Wissembourg is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in northeastern France. It is situated on the little River Lauter close to the border between France and Germany 60 km north of Strasbourg and 35 km west of Karlsruhe. Wissembourg is a sub-prefecture of the department; the name Wissembourg is a Gallicized version of Weißenburg in German meaning "white castle". The Latin place-name, sometimes used in ecclesiastical sources, is Sebusium; the town was annexed by France after 1648 but incorporated into Germany in 1871. It was returned to France in 1919, but reincorporated back into Germany on 1940. After 1944 it again became French. Weissenburg Abbey, the Benedictine abbey around which the town has grown, was founded in the 7th century under the patronage of Dagobert I; the abbey was supported by vast territories. Of the 11th-century buildings constructed under the direction of Abbot Samuel, only the Schartenturm and some moats remain; the town was fortified in the 13th century. The abbey church of Saint-Pierre et Paul erected in the same century under the direction of Abbot Edelin was secularized in the French Revolution and despoiled of its treasures.
At the abbey in the late 9th century the monk Otfried composed a gospel harmony, the first substantial work of verse in German. In 1354 Charles IV made it one of the grouping of ten towns called the Décapole that survived annexation by France under Louis XIV in 1678 and was extinguished with the French Revolution. On 25 January 1677 a great fire destroyed the Hôtel de Ville. Many early structures were spared: the Maison du Sel, under its Alsatian pitched roof was the first hospital of the town. There are many 15th and 16th-century timber-frame houses, parts of the walls and gateways of the town; the Maison de Stanislas was the retreat of Stanisław Leszczyński, ex-king of Poland, from 1719 to 1725, when the formal request arrived, 3 April 1725 asking for the hand of his daughter in marriage to Louis XV. The First Battle of Wissembourg took place near the town in 1793; the “Lines of Wissembourg,” made by Villars in 1706, were famous. They were a line of works extending to Lauterbourg nine miles to the southeast.
Like the fortifications of the town, only vestiges remain, although the city wall is still intact for stretches. Austrian General von Wurmser succeeded in capturing the lines in October 1793, but was defeated two months by General Pichegru of the French Army and forced to retreat, along with the Prussians, across the Rhine River. Wissembourg formed the setting for the Romantic novel L’ami Fritz co-written by the team of Erckmann and Chatrian, which provided the material for Mascagni's opera L'Amico Fritz. Another Battle of Wissembourg took place on 4 August 1870, it was the first battle of the Franco-Prussian War. The Prussians were nominally commanded by the Crown Prince Frederick, but ably directed by his Chief of Staff, General Leonhard Graf von Blumenthal; the French defeat allowed the Prussian army to move into France. The Geisberg monument commemorates the battle. Otfrid of Weissenburg Jean-Gotthard Grimmer, pastor at Wissembourg deputy to the National Convention on 10 ventôse year III to replace Philibert Simond.
Louis Moll, born in Wissembourg in 1809 and died in 1880. Joseph GuerberJoseph Guerber Stanisław Leszczyński, king of Poland from 1704 to 1709, exiled in Wissembourg and lived from 1719 to 1725; the school in the city now bears his name. Charles de Foucauld Auguste Dreyfus Jean Frédéric Wentzel, famous photos of Wissembourg Jean-François Kornetzky, football goalkeeper Martin Bucer was a Protestant reformer based in Wissembourg/Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran and Anglican doctrines and practices. Drew Heissler aka Pokey LaFarge, is songwriter, his family emigrated from Wissembourg/Alsace. Jean-Pierre Hubert, a science-fiction writer. Julie Velten Favre and educator The town, set in a landscape of wheat fields, retains a former Augustinian convent with its large-scale Gothic church, now the parish of Saints-Pierre-et-Paul, its Grenier aux Dîmes belonging to the Abbey is 18th-century but an ancient foundation. Noteworthy houses are the medieval "Salt house", the Renaissance "House of l'Ami Fritz" and the classicist City Hall, a work by Joseph Massol.
Communes of the Bas-Rhin department Château Saint-Rémy d'Altenstadt INSEE commune file Tourist information Accessed 11 May 2014. Saints Peter and Paul Church at Structurae Virtual tour picture gallery Interactive map of the property of abbey Wissembourg, based on Liber donationum and Liber possessionum, in Traditiones possessionesque Wizenburgenses, edited by Zeuss, Johann Caspar, Speyer 1842
A canon is a member of certain bodies subject to an ecclesiastical rule. A canon was a cleric living with others in a clergy house or in one of the houses within the precinct of or close to a cathedral and conducting his life according to the orders or rules of the church; this way of life grew common in the eighth century. In the eleventh century, some churches required clergy thus living together to adopt the rule first proposed by Saint Augustine that they renounce private wealth; those who embraced this change were known as Augustinians or Canons Regular, whilst those who did not were known as secular canons. In the Roman Catholic Church, the members of the chapter of a cathedral or of a collegiate church are canons. Depending on the title of the church, several languages use specific titles, e.g. in German Domherr or Domkapitular in a Dom, Stiftsherr in a prelature that has the status of a Stift. One of the functions of the cathedral chapter in the Roman Catholic Church was to elect a vicar capitular to serve during a sede vacante period of the diocese.
Since the 1983 revision of the Code of Canon Law, this responsibility belongs to the college of consultors, unless the national bishops conference decides that the functions that canon law ascribes to the college of consultors, including this one, are to be entrusted to the cathedral chapter. All canons of the Church of England have been secular since the Reformation, although an individual canon may be a member of a religious order. However, they are ordained, that is, priests or other clergy. Today, the system of canons is retained exclusively in connection with cathedral churches. A canon is a member of the chapter of priests, headed by a dean, responsible for administering a cathedral or certain other churches that are styled collegiate churches; the dean and chapter are the formal body which has legal responsibility for the cathedral and for electing the bishop. The title of Canon is not a permanent title and when no longer in a position entitling preferment, it is dropped from a cleric's title nomenclature.
However, it is still given in many dioceses to senior parish priests as a honorary title. It is awarded in recognition of long and dedicated service to the diocese. Honorary canons are members of the chapter in name but are non-residential and receive no emoluments, they are entitled to call themselves canon and may have a role in the administration of the cathedral. Speaking, canons in the Anglican Communion are of this sort, thus are equivalent to a monsignor in the Roman Catholic Church wearing the violet or violet-trimmed cassock, associated with that rank. In some Church of England dioceses, the title Prebendary is used instead of canon when the cleric is involved administratively with a cathedral. Honorary canons within the Roman Catholic Church may still be nominated after the Second Vatican Council. Priests of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre are, in fact, titular or honorary canons of these respective Orders and have the right to the honorific title of "Canon" and "Monsignor" in addition to the choir dress of a canon, which includes the mozetta (black with purple piping for Malta and white with a red Jerusalem cross for Holy Sepulchre.
Since the reign of King Henry IV, the heads of state of France have been granted by the pope the title of sole honorary canon of Saint John Lateran and Saint Peter's. On the demise of the Kingdom of France this honour became transferred to the Presidents of the Republic, hence is held by Emmanuel Macron; this applies when the French President is not a Catholic or is an atheist. The proto-canon of the papal basilica of Saint Mary Major is the King of Spain Felipe VI. Before the Reformation, the King of England was a canon of the basilica of Saint Paul outside the Walls. In addition to canons who are clerics in holy orders, cathedrals in the Anglican Communion may appoint lay persons as canons; the rank of "lay canon" is conferred upon diocesan chancellors. It has traditionally been said that the King of England is a canon or prebendary of St David's Cathedral, Wales. However, this is based on a misconception; the canonry of St Mary’s College, St David's became the property of the Crown on the dissolution of the monasteries.
The Sovereign was never a canon of St David’s as a layman, though he or she may occupy the first prebendal stall, assigned for the monarch's use. A canon professor is a canon at an Anglican cathedral who holds a university professorship. There are four canon professorships in the University of Oxford in conjunction with Christ Church Cathedral and two in Durham University in conjunction with Durham Cathedral, although academics titled "canon professor" may be found at other universities where the appointments as canon and professor have been made independently. Section 2 of the Church of England Measure 1995 was passed for the express purpose of enabling Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford, to appoint not more than two
Martin Schongauer known as Martin Schön or Hübsch Martin by his contemporaries, was an Alsatian engraver and painter. He was the most important printmaker north of the Alps before Albrecht Dürer, who collected his work, he is the first painter to be a significant engraver, although he seems to have had the family background and training in goldsmithing, usual for early engravers. The bulk of Schongauer's surviving production is 116 engravings, all with his monogram but none dated, which were well known not only in Germany, but in Italy and made their way to England and Spain. Vasari says, his style shows no trace of Italian influence, but a clear and organised Gothic, which draws from both German and Early Netherlandish painting. Recent scholarship, building on the work of Max Lehrs, attributes 116 engravings to him, with many being copied by other artists, as was common in the period, his prolific contemporary Israhel van Meckenem did close copies of 58 engravings half of Schongauer's output, took motifs or figures from more, as well as engraving some drawings that are now lost.
There are some fine drawings, including ones dated and signed with his monogram, a surviving few paintings in oil and fresco. Schongauer was born about 1450–53 in Colmar, the third of four or five sons of Caspar Schongauer, a goldsmith and patrician from Augsburg who moved to Colmar about 1440, he taught his son the art of engraving, a distinct and difficult skill that goldsmiths had long used on metal vessels. Two of his brothers worked as goldsmiths in Colmar, while another became a painter. Colmar is now in France but was part of the Holy Roman Empire and German-speaking. Most unusually for a Gothic or Renaissance artist, he was sent to university with the intention of turning him into a priest or lawyer, matriculated at the University of Leipzig in 1465, but seems to have left after a year. At this time university students began at the age of twelve or thirteen, he was traditionally thought to have been trained as an engraver by Master E. S. but scholars now doubt this because Schongauer's prints took some time to develop the technical advances that a pupil of Master E. S. would have been taught.
He is thought to have trained as a painter with Colmar's main local master Caspar Isenmann, a neighbour of his parents, influenced by the Early Netherlandish painting of Rogier van der Weyden and others, had studied in the Netherlands, Schongauer's few surviving pictures reflect this. This was around 1466 and 1469, his older brother Ludwig Schongauer had preceded him in the workshop. His earlier engravings show clear influences from several Early Netherlandish painters, suggesting that he followed the traditional pattern of a wanderjahre travelling at the end of his training. One drawing, dated 1469, is a copy of the figure of Christ in Rogier van der Weyden's Beaune Altarpiece made in front of the painting. Various details of costume, the exotic plants in the Rest on the Flight into Egypt, have suggested to some scholars that he visited Spain, Portugal, he returned to Colmar and had established a workshop by 1471, when payments were made for an altarpiece for the Dominican church there, now in the museum and regarded as a workshop production.
His Madonna in the Rose Garden, long displayed in the church in Colmar it was made for, but moved to the Dominican church nearby in 1973, is dated 1473. Its style corresponds with the earliest of his engravings, which have been placed in a broadly agreed sequence based on their technique and style, both of which show considerable development. In some cases a terminus ante quem is provided by copies in various media; the economics of fifteenth-century printmaking are unclear, though his prints spread his fame across Europe, he may have relied more on the income from his "major vocation" of painting. He died in Breisach in 1491 before reaching the age of forty, he had been engaged since 1488 in painting a large Last Judgment in the cathedral there, was recorded as a citizen there in June 1489. This was the largest mural painting north of the Alps, was incomplete at his death; the following year Dürer, on his wanderjahre, travelled to Colmar not meet him, only to find he had died. Dürer was an admirer.
His own print of the Flight into Egypt, in his Life of the Virgin series, includes the same two exotic trees as Schongauer's, as a hommage. In Germany Dürer, whose prints became known over the decade following, was seen as the next leader of the tradition Schongauer had dominated for twenty years, his pupils included Hans Burgkmair the Elder, the Augsburg-based painter and designer of woodcuts, with him from 1488 to 1490. The painted portrait of Schongauer, with his coat of arms at top left, is unusual for a fifteenth-century artist, but the panel now in Munich appears to be made well after his death, is a copy of a drawing or painting made at the date on the painting, 1483, it is attributed to Hans Burgkmair the Elder, the lost original may have been by his father, Thoman Burgkmair, who plausibly met Schongauer in Augsburg, where Schongauer is recorded as at least visiting. Another of Schongauer's pupils, the painter Urbain Huter
Ecclesia and Synagoga
Ecclesia and Synagoga, or Ecclesia et Synagoga in Latin, meaning "Church and Synagogue", are a pair of figures personifying the Church and the Jewish synagogue, to say the Jewish religion, found in medieval Christian art. They appear sculpted as large figures on either side of a church portal, as in the most famous examples, those at Strasbourg Cathedral, they may be found standing on either side of the cross in scenes of the Crucifixion in Romanesque art, less in a variety of other contexts. The two female figures are young and attractive. In contrast, Synagoga is blindfolded and drooping, carrying a broken lance and the Tablets of the Law or Torah scrolls that may be slipping from her hand; the staff and spear may have pennants flying from them. In images of the Crucifixion, Ecclesia may hold a chalice that catches the blood spurting from the side of Christ. Attributes sometimes carried by Synagoga include a sheep or goat or just its head, signifying Old Testament sacrifice, in contrast to Ecclesia's chalice which represents the Christian Eucharist.
If not blindfolded, Synagoga looks down. Ecclesia has an earlier history, in medieval art Synagoga appears alone in various contexts, but the pair, or Ecclesia by herself, are far more common. Further subjects where the pair may sometimes be found are the Tree of Jesse, the Nativity; the first appearance of such figures in a Crucifixion is in a historiated initial in the Drogo Sacramentary of c. 830, but though Ecclesia has most of her usual features present, the figure representing the Jews or the Old Covenant is here a seated white-haired old man. The pair, now with a female Jewish partner, are found in several Carolingian carved ivory relief panels of the Crucifixion for book covers, dating from around 870, remain common in miniatures and various small works until the 10th century, they are less common in Crucifixions in the 11th century, but reappear in the 12th century in a more contrasted way that emphasizes the defeat of Synagoga. The figures continue to be found in Crucifixions until the early 14th century, occur in various contexts but are less common.
The surviving portal figures date from the 13th century. The medieval figures reflect the Christian belief, sometimes called Supersessionism, that Jesus was the Jewish Messiah, that Judaism as a religion was therefore made unnecessary, by its own tenets, once Christianity was established, that all Jews should convert. Today opposed by dual-covenant theology, this belief was universal in the medieval church. Synagoga's blindfold reflected the refusal of medieval Jews to "see" this point, regarded as stubborn; the Gospel of Matthew related that the Veil of the Temple, covering the entrance to the Holy of Holies, tore at the moment of Christ's death on the cross, taken to symbolize the moment of the replacement of Judaism by Christianity as the true religion, hence the presence of the pair in Crucifixion scenes. The blind covering Synagoga's eyes derived from the letter of Saint Paul at II Corinthians 3:13-16: We are not like Moses, who would put a veil over his face to prevent the Israelites from seeing the end of what was passing away.
14 But their minds were made dull, for to this day the same veil remains when the old covenant is read. It has not been removed. 15 Even to this day when Moses is read, a veil covers their hearts. 16 But whenever anyone turns to the Lord, the veil is taken away. The sculpted portal figures are found on the cathedrals of larger cities in northern Europe that had significant Jewish communities in Germany, apart from their theological significance, were also intended to remind Jews of their place in a Christian society, by projecting "an ideal of Jewish submission within an ideally ordered Christian realm", they are therefore prominent, but not common. Many Jews, like Christians, conducted business in churches, would pass the figures as they came and went. However, Leo Spitzer claimed that unlike many medieval depictions of Jewish figures, there is rarely any element of a hostile caricature in the depiction of Synagoga who, if defeated, is strikingly beautiful, as at Strasbourg. There are examples on the portals of the cathedrals at Minden, Bamberg and Freiburg Minster in Germany, Notre Dame de Paris.
In England there are remains of pairs, after damage or destruction in the English Reformation, from the cathedrals of Rochester, Lincoln and Winchester. Surviving from the chapter house of York Minster are over life-size paintings on oak from a group of 48 supporting the roof vault and stained glass figures from the vestibule. Châlons Cathedral and the Basilique Saint-Denis have versions in stained glass large and small. During the 14th century they become much rarer, replaced in Crucifixion scenes by large numbers of figures of soldiers and disciples, but some examples are found in the 15th century and later. A rare carved misericord at Erfurt Cathedral shows the pair jousting on horses; as with many misericords, this was intended as a humorous version of iconography treated with
Master of Eschau
The Master of Eschau is the notname given to an Alsatian Romanesque sculptor and his workshop, active in the first half of the 12th century. The Master's name derives from the sculptures from the cloister and the church of St Trophimus in Eschau, Bas-Rhin. Most of the remains of his sculpted work from that location are displayed in the Musée de l’Œuvre Notre-Dame in Strasbourg; the Master is considered to be the author of the sarcophagus of bishop Adelochus of Strasbourg. That work, dated around 1130 or 1144, is displayed in the Église Saint-Thomas of Strasbourg. Master of Andlau
Nikolaus Hagenauer was a German late gothic sculptor from Alsace. Peter Barnet and Nancy Wu: The Cloisters Medieval Art and Architecture 2005, New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Yale University Press, New Haven and London Max Seidel: Der Isenheimer Altar von Mathis Grünewald, 1990, Stuttgart und Zürich, Belser Verlag Vincent Mayr. "Hagenauer, Nikolaus." In Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online, Krummer-Schroth, Ingeborg, "Hagenauer, Nikolaus", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 7, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 484–484 Media related to Nikolaus Hagenauer at Wikimedia Commons Entry for Nikolaus Hagenauer on the Union List of Artist Names
In European academic traditions, fine art is art developed for aesthetics or beauty, distinguishing it from applied art, which has to serve some practical function, such as pottery or most metalwork. The five main fine arts were painting, architecture and poetry, with performing arts including theatre and dance; the old master print and drawing were included as related forms to painting, just as prose forms of literature were to poetry. Today, the range of what would be considered fine arts includes additional modern forms, such as film, video production/editing and conceptual art. One definition of fine art is "a visual art considered to have been created for aesthetic and intellectual purposes and judged for its beauty and meaningfulness painting, drawing, watercolor and architecture." In that sense, there are conceptual differences between the applied arts. As conceived, as understood for much of the modern era, the perception of aesthetic qualities required a refined judgment referred to as having good taste, which differentiated fine art from popular art and entertainment.
The word "fine" does not so much denote the quality of the artwork in question, but the purity of the discipline according to traditional Western European canons. Except in the case of architecture, where a practical utility was accepted, this definition excluded the "useful" applied or decorative arts, the products of what were regarded as crafts. In contemporary practice these distinctions and restrictions have become meaningless, as the concept or intention of the artist is given primacy, regardless of the means through which this is expressed. According to some writers the concept of a distinct category of fine art is an invention of the early modern period in the West. Larry Shiner in his The Invention of Art: A Cultural History locates the invention in the 18th century: "There was a traditional “system of the arts” in the West before the eighteenth century. In that system, an artist or artisan was a skilled maker or practitioner, a work of art was the useful product of skilled work, the appreciation of the arts was integrally connected with their role in the rest of life.
“Art”, in other words, meant the same thing as the Greek word techne, or in English “skill”, a sense that has survived in phrases like “the art of war”, “the art of love”, “the art of medicine.” Similar ideas have been expressed by Paul Oskar Kristeller, Pierre Bourdieu, Terry Eagleton, though the point of invention is placed earlier, in the Italian Renaissance. The decline of the concept of "fine art" is dated by George Kubler and others to around 1880, when it "fell out of fashion" as, by about 1900, folk art came to be regarded as of equal significance. ""fine art" was driven out of use by about 1920 by the exponents of industrial design... who opposed a double standard of judgment for works of art and for useful objects". This was among theoreticians; the separation of arts and crafts that exists in Europe and the US is not shared by all other cultures. In Japanese aesthetics, the activities of everyday life are depicted by integrating not only art with craft but man-made with nature. Traditional Chinese art distinguished within Chinese painting between the landscape literati painting of scholar gentlemen and the artisans of the schools of court painting and sculpture.
A high status was given to many things that would be seen as craft objects in the West, in particular ceramics, jade carving and embroidery. Latin American art was dominated by European colonialism until the 20th-century, when indigenous art began to reassert itself inspired by the Constructivist Movement, which reunited arts with crafts based upon socialist principles. In Africa, Yoruba art has a political and spiritual function; as with the art of the Chinese, the art of the Yoruba is often composed of what would ordinarily be considered in the West to be craft production. Some of its most admired manifestations, such as sculpture and textiles, fall in this category. Drawing is one of the major forms of the visual arts. Common instruments include: graphite pencils and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, charcoals, pastels, stylus, or various metals like silverpoint. There are a number including cartooning and creating comics. There remains debate whether the following is considered a part of “drawing” as “fine art”: "doodling", drawing in the fog a shower and leaving an imprint on the bathroom mirror, or the surrealist method of "entopic graphomania", in which dots are made at the sites of impurities in a blank sheet of paper, the lines are made between the dots.
Mosaics are images formed with small pieces of glass, called tesserae. They can be functional. An artist who designs and makes mosaics is called a mosaicist. Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing on paper. Except in the case of monotyping, the process is capable of producing multiples of the same piece, called a print; each print is considered an original, as opposed to a copy. The reasoning behind this is that the print is not a reproduction of another work of art in a different medium — for instance, a painting — but rather an image designed from inception as a print. An individual print is referred to as an impression. Prints ar