Arboretum de Chèvreloup
The Arboretum de Versailles-Chèvreloup is a major arboretum located just north of the Palace of Versailles at 30, route de Versailles, Yvelines, Île-de-France, France. It forms part of the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, is open evryday in the warmer months; the site dates to 1699 when Louis XIV acquired the hamlet of Chèvreloup, demolishing its walls to extend his hunting ground around his castle. During the 18th century, botanist Bernard de Jussieu was a frequent visitor at Versailles, where in 1759 he created a botanical garden at the edge of Chèvreloup in today's Parc de Trianon. During the French Revolution, Chèvreloup was sold to private owners purchased by Napoleon in 1806. In the 19th century it became apparent that the Jardin des Plantes in Paris was too small for a national collection, in 1922 the conservator of the Estate of Versailles and architect François-Benjamin Chaussemiche established today's arboretum as the Jardin de Jussieu, annex to the National Museum of Natural History.
In 1940, however, it was abandoned. Planting resumed in 1960, with parts of the arboretum opening to the public in 1977. Today the arboretum contains about 15,000 specimens, representing 124 families, 220 genera, 2700 species and varieties, 500 cultivars, its tropical plant collection alone maintains about 5,000 species in greenhouses. The arboretum proper is organized into three major sections: Systematic botany - the oldest plantations, started in 1924, with trees grouped by family or genus. Collections include Abies, Crataegus, X Cupressocyparis, Juglans, Malus, Pinus, Pyrus, Quercus and Tilia. Geography - begun in 1965, with species grouped according to their original natural range; these collections are divided into three areas - Europe and the Americas - with representative holdings as follows: temperate Europe, the Caucasus and temperate China and Korea, North America, as well as species from the Mediterranean region from the Atlas mountains. Most species are represented by six subjects planted within a circle of 25 meters diameter.
Ornamental horticulture - trees cultivars selected for their ornamental properties, including specimens created by grafting and cuttings. Tree species best represented in the arboretum are Chamaecyparis, Picea, Abies, Crataegus, Tilia, Viburnum and Cupressocyparis; the arboretum participates in the conservation of rare and endangered species. At present it conserves 70 species from the list produced by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources and the BGCI, including Abies chensiensis, Abies nebrodensis, Malus sikkimensis, Picea obovata, Pinus bungeana, Prumnopitys andina, Quercus dentata. List of botanical gardens in France Arboretum de Chèvreloup Conservatoire des Jardins et Paysages entry Gralon entry Wikimapia entry
Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne
The Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne was held from 25 May to 25 November 1937 in Paris, France. Both the Palais de Chaillot, housing the Musée de l'Homme, the Palais de Tokyo, which houses the Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, were created for this exhibition, sanctioned by the Bureau International des Expositions. At first the centerpiece of the exposition was to be a 2,300-foot tower, to have a spiraling road to a parking garage located at the top and a hotel and restaurant located above that; the idea was abandoned as far too expensive. The Pavillon des Temps Nouveaux was a tent pavilion designed by Pierre Jeanneret. Fitting in the architectural master-plan of the master architect Jacques Gréber at the foot of the Eiffel Tower, inspired by the shape of a grain elevator, the Canadian pavilion included Joseph-Émile Brunet's 28-foot sculpture of a buffalo. Paintings by Brunet, sculpted panels on the outside of the structure, several thematic stands inside the Canadian pavilion depicted aspects of Canadian culture.
The Spanish pavilion attracted attention. The Spanish pavilion was built by the Spanish architect Josep Lluis Sert; the pavilion, set up by the Republican government, included Pablo Picasso's famous painting Guernica, a depiction of the horrors of war, Alexander Calder's sculpture Mercury Fountain and Joan Miró's painting Catalan peasant in revolt. Two of the other notable pavilions were those of the Soviet Union; the organization of the world exhibition had placed the German and the Soviet pavilions directly across from each other. Hitler had desired to withdraw from participation, but his architect Albert Speer convinced him to participate after all, showing Hitler his plans for the German pavilion. Speer revealed in his autobiographies that he had had a clandestine look at the plans for the Soviet pavilion, had designed the German pavilion to represent a bulwark against Communism; the preparation and construction of the exhibits were plagued by delay. On the opening day of the exhibition, only the German and the Soviet pavilions had been completed.
This, as well as the fact that the two pavilions faced each other, turned the exhibition into a competition between the two great ideological rivals. Speer's pavilion was culminated by a tall tower crowned with the symbols of the Nazi state: an eagle and the swastika; the pavilion was conceived as a monument to "German pride and achievement". It was to broadcast to the world that a new and powerful Germany had a restored sense of national pride. At night, the pavilion was illuminated by floodlights. Josef Thorak's sculpture Comradeship stood outside the pavilion, depicting two enormous nude males, clasping hands and standing defiantly side by side, in a pose of mutual defense and "racial camaraderie"; the architect of the Soviet pavilion was Boris Iofan. Vera Mukhina designed the large figurative sculpture on the pavilion; the grand building was topped by Worker and Kolkhoz Woman, a large momentum-exerting statue, of a male worker and a female peasant, their hands together, thrusting a hammer and a sickle.
The statue was meant to symbolize the union of peasants. Italy was vying for attention as one of three totalitarian nations: Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia presented themselves as great forces to be reckoned with. Italy was the benevolent dictatorship: sunny and Mediterranean it was founded on discipline and unity. Marcello Piacentini was given the job of designing the pavilion exterior, he used a modern reinforced concrete frame combined with traditional elements such as colonnades, terraces and galleries, the tower form, Classical rhythms and the use of Mediterranean marble and stucco. The pavilion was nestled under the Eiffel tower looking out over the Seine to the main part of the Exposition site. Giuseppe Pagano was responsible for the overall co-ordination of the exhibtis and was the first impact on entering the building, its large courtyard garden and its hall of honour; the main entry was through the Court of Honour that showcased life size examples of Italy’s most important contribution to the history of technology.
Arturo Martini’s Victory of the Air presided over the space, her dark bronze form standing out against a infinite backdrop of blue-grey Venetian mosaic tiles. From there visitors could visit the Colonial Exhibits by Mario Sironi and the Gallery of Tourism before enjoying a plate of real spaghetti on the restaurant terrace; the courtyard garden was designed a respite from the exhibits with a symphony of green grass and green-glazed tiles set against red flowers and burgundy porphyry. The Hall of Honour was the pavilion's most evocative space, it ‘repurposed’ an existing artwork: Mario Sironi’s Corporative Italy mosaic from the 1936 Triennale that had now been completed with numerous figures engaged in different types of work and the figure of the imperial Roman eagle flying in from the right hand side. The 8m x 12 m work towered over the two-storey height space that occupied the top of the pavilion’s tower, making it the centre piece of the pavilion’s decorative and propaganda program; the enthroned figure of Italy represented Corporatism – the successful economic policy that merged the best of Capitalism and the best of Communism – and that had, up until proved a success.
The room was a celebration of all those aspects of Fascist society that Pagano wholeheartedly believed in: social harmony, government input to generate industrial innovation and support for artists and craftsmen as well as worker
The crystal skulls are human skull hardstone carvings made of clear or milky white quartz, claimed to be pre-Columbian Mesoamerican artifacts by their alleged finders. The results of these studies demonstrated that those examined were manufactured in the mid-19th century or almost in Europe during a time when interest in ancient culture was abundant; the skulls were crafted in the 19th century in Germany, quite at workshops in the town of Idar-Oberstein, renowned for crafting objects made from imported Brazilian quartz in the late 19th century. Despite some claims presented in an assortment of popularizing literature, legends of crystal skulls with mystical powers do not figure in genuine Mesoamerican or other Native American mythologies and spiritual accounts; the skulls are claimed to exhibit paranormal phenomena by some members of the New Age movement, have been portrayed as such in fiction. Crystal skulls have been a popular subject appearing in numerous sci-fi television series, novels and video games.
Trade in fake pre-Columbian artifacts developed during the late 19th century to the extent that in 1886, Smithsonian archaeologist William Henry Holmes wrote an article called "The Trade in Spurious Mexican Antiquities" for Science. Although museums had acquired skulls earlier, it was Eugène Boban, an antiquities dealer who opened his shop in Paris in 1870, most associated with 19th-century museum collections of crystal skulls. Most of Boban's collection, including three crystal skulls, was sold to the ethnographer Alphonse Pinart, who donated the collection to the Trocadéro Museum, which became the Musée de l'Homme. Many crystal skulls are claimed to be pre-Columbian attributed to the Aztec or Maya civilizations. Mesoamerican art has numerous representations of skulls, but none of the skulls in museum collections come from documented excavations. Research carried out on several crystal skulls at the British Museum in 1967, 1996 and 2004 shows that the indented lines marking the teeth were carved using jeweler's equipment developed in the 19th century, making a supposed pre-Columbian origin problematic.
The type of crystal was determined by examination of chlorite inclusions. It is only found in Madagascar and Brazil, thus unobtainable or unknown within pre-Columbian Mesoamerica; the study concluded that the skulls were crafted in the 19th century in Germany, quite at workshops in the town of Idar-Oberstein, renowned for crafting objects made from imported Brazilian quartz in the late 19th century. It has been established that the crystal skulls in the British Museum and Paris's Musée de l'Homme were sold by the French antiquities dealer Eugène Boban, operating in Mexico City between 1860 and 1880; the British Museum crystal skull transited through New York's Tiffany & Co. while the Musée de l'Homme's crystal skull was donated by Alphonse Pinart, an ethnographer who had bought it from Boban. In 1992, the Smithsonian Institution investigated a crystal skull provided by an anonymous source; the investigation concluded that this skull was made recently. According to the Smithsonian, Boban acquired his crystal skulls from sources in Germany, aligning with conclusions made by the British Museum.
The Journal of Archaeological Science published a detailed study by the British Museum and the Smithsonian in May 2008. Using electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography, a team of British and American researchers found that the British Museum skull was worked with a harsh abrasive substance such as corundum or diamond, shaped using a rotary disc tool made from some suitable metal; the Smithsonian specimen had been worked with a different abrasive, namely the silicon-carbon compound carborundum, a synthetic substance manufactured using modern industrial techniques. Since the synthesis of carborundum dates only to the 1890s and its wider availability to the 20th century, the researchers concluded "he suggestion is that it was made in the 1950s or later". None of the skulls in museums come from documented excavations. A parallel example is provided by obsidian mirrors, ritual objects depicted in Aztec art. Although a few surviving obsidian mirrors come from archaeological excavations, none of the Aztec-style obsidian mirrors are so documented.
Yet most authorities on Aztec material culture consider the Aztec-style obsidian mirrors as authentic pre-Columbian objects. Archaeologist Michael E. Smith reports a non peer-reviewed find of a small crystal skull at an Aztec site in the Valley of Mexico. Crystal skulls have been described as "A fascinating example of artifacts that have made their way into museums with no scientific evidence to prove their rumored pre-Columbian origins."A similar case is the "Olmec-style" face mask in jade. Curators and scholars refer to these as "Olmec-style", as to date no example has been recovered in an archaeologically controlled Olmec context, although they appear Olmec in style; however they have been recovered from sites of other cultures, including one deliberately deposited in the ceremonial precinct of Tenochtitlan, which would have been about 2,000 years old when the Aztecs buried it, suggesting these were as valued and collected as Roman antiquities were in Europe. The most famous and enigmatic skull was discovered in 1924 by Anna Mitchell-Hedges, adopted daughter of British adventurer and pop
Claude Lévi-Strauss was a French anthropologist and ethnologist whose work was key in the development of the theory of structuralism and structural anthropology. He held the chair of Social Anthropology at the Collège de France between 1959 and 1982 and was elected a member of the Académie française in 1973, he received numerous honors from universities and institutions throughout the world and has been called, alongside James George Frazer and Franz Boas, the "father of modern anthropology". Lévi-Strauss argued that the "savage" mind had the same structures as the "civilized" mind and that human characteristics are the same everywhere; these observations culminated in his famous book Tristes Tropiques that established his position as one of the central figures in the structuralist school of thought. As well as sociology, his ideas reached into many fields including philosophy. Structuralism has been defined as "the search for the underlying patterns of thought in all forms of human activity."
Claude Lévi-Strauss was born to French Jewish parents who were living in Brussels at the time, where his father was working as a portrait painter. He grew up in Paris, living on a street of the upscale 16th arrondissement named after the artist Claude Lorrain, whose work he admired and wrote about. During the First World War, he lived with his maternal grandfather, the rabbi of the synagogue of Versailles, he attended the Lycée Condorcet. At the Sorbonne in Paris, Lévi-Strauss studied philosophy, he did not pursue his study of law, but passed the agrégation in philosophy in 1931. In 1935, after a few years of secondary-school teaching, he took up a last-minute offer to be part of a French cultural mission to Brazil in which he would serve as a visiting professor of sociology at the University of São Paulo while his wife, served as a visiting professor of ethnology; the couple lived and did their anthropological work in Brazil from 1935 to 1939. During this time, while he was a visiting professor of sociology, Claude undertook his only ethnographic fieldwork.
He accompanied Dina, a trained ethnographer in her own right, a visiting professor at the University of São Paulo, where they conducted research forays into the Mato Grosso and the Amazon Rainforest. They first studied the Bororó Indian tribes, staying among them for a few days. In 1938, they returned for a second, more than half-year-long expedition to study the Nambikwara and Tupi-Kawahib societies. At this time, his wife suffered an eye infection that prevented her from completing the study, which he concluded; this experience cemented Lévi-Strauss's professional identity as an anthropologist. Edmund Leach suggests, from Lévi-Strauss's own accounts in Tristes Tropiques, that he could not have spent more than a few weeks in any one place and was never able to converse with any of his native informants in their native language, uncharacteristic of anthropological research methods of participatory interaction with subjects to gain a full understanding of a culture. In the 1980s, he suggested why he became vegetarian in pieces published in Italian daily newspaper La Repubblica and other publications anthologized in the posthumous book Nous sommes tous des cannibales: "A day will come when the thought that to feed themselves, men of the past raised and massacred living beings and complacently exposed their shredded flesh in displays shall no doubt inspire the same repulsion as that of the travellers of the 16th and 17th century facing cannibal meals of savage American primitives in America, Oceania or Africa."
Claude Lévi-Strauss was an atheist. Lévi-Strauss returned to France in 1939 to take part in the war effort, was assigned as a liaison agent to the Maginot Line. After the French capitulation in 1940, he was employed at a lycée in Montpellier, but was dismissed under the Vichy racial laws. By the same laws, he was denaturalized. Around that time, his first wife and he separated, she stayed behind and worked in the French resistance, while he managed to escape Vichy France by boat to Martinique, from where he was able to continue traveling. In 1941, he was offered a position at the New School for Social Research in New York City and granted admission to the United States. A series of voyages brought him, via South America, to Puerto Rico, where he was investigated by the FBI after German letters in his luggage aroused the suspicions of customs agents. Lévi-Strauss spent most of the war in New York City. Along with Jacques Maritain, Henri Focillon, Roman Jakobson, he was a founding member of the École Libre des Hautes Études, a sort of university-in-exile for French academics.
The war years in New York were formative for Lévi-Strauss in several ways. His relationship with Jakobson helped shape his theoretical outlook. In addition, Lévi-Strauss was exposed to the American anthropology espoused by Franz Boas, who taught at Columbia University. In 1942, while having dinner at the Faculty House at Columbia, Boas died of a heart attack in Lévi-Strauss's arms; this intimate association with Boas gave his early work a distinctive American inclination that helped facilitate its acceptance in the U. S. After a brief stint from 1946 to 1947 as a cultural attaché to the French embassy in Washington, DC, Lévi-Strauss returned to Paris in 1948. At this time, he received his state doctorate from the Sorbonne by submitting, in the French tradition, both a "major" and a "minor" doctoral thesis; these were The Family and So
A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, historical, or scientific importance. Many public museums make these items available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary; the largest museums are located in major cities throughout the world, while thousands of local museums exist in smaller cities and rural areas. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public; the goal of serving researchers is shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, children's museums. Amongst the world's largest and most visited museums are the Louvre in Paris, the National Museum of China in Beijing, the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. the British Museum and National Gallery in London, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and Vatican Museums in Vatican City.
According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries. The English "museum" comes from the Latin word, is pluralized as "museums", it is from the Ancient Greek Μουσεῖον, which denotes a place or temple dedicated to the Muses, hence a building set apart for study and the arts the Musaeum for philosophy and research at Alexandria by Ptolemy I Soter about 280 BC. The purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public. From a visitor or community perspective, the purpose can depend on one's point of view. A trip to a local history museum or large city art museum can be an entertaining and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the economic health of a city, a way to increase the sophistication of its inhabitants. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museum's mission, such as civil rights or environmentalism.
Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithson's bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge."Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of each classification of a field of knowledge for research and for display was the purpose; as American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students. By the last quarter of the 19th century, the scientific research in the universities was shifting toward biological research on a cellular level, cutting edge research moved from museums to university laboratories. While many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums. While there is an ongoing debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museum's collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect and preserve artifacts for future generations.
Much care and expense is invested in preservation efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artifacts and buildings. All museums display objects; as historian Steven Conn writes, "To see the thing itself, with one's own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting."Museum purposes vary from institution to institution. Some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects, they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a historic printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia; some seek to reach a wide audience, such as a national or state museum, while some museums have specific audiences, like the LDS Church History Museum or local history organizations. Speaking, museums collect objects of significance that comply with their mission statement for conservation and display.
Although most museums do not allow physical contact with the associated artifacts, there are some that are interactive and encourage a more hands-on approach. In 2009, Hampton Court Palace, palace of Henry VIII, opened the council room to the general public to create an interactive environment for visitors. Rather than allowing visitors to handle 500-year-old objects, the museum created replicas, as well as replica costumes; the daily activities, historic clothing, temperature changes immerse the visitor in a slice of what Tudor life may have been. This section lists the 20 most visited museums in 2015 as compiled by AECOM and the Themed Entertainment Association's annual report on the world's most visited attractions. For 2016 figures see List of most visited museums; the cities of London and Washington, D. C. contain more of the 20 most visited museums in the world than any others, with six museums and four museums, respectively. Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy individuals, families or institutions of art and rare or curious natural objects and artifacts.
These were displayed in so-called wonder rooms or cabinets of curiosities. One of the oldest museums known is Ennigaldi-Nanna's museum, built by Princess Ennigaldi at the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire; the site dates from c. 530 BCE, contained artifacts from earlier M
Army Museum (Paris)
The Musée de l'Armée is a national military museum of France located at Les Invalides in the 7th arrondissement of Paris. It is served by Paris Métro stations Invalides, La Tour-Maubourg; the Musée de l'Armée was created in 1905 with the merger of the Musée d'Artillerie and the Musée Historique de l'Armée. The museum's seven main spaces and departments contain collections that span the period from antiquity through the 20th century; the Musée de l'Armée was created in 1905 with the merger of the Musée d'Artillerie and the Musée Historique de l'Armée. The Musée de l'artillerie was founded in 1795 in the aftermath of the French Revolution, expanded under Napoleon, it was moved into the Hôtel des Invalides in 1871 following the Franco-Prussian War and the proclamation of the Third Republic. Another institution called the Musée historique de l'Armée was created in 1896 following the Paris World Fair; the two institutions merged in 1905 within the space of the former Musée de l'Artillerie. Today, it holds 500,000 artifacts, including weapons, artillery, uniforms and paintings, exhibited in an area of 12,000 m².
The permanent collections are organised into "historical collections", representing a chronological tour from ancient times through the end of World War II. In March 1878, the museum hosted an "ethnographic exhibition", as it was called, which represented the main "types" of Oceania, America and Africa. Dummies representing people from the colonies, along with weapons and equipment, were the main attraction; the exhibit, organised by Colonel Le Clerc, attempted to demonstrate theories of unilineal evolution, putting the European man at the apex of human history. Parts of this collection began to be transferred to the Ethnographic Museum of the Trocadéro in 1910 and in 1917. All remnants were transferred after the Second World War; the Musée de l'Armée has identified 24 aesthetic and symbolic "treasures," which are all linked to French military history from the late Middle Ages through to World War II. They include weapons, works of arts and technology; the museum consists of six main spaces. The Main Courtyard is the centre of the Hôtel National des Invalides and displays a large part of the artillery collections, gathered during the French Revolution.
The collection traces 200 years of the history of French field artillery and enables visitors to discover how the equipment was manufactured, its role and the history of great French artillerymen. Contains: 60 French classical bronze cannons A dozen howitzers and mortars The Musée de l'Armée has a rich ancient collection, which makes it one of the three largest arms museums in the world. Contains: The Royal Room: crown collections The Medieval Room: artifacts from the feudal army to the royal army The Louis XIII Room: the progress of the royal army) A Themed Arsenal Gallery An exhibit on Courtly Leisure Activities some rooms of antique and oriental armament This department covers the military, political and industrial history of France, reliving great battles, exploring the lives of soldiers, tracing the development of technologies and tactics. Contains: Privates' uniforms Luxury weapons and arms Equipment of numerous French and foreign regiments Illustrious figures, such as Napoleon Bonaparte and his marshals The contemporary department tells the story of the French Army from 1871 to 1945, the two great conflicts of the 20th century.
Contains: French and foreign uniforms, including some having belonged to illustrious military leaders Objects used by soldiers in daily life Prestige pieces: marshals' batons and ceremonial swords: Emblems and elements from personal archives: letters, etc. The Charles de Gaulle Monument is an interactive multimedia space dedicated to the work of Charles de Gaulle, the leader of the Free French Forces and founding President of the Fifth Republic. Contains: The Multi-Screen Room The Ring: "an overview of the century" projected onto a circular glass ring The Permanent Exhibition Three cabinets are dedicated to special collections. Contains: Artillery models from the 16th to 19th c. Military music instruments, selected among the 350 of the collection Military figurines, with 5000 toy soldiers displayed on a collection of 140000The Army museum is associated with four additional spaces: The museum is dedicated to the Ordre de la Libération, France's second national order after the Légion d'honneur, created in 1940 by General Charles de Gaulle, leader of the Free French Forces.
Contains three galleries: Free France Interior Resistance Deportation The Musée des Plans-Reliefs is a museum of military models located within the Musée de l'Armée. About 100 models, created between 1668 and 1870, are on display in the museum; the construction of models dates to 1668 when the Marquis de Louvois, minister of war to Louis XIV, began a collection of three-dimensional models of fortified cities for military purposes, kept growing until 1870 with the disappearance of fortifications bastionnées. In 1676, the Secretary of State for War, Marquis de Louvois, entrusted the young architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart with the construction of the chapel, which Libéral Bruant had been unable to complete; the architect designed a building which combined a royal chapel, the "Dôme des Invalides", a veterans' chapel. This way, the King and his soldiers could attend mass while entering the place of worship though different entrances, as prescribed by etiquette; this separation was reinforced in
Demographics of Morocco
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Morocco, including population density, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. The population of Morocco in 2014 is 33,848,242; the overwhelming majority of Moroccans are of Berber descent. Those who identify as Arab-Berbers are genetically nearly identical to non-Arab Berbers, suggesting that the processes of'Arabization' were entirely cultural rather than genetic; some Moroccans identify themselves as Berbers through the spoken language, through a mix of family/tribal/territorial ties or through both. Other Moroccans identify themselves as Arabised Berbers based on them speaking Arabic or being coerced to speak Arabic and/or not being able to speak Berber. However, due to Arabisation and its policies, some of them believe they have Arab descent from the Arabian Peninsula or the Levant; some Moroccans believe themselves to be of mixed Arab-Berber descent or of Arab-Berber-Andalusian ancestry.
There are no official figures about the exact ethnic origins of all Moroccans, but the implicitly accepted idea inside and outside Morocco is that Moroccans are mixed Arab-Berbers. However, a recent study by the National Geographic showed the majority of North Africa are predominantly of non-Arab ancestry, thus Amazigh. Morocco has been inhabited by Berbers since at least 5,000 years ago; some estimate the presence of Berbers to be 8,000+ years old. The oldest known sovereign state in Morocco is the Berber Kingdom of Mauretaina established in 110 BC. Part of the northern areas of Morocco was for limited periods under the rule of Romans and Byzantine principalities, sometimes in alliance with the indigenous Berbers, such as the one of Julian, count of Ceuta. There was a high occurrence of intermarriage and interbreeding between some Berbers and European settlers, laying the foundation for the emergence of Moorish and Romano-Berber cultures. Since around 710 AD, many Arabs from the Arabian Peninsula and Arabised Levantine people conquered the territory or migrated to it during the Umayyad conquest, though historical scholars argue that the amount of the population that remained Arab is minimal.
The deep and mountainous areas of ancient Morocco always remained under Berber control. A small minority of the population is identified as Haratin and Gnaoua, dark-skinned sedentary agriculturalists of the southern oases that speak either Tamazight or Darija. About 99 % of Moroccans are considered to be culturally; the numbers of the Jewish minority has decreased since the creation of the State of Israel in 1948. Today there are 2,500 Moroccan Jews inside the country. Thousands of Moroccan Jews living in Europe and North America visit the country regularly. There is a small but growing minority of Moroccan Christians made of local Moroccan converts. In 2014, most of the 86,206 foreign residents are French people, Spaniards and sub-Saharan African students. There is a small community of Shia Muslim converts in northwestern Morocco of unknown numbers. Both Christian and Shia Muslim Moroccans and their religious activities are under surveillance and restrictions from Moroccan authorities as they are seen as a threat to the dominance of Sunni Islam and the monarch's religious authority.
The number of non-believers and non-religious Moroccans is unknown but could be in the 100,000s. Source: Haut-Commissariat au Plan Figures from The Demographic Health SurveyFertility Rate and CBR: Source: UN World Population Prospects Structure of the population: According to 2004 census Structure of the population: Structure of the population: According to 2014 census Modern Standard Arabic and the Berber are Morocco's two official languages; the spoken languages in daily life are: (Moroccan Arabic, Hassaniya Arabic, Berber languages. Around 30-33 million Moroccans speak Moroccan Arabic as a first language, including Hilalian dialects and Hassaniya Arabic in the extreme south of the country. Around 12-15 million Moroccans speak Berber languages in three varieties as a first language. French is an implicitly "official language" of government and big business, is taught throughout school and still serves as Morocco's primary language of business and scientific university education. French is widely used in the media.
Morocco is a member of La Francophonie. Berber activists have struggled since the 1960s for the recognition of their language as an official language of Morocco, achieved in July 2011 following the February 20th 2011 uprising. About 20,000 Moroccans in the northern part of the country speak some Spanish. English, while still far behind French in terms of the number of proficient speakers, is becoming a foreign language of choice among educated youth and business people, it has been taught to Moroccan students after the fourth year of elementary school since the education reforms of 2002. The literacy rate is 42.5 percent for females. 26 percent of the non-agricultural labor is female. The ratio of boys to girls in primary and secondary schools is 87 to 9. In the past 20 years, the government has taken initiatives to improve the status of women in society. For instance, the Moudawana 2003 code of law has improved the family status code, it has given women the right to make decisions on marriage and custody of chil