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Eleonora Fonseca Pimentel

Eleonora Anna Maria Felice de Fonseca Pimentel was an Italian poet and revolutionary connected with the Neapolitan revolution and subsequent short-lived Neapolitan Republic of 1799, a sister republic of the French Republic and one of many set up in the 1790s in Europe. Pimentel was born in Rome of Portuguese nobility, she wrote poetry, read Latin and Greek and spoke several languages As a child, she moved with her family to Naples as a result of political difficulties between the Papal States and the Kingdom of Portugal. Her mother's death in 1771 left her with a substantial dowry, she became engaged to her first cousin, Miguel Lopes. In 1776 the engagement broke off, her father acquired a husband for her, Pasquale Tria de Solis, lieutenant of Neapolitan Army, whom she married In 1778. In October of the same year, she gave birth to Francesco. However, the infant died about eight months later, he was the only child from Eleonora because of mistreatment by her husband which caused her two miscarriages.

These tragedies led to the creation of several of her most notable works. Six years seeing the mistreatment of his daughter and the misuse of her dowry, Pimentel's father asked before the court for his daughter to be returned home. In 1784 the Court of Naples granted the discontinuation of Solis’ authority over Pimentel, she was sent back to her familial home. One year her father died, she was on her own. Alone and in ill health due to her newfound poverty, she went before the king and asked for a small pension, which she was granted thanks to her literary merits, her poetry was written in neoclassical style, evocative of the period of Enlightenment. Her other literary works discussed praise or reformation of the monarchy; as her literary abilities grew she gained notoriety through winning several royal writing competitions. This allowed her entrance to several notable Neapolitan literary societies and gave way to her correspondence with the foremost literati of the time. Metastasio labelled her "l’amabilissima musa del Tago," or "The most amicable muse of the Tagus."

Voltaire dedicated a poem to her in which he refers to her as "Nightingale of beautiful Italy". Other prominent literary figures she kept in contact with include Gaetano Alberto and Ferdinando Galiani, she translated works from other foreign languages to add to her income after her separation from her husband. Pimentel's commentary on her translations of works lead to the categorization of her as a political author, her notoriety lead to her appointment as royal librarian to the Queen of Naples, Maria Carolina of Austria. In 1799 she created, worked as Editor-in-Chief, wrote for Il Monitore Napoletano, a significant republican newspaper named in emulation of Le Moniteur Universel in France; the paper printed thirty-five issues within its lifespan of 2 February – 8 June 1799. In the 1790s she became involved in the Jacobin movement in Naples, working to overthrow the monarchy and establish a local version of the French Republic. Pimentel, others who were well educated and spoke several languages including French, became suspicious to the monarchy.

She believed in the French revolutionary principles that were being circulated at the time which were Liberty and Fraternity. Her beliefs were republican, she believed in the importance of educating the masses. After King Ferdinand IV fled Naples and other Jacobins welcomed the French army; the launch of her newspaper turned her into a well-known political revolutionary. Il Monitore Napoletano discussed the challenges facing the new Neapolitan Republic, praised the arrival of the French army, conveyed republican themes, criticized the Bourbon monarchy, she was one of the leaders of the revolution that overthrew the Bourbon monarchy and installed the Parthenopean Republic in January 1799. However, as time went on she became more disillusioned with the French army, began to warn the readers of her newspaper about the dangers of possible chaos and anarchy; when the Republic was overthrown and the Bourbon monarchy restored in June 1799, she was one of the revolutionaries executed by the royal tribunals implemented by the restored monarchy.

On June 28, a group of republicans, including Pimentel boarded ships bound for France after the commencement of the fall of the Neapolitan Republic. However, before the ships could deport, she was taken into custody, she was arrested and sentenced to death, by hanging, on 20 August 1799. She was arrested because of her revolutionary activities and writings against the monarchy, the guiltiest of which being a poem written for the birth of Queen Carolina's second child, in which she refers to her as an “impure lesbian” and an “unfaithful imbecile tyrant.” Pimentel asked to be beheaded, as was customary for people of nobility given the death penalty, however her request was denied. The Kingdom of Naples only recognized her father's nobility, additionally as a Jacobin she was no longer publicly viewed as nobility; as a woman once viewed as nobility that had spoken out against the monarchy, she was used to be made an example through her hanging. Of eight other patriots sentenced, she was the last to be hung.

On the day of her hanging in Piazza Mercato, her last wish was only for a cup of coffee. As she was calm as she went to the gallows, the monarch's loyalists shouted: "Long Live Carolina, Death to the Jacobina." Her last words were in Latin, a quote from Virgil's The Aeneid: "Forsan et haec olim meninisse juvabit," which translates to "perhaps it will please one day to remember these things." Il Tempio dell

Duck plague

Duck plague is a worldwide disease caused by Anatid alphaherpesvirus 1 of the family Herpesviridae that causes acute disease with high mortality rates in flocks of ducks and swans. It is horizontally -- through contaminated water and direct contact. Migratory waterfowl are a major factor in the spread of this disease as they are asymptomatic carriers of disease; the incubation period is three to seven days. Birds as young as one week old can be infected. DEV is not zoonotic. Upon exposure to DEV there is a 3-7 day for domestic fowl and up to a 14 day for wildfowl incubation period for the onset of symptoms. Sudden and persistent increases in flock mortality is the first observation of DEV. Symptoms in individual birds include loss of appetite, decreased egg production, nasal discharge, increased thirst, ataxia, tremors, a drooped-wing appearance, in males a prolapsed penis. Mortality rates for DEV may reach 90 percent. Death occurs within 5 days after onset of symptoms; the clinical signs of DEV "vary with virulence of virus strain, species and immune system status" of the host.

Due to the formation of diphtheroid plaques on the eyelids and the mucosae of the respiratory system and gastrointestinal system the bird may show ophthalmic signs and refuse to drink. Anatid alphaherpesvirus 1 can only infect birds of the family Anatidae of the order Anseriformes, with the possible exception of coots. A study of lesions found in "coots" found similarities to DEV lesions; this could be evidence that DEV is able to "cross to different orders and families" or "adapted to new hosts." Waterfowl species have differing susceptibility to DEV, with wild fowl tending to be more resistant. Nonwaterfowl have not been shown to be infected by duck plague. Blue-winged teal have been found to be one the most susceptible species and mallards one of the least. In another it took 300,000 more virus material to infect northern pintail than to infect blue-winged teal. Diagnosis can be made based on the clinical signs and postmortem findings: On post-mortem, petechial haemorrhage in the conjunctivae, mucous membranes, trachea and intestine are pathognomonic for DEV.

Diagnosis can be confirmed with presence of virus inclusion bodies in tissues or a positive immunohistochemical staining for viral antigen. DEV is found during the spring seasons across the globe; the United States, UK have the most occurrences from March to June. Whereas, Southern Hemisphere populations, such as in Brazil, are more to have outbreaks November through February during their spring season. If host organisms survive primary infection, they enter a latent stage lasting up to 4 years. Latent stage leads to vertical and horizontal transmission of DEV. Virus particles can be shed by the latent host in shared water or through direct contact, contributing to on-going epizootics. There is evidence of vertical transmission from latent host carriers to their eggs and offspring, which will be asymptomatic. However, during times of stress AHV-1 may move to nerve roots from nerve ganglia and “induce herpetic lesions”, a visible symptom of latency carrying. Environmental and physiological cues cause latent carriers to shed viral particles.

Examples of physiological cues include "stress of migration, breeding season, social interaction." Primary latency sites in carries are the trigeminal ganglion, lymphoid tissue, blood lymphocytes. The latency sites of APV-1 is similar to other herpesviruses. Vaccination for duck viral enteritis is now routine in the United States. Only attenuated vaccines are efficacious. Once DEV is present, depopulation and intensive disinfection are required to overcome an outbreak. Solid natural immunity develops in recovered birds. There is no treatment for DEV, but resveratrol has shown to have some antiviral activity against the virus. Management practices such as preventing exposure to wild waterfowl and contaminated water and screening of new stock should be performed to prevent disease. DEV is considered pantropic because it is able to replicate and spread to multiple organs within the host. Viral replication causes an increase in vascular permeability, which leads to the lesions and hemorrhaging of organs, namely the liver, spleen and bursa of Fabricius.

DVH-1 replicates in the mucus membranes of bird's esophagus and cloaca, the two primary entrances of the virus. The means of infection influences which tissues will be affected first and the incubation time before symptoms show. Viral replication begins in the digestive track and moves to bursa of Fabricuis, thymus and liver. Anatid alphaherpesvirus 1 is classified under the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae of the family Herpesviridae in the order Herpesvirales; the genus was identified as Mardivirus. Genomic evidence shows that APV-1 is genetically similar to Human alphaherpesvirus 1 and 2, Suid alphaherpesvirus 1, Equid alphaherpesvirus 1 and 4, Bovine alphaherpesvirus 1. Anatid alphaherpesvirus; the dsDNA weight is 119×106 Daltons and 158,091 base pairs long. AHV-1 has 67 genes in its genome, 65 of which are coding genes. Three of the genes have no homologs to other herpesviruses, are unique to AHV-1. Unique long, unique short internal repeat, unique short terminal repeat regions make up the genome.

The genomic arrangement is ordered as UL-IRS-US-TRS. There are 78 predicted proteins encoded by the genome. DEV has similar morphology to other Herpesvirales viruses. Common elements of herpviruses include a "D