914, he had his first solo exhibition in Paris, at the Galerie Levesque, he contributed to an exhibition at the Grand Palais in Paris.
From 1910–1914 he lived in Paris. He frequented the Café du Dôme, where he met sculptors such as Modigliani, Brâncuși, Archipenko. During World War I he served as a paramedic at a military hospital in Berlin; the suffering and misery he saw. He suffered from severe depression and fled the war by going to Zürich at the end of 1916. There he made contact with the socialist, L. Rubiner, he was elected to the Prussian Academy of Arts in Berlin in early 1919. After the war he returned to Berlin where he committed suicide on March 25, 1919. Lehmbruck's sculptures concentrate on the human body and are influenced by Naturalism and Expressionism, his works, including female nudes, are marked by a sense of melancholy and an elongation of form common to Gothic architecture. Throughout his career, architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe placed his friend Lehmbruck's sculptures and those of Aristide Maillol into his buildings and designs; the Lehmbruck Museum has in its collection about 100 sculptures, 40 paintings, 900 drawings and 200 graphical works by Wilhelm Lehmbruck.
The museum, named after Wilhelm Lehmbruck, was designed by his son, Manfred Lehmbruck. The Honolulu Museum of Art, the Museum of Modern Art, the National Gallery of Art, Städel Museum, the Tate Gallery are among the public collections holding works by Wilhelm Lehmbruck. One of his sculptures can be seen in the Villa Tugendhat. Lehmbruck-Museum August Hoff. Wilhelm Lehmbruck, Berlin: Klinkhardt & Biermann, 1933. Werner Hofmann, Wilhelm Lehmbruck. London: Zwemmer 1958 August Hoff, Wilhelm Lehmbruck: life and work. New York: Praeger 1969 Reinhold Heller, The art of Wilhelm Lehmbruck, National Gallery of Art, 1972 Marion Bornscheuer. Wilhelm Lehmbruck with Matisse, Debussy, Rodin, Nijinsky in Paris 1911. Lehmbruck Museum Duisburg. Cologne: DuMont Buchverlag, 2011, ISBN 978-3-83219-427-7 Hans-Peter Wipplinger. Retrospektive/Retrospective. Leopold Museum Vienna, Cologne: Walther König 2016, ISBN 978-3-86335-902-7 Erwin Petermann, Die Druckgraphik von Wilhelm Lehmbruck. Verzeichnis. Stuttgart: Hatje, 1964 Gerhard Händler, Wilhelm Lehmbruck.
Die Zeichnungen der Reifezeit. Stuttgart: Hatje, 1985, ISBN 3-7757-0188-5 Margarita C. Lahusen, Wilhelm Lehmbruck. Gemälde und großformatige Zeichnungen. Munich: Hirmer, 1997, ISBN 3-7774-6370-1. Dietrich Schubert, Wilhelm Lehmbruck – Catalogue raisonné der Skulpturen. Worms: Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft, 2001, ISBN 3-88462-172-6. Works by or about Wilhelm Lehmbruck at Internet Archive Lehmbruck Museum in Duisburg
Thomas Woodrow Wilson was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States from 1913 to 1921. A member of the Democratic Party, Wilson served as the president of Princeton University and as the 34th governor of New Jersey before winning the 1912 presidential election; as president, he oversaw the passage of progressive legislative policies unparalleled until the New Deal in 1933. He led the United States during World War I, establishing an activist foreign policy known as "Wilsonianism." Born in Staunton, Wilson spent his early years in Augusta and Columbia, South Carolina. After earning a Ph. D. in political science from Johns Hopkins University, Wilson taught at various schools before becoming the president of Princeton. As governor of New Jersey from 1911 to 1913, Wilson broke with party bosses and won the passage of several progressive reforms, his success in New Jersey gave him a national reputation as a progressive reformer, he won the presidential nomination at the 1912 Democratic National Convention.
Wilson defeated incumbent Republican President William Howard Taft and Progressive Party nominee Theodore Roosevelt to win the 1912 presidential election, becoming the first Southerner to serve as president since the American Civil War. During his first term, Wilson presided over the passage of his progressive New Freedom domestic agenda, his first major priority was the passage of the Revenue Act of 1913, which lowered tariffs and implemented a federal income tax. Tax acts implemented a federal estate tax and raised the top income tax rate to 77 percent. Wilson presided over the passage of the Federal Reserve Act, which created a central banking system in the form of the Federal Reserve System. Two major laws, the Federal Trade Commission Act and the Clayton Antitrust Act, were passed to regulate and break up large business interests known as trusts. To the disappointment of his African-American supporters, Wilson allowed some of his Cabinet members to segregate their departments. Upon the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Wilson maintained a policy of neutrality between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers.
He won re-election by a narrow margin in the presidential election of 1916, defeating Republican nominee Charles Evans Hughes. In early 1917, Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war against Germany after Germany implemented a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, Congress complied. Wilson presided over war-time mobilization but devoted much of his efforts to foreign affairs, developing the Fourteen Points as a basis for post-war peace. After Germany signed an armistice in November 1918, Wilson and other Allied leaders took part in the Paris Peace Conference, where Wilson advocated for the establishment of a multilateral organization known as the League of Nations; the League of Nations was incorporated into the Treaty of Versailles and other treaties with the defeated Central Powers, but Wilson was unable to convince the Senate to ratify that treaty or allow the United States to join the League. Wilson suffered a severe stroke in October 1919 and was incapacitated for the remainder of his presidency.
He retired from public office in 1921, died in 1924. Scholars rank Wilson as one of the better U. S. presidents, though he has received strong criticism for his actions regarding racial segregation. Thomas Woodrow Wilson was born to a Scots-Irish family in Staunton, Virginia, on December 28, 1856, he was the third of four children and the first son of Joseph Ruggles Wilson and Jessie Janet Woodrow, who were slaveholders. Wilson's paternal grandparents had immigrated to the United States from Strabane, County Tyrone, Ireland in 1807, settling in Steubenville, Ohio, his grandfather James Wilson published a pro-tariff and anti-slavery newspaper, The Western Herald and Gazette. Wilson's maternal grandfather, Reverend Thomas Wodrow, migrated from Paisley, Scotland to Carlisle, before moving to Chillicothe, Ohio in the late 1830s. Joseph met Jessie while she was attending a girl's academy in Steubenville, the two married on June 7, 1849. Soon after the wedding, Joseph was ordained as a Presbyterian priest and assigned to serve as a pastor in Staunton.
Before he was two years old, Woodrow Wilson and his family moved to Georgia. Wilson's earliest memory was of standing near the front gate of the Augusta parsonage on an autumn day in 1860, when a strange passerby said that Abraham Lincoln had been elected and that a war was coming. By 1861, both of Wilson's parents had come to identify with the Southern United States and they supported the Confederacy during the American Civil War. Wilson's father was one of the founders of the Southern Presbyterian Church in the United States after it split from the Northern Presbyterians in 1861, he became minister of the First Presbyterian Church in Augusta, the family lived there until 1870. After the end of the Civil War, Wilson began attending a nearby school, where classmates included future Supreme Court Justice Joseph Rucker Lamar and future ambassador Pleasant A. Stovall. Though Wilson's parents placed a high value on education, he struggled with reading and writing until the age of thirteen because of developmental dyslexia.
From 1870 to 1874, Wilson lived in Columbia, South Carolina, where his father was a theology professor at the Columbia Theological Seminary. In 1873, Wilson became a communicant member of the Columbia First Presbyterian Church. Wilson attended Davidson College in North Carolina for the 1873–74 school year, but transferred as a freshman to the College of New Jersey, he studied political philosophy and history, joined t
An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the display of art from the museum's own collection. It might be in public or private ownership and may be accessible to all or have restrictions in place. Although concerned with visual art, art galleries are used as a venue for other cultural exchanges and artistic activities, such as performance arts, music concerts, or poetry readings. Art museums frequently host themed temporary exhibitions which include items on loan from other collections. In distinction to a commercial art gallery, run by an art dealer, the primary purpose of an art museum is not the sale of the items on show. Throughout history and expensive works of art have been commissioned by religious institutions and monarchs and been displayed in temples and palaces. Although these collections of art were private, they were made available for viewing for a portion of the public. In classical times, religious institutions began to function as an early form of art gallery. Wealthy Roman collectors of engraved gems and other precious objects donated their collections to temples.
It is unclear. In Europe, from the Late Medieval period onwards, areas in royal palaces and large country houses of the social elite were made accessible to sections of the public, where art collections could be viewed. At the Palace of Versailles, entrance was restricted to people wearing the proper apparel – the appropriate accessories could be hired from shops outside; the treasuries of cathedrals and large churches, or parts of them, were set out for public display. Many of the grander English country houses could be toured by the respectable for a tip to the housekeeper, during the long periods when the family were not in residence. Special arrangements were made to allow the public to see many royal or private collections placed in galleries, as with most of the paintings of the Orleans Collection, which were housed in a wing of the Palais-Royal in Paris and could be visited for most of the 18th century. In Italy, the art tourism of the Grand Tour became a major industry from the 18th century onwards, cities made efforts to make their key works accessible.
The Capitoline Museums began in 1471 with a donation of classical sculpture to the city of Rome by the Papacy, while the Vatican Museums, whose collections are still owned by the Pope, trace their foundation to 1506, when the discovered Laocoön and His Sons was put on public display. A series of museums on different subjects were opened over subsequent centuries, many of the buildings of the Vatican were purpose-built as galleries. An early royal treasury opened to the public was the Grünes Gewölbe of the Kingdom of Saxony in the 1720s. Established museums open to the public began to be established from the 17th century onwards based around a collection of the cabinet of curiosities type; the first such museum was the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, opened in 1683 to house and display the artefacts of Elias Ashmole that were given to Oxford University in a bequest. In the second half of the eighteenth century, many private collections of art were opened to the public, during and after the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars many royal collections were nationalized where the monarchy remained in place, as in Spain and Bavaria.
In 1753, the British Museum was established and the Old Royal Library collection of manuscripts was donated to it for public viewing. In 1777, a proposal to the British government was put forward by MP John Wilkes to buy the art collection of the late Sir Robert Walpole who had amassed one of the greatest such collections in Europe, house it in a specially built wing of the British Museum for public viewing. After much debate, the idea was abandoned due to the great expense, twenty years the collection was bought by Tsaritsa Catherine the Great of Russia and housed in the State Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg; the Bavarian royal collection was opened to the public in 1779 and the Medici collection in Florence around 1789. The opening of the Musée du Louvre during the French Revolution in 1793 as a public museum for much of the former French royal collection marked an important stage in the development of public access to art by transferring the ownership to a republican state; the building now occupied by the Prado in Madrid was built before the French Revolution for the public display of parts of the royal art collection, similar royal galleries were opened to the public in Vienna and other capitals.
In Great Britain, the corresponding Royal Collection remained in the private hands of the monarch and the first purpose-built national art galleries were the Dulwich Picture Gallery, founded in 1814 and the National Gallery opened to the public a decade in 1824. University art museums and galleries constitute collections of art developed and maintained by all kinds of schools, community colleges and universities; this phenomenon exists in the East, making it a global practice. Although overlooked, there are over 700 university art museums in the US alone; this number, compared to other kinds of art museums, makes university art museums the largest category of art museums in the country. While the first of these collections can be traced to learning collections developed in art academies in Western Europe, they are now associated with and housed in centers of higher education of all types; the word gallery being an archite
Alexander Porfyrovych Archipenko was a Ukrainian-born American avant-garde artist and graphic artist. Alexander Archipenko was born in Kiev, in 1887, to Porfiry Antonowych Archipenko and Poroskowia Vassylivna Machowa Archipenko. From 1902 to 1905 he attended the Kiev Art School. In 1906 he continued his education in the arts at Serhiy Svetoslavsky, that year had an exhibition there with Alexander Bogomazov, he moved to Moscow where he had a chance to exhibit his work in some group shows. Archipenko moved to Paris in 1908 and was a resident in the artist's colony La Ruche, among émigré Russian artists: Wladimir Baranoff-Rossine, Sonia Delaunay-Terk and Nathan Altman. After 1910 he had exhibitions at Salon des Indépendants, Salon d'Automne together with Aleksandra Ekster, Kazimir Malevich, Vadym Meller, Sonia Delaunay-Terk, Georges Braque, André Derain and others. In 1912 Archipenko had his first personal exhibition at the Museum Folkwang at Hagen in Germany, from 1912 to 1914 he was teaching at his own Art School in Paris.
Four of Archipenko's Cubist sculptures, including Family Life and five of his drawings, appeared in the controversial Armory Show in 1913 in New York City. These works were caricatured in the New York World. Archipenko moved to Nice in 1914. In 1920 he participated in Twelfth Biennale Internazionale dell'Arte di Venezia in Italy and started his own Art school in Berlin the following year. In 1922 Archipenko participated in the First Russian Art Exhibition in the Gallery van Diemen in Berlin together with Aleksandra Ekster, Kazimir Malevich, Solomon Nikritin, El Lissitzky and others. In 1923 he emigrated to the United States, participated in an exhibition of Russian Paintings and Sculpture, he became a US citizen in 1929. In 1933 he exhibited at the Ukrainian pavilion in Chicago as part of the Century of Progress World's Fair. Alexander Archipenko contributed the most to the success of the Ukrainian pavilion, his works were valued at $25,000 dollars. In 1936 Archipenko participated in an exhibition Cubism and Abstract Art in New York as well as numerous exhibitions in Europe and other places in the U.
S. He was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1962. Alexander Archipenko died on February 1964, in New York City, he is interred at Woodlawn Cemetery in The New York City. Archipenko, along with the French-Hungarian sculptor Joseph Csaky, exhibited at the first public manifestations of Cubism in Paris. Archipenko departed from the neo-classical sculpture of his time, using faceted planes and negative space to create a new way of looking at the human figure, showing a number of views of the subject simultaneously, he is known for introducing sculptural voids, for his inventive mixing of genres throughout his career: devising'sculpto-paintings', experimenting with materials such as clear acrylic and terra cotta. The sculptor Ann Weaver Norton apprenticed with Archipenko for a number of years. Among the public collections holding works by Alexander Archipenko are: The Addison Gallery of American Art The Art Institute of Chicago The Mary and Leigh Block Museum of Art Brigham Young University Museum of Art Chi-Mei Museum The Delaware Art Museum The Denver Art Museum The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco The Guggenheim Museum The Hermitage Museum The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden The Honolulu Museum of Art Indiana University Art Museum The Los Angeles County Museum of Art The Maier Museum of Art The Milwaukee Art Museum The Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston The Museum of Modern Art The National Museum of Serbia The Nasher Sculpture Center The National Gallery of Art National Museum Cardiff The North Carolina Museum of Art The Norton Simon Museum The Peggy Guggenheim Collection The Philadelphia Museum of Art The Phillips Collection The Portland Art Museum The Portland Museum of Art Salisbury House The San Antonio Art League Museum The San Diego Museum of Art The Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery The Smithsonian American Art Museum Städel Museum Tate Modern The Tel Aviv Museum of Art The Ukrainian Museum Von der Heydt-Museum Walker Art Center The Cleveland Cultural Gardens in Rockefeller Park Fundación D.
O. P. Museum de Fundatie Archipenko's statue of King Solomon, at the University of Pennsylvania campus, dominates the walk from 36th and Locust to Walnut, its creation began in 1964 when, shortly before he died, the artist completed a four–foot sculpture designed for enlargement. His wife oversaw its first casting. In 1968, the 14.5-foot 1.5-ton statue was produced. In 1985, it was given to the University by Mr and Mrs Jeffrey H. Loria and was installed at its present location. Cubist in form, it has been described as evoking "the feeling of smallness in the face of power that one must have felt standing before King
Albert Marquet was a French painter, associated with the Fauvist movement. He became one of the Fauve painters and a lifelong friend of Henri Matisse. Marquet subsequently painted in a more naturalistic style landscapes, but several portraits and, between 1910 and 1914, several female nude paintings. Marquet was born in 1875 at Bordeaux. In 1890 he moved to Paris to attend the Ecole des Arts Decoratifs, they were roommates for a time, they influenced each other's work. Marquet began studies in 1892 at the École des Beaux-Arts under Gustave Moreau, a symbolist artist, a follower of the Romantic tradition of Eugène Delacroix. In these years, Marquet exhibited paintings at the Salon des Indépendants. Although he did not sell many paintings, the artistic community of Paris became aware of his work, his early compositions were characterised by a clear and painterly Fauvist approach, in which he had a fine control of the drawing and responded to light, not only by intensifying the strongest tones, but by seeing the weaker ones in coloristic terms.
Marquet and Matisse were painting together in pure colors, as far back as 1898 in the Arcueil and at the Luxembourg Gardens, in what was to be called the Fauve style. In 1905 he exhibited at the Salon d'Automne where his paintings were put together with those of Henri Matisse, Maurice de Vlaminck, André Derain, Othon Friesz, Georges Rouault, Raoul Dufy, Henri Manguin, Georges Braque, Louis Valtat, Georges Dufrénoy and Jean Puy, he became a lifelong friend of Matisse. Dismayed by the intense coloration in these paintings, critics reacted by naming the artists the "Fauves", i.e. the wild beasts. Although Marquet painted with the fauves for years, he used less bright and violent colours than the others, emphasized less intense tones made by mixing complementaries, thus always as colors and never as grays. Marquet subsequently painted in a more naturalistic style landscapes. At the end of 1907 he stayed in Paris and dedicated himself, together with Matisse, to a series of city views; the fundamental difference between the two is that while Matisse used strong colours, Marquet favored grayed yellows, greyed violets or blues.
Black was used as a violent contrast to light colors for such forms as bare tree trunks or calligraphically drawn people contrasted with light yellow or orange streets and sidewalks. Another difference is that Marquet used an approximation of traditional perspective, although his colors and compositions referred to the rectangle and cut its plane with their calligraphy. From 1907 to his death, Marquet alternated between working in his studio in Paris and many parts of the European coast and in North Africa, he was most involved with Tunisia. In his voyages he painted the sea and ships, but the lights and animated life of the city cities on the waterfront, like Algiers. Among European cities Marquet remained impressed with Naples and Venice where he painted the sea and boats, accenting the light over water, he adopted a technique nothing like the Impressionists', painting water as a large area of simple tone which held the plane of the water surface without illusionistic perspective, from which the ships arise into a different plane.
His views of the lagoon in Venice do this economically. The water stays at a right angle to the picture plane and the large ships float with ease, with their reflections the correct tone to project the required space, his color is much like Matisse of the 1920s, here. His contrasts of vivid colors describe the waves of the sea with simple drawing which accompany the observed color tones, giving a scene of placid movement; the human figures are much simplified, calligraphically drawn in a way related to Japanese Shijo style work. Matisse said, "When I look at Hokusai, I think of Marquet—and vice versa... I don't mean imitation of Hokusai, I mean similarity with him". During his voyages to Germany and Sweden he painted the subjects he preferred: river and sea views and ships, but cityscapes. Over the course of his career he returned to the same subjects years recording subtle differences in the light, he painted a few portraits, between 1910 and 1914 he painted a series of nudes in whorehouses, prepared the illustration of a work on lesbian lovers.
But he is best known for his many landscapes. Unlike Matisse, there are no obvious periods of change in his work; as one of Matisse's closest friends, they discussed each other's work with the greatest openness. Marquet's death was unexpected and sudden, from a gall bladder attack and subsequently discovered cancer, for which at that time there was no therapy, he died in La Frette-sur-Seine, on 14 June 1947. Although he notes that Marquet is conventionally regarded as a minor painter, the English painter John McLean is among those who consider that "his feeling for colour, the lightness or darkness and saturation of it, its weight, is nothing less than astounding."Marquet was revered by the American painters Leland Bell and his wife Louisa Matthiasdottir. He was revered by Bell's contemporaries Al Kresch and Gabriel Laderman. Since both Bell and Laderman were teachers in several American art schools, they have had an influence on younger American figurative artists and their appreciation of Marquet.
Jean Cocteau, Bertrand Guégan. P.313. P.175.