Rococo, less roccoco, or "Late Baroque", is a ornamental and theatrical style of decoration which combines asymmetry, scrolling curves, gilding and pastel colors, sculpted molding, trompe l'oeil frescoes to create the illusions of surprise and drama. It first appeared in France and Italy in the 1730s and spread to Central Europe in the 1750s and 1760s, it is described as the final expression of the Baroque movement. The Rococo style began in France in the first part of the 18th century in the reign of Louis XV as a reaction against the more formal and geometric Style Louis XIV, it was known as the style rocaille style. It soon spread to other parts of Europe northern Italy, Austria, other parts of Germany, Russia, it came to influence the other arts sculpture, furniture and glassware, painting and theatre. The word rococo was first used as a humorous variation of the word rocaille. Rocaille was a method of decoration, using pebbles and cement, used to decorate grottoes and fountains since the Renaissance.
In the late 17th and early 18th century rocaille became the term for a kind of decorative motif or ornament that appeared in the late Style Louis XIV, in the form of a seashell interlaced with acanthus leaves. In 1736 the designer and jeweler Jean Mondon published the Premier Livre de forme rocquaille et cartel, a collection of designs for ornaments of furniture and interior decoration, it was the first appearance in print of the term "rocaille" to designate the style. The carved or molded seashell motif was combined with palm leaves or twisting vines to decorate doorways, wall panels and other architectural elements; the term rococo was first used in print in 1825 to describe decoration, "out of style and old-fashioned." It was used in 1828 for decoration "which belonged to the style of the 18th century, overloaded with twisting ornaments." In 1829 the author Stendhal described rococo as "the rocaille style of the 18th century."In the 19th century, the term was used to describe architecture or music, excessively ornamental.
Since the mid-19th century, the term has been accepted by art historians. While there is still some debate about the historical significance of the style, Rococo is now considered as a distinct period in the development of European art. Rococo features exuberant decoration, with an abundance of curves, counter-curves and elements modeled on nature; the exteriors of Rococo buildings are simple, while the interiors are dominated by their ornament. The style was theatrical, designed to impress and awe at first sight. Floor plans of churches were complex, featuring interlocking ovals; the style integrated painting, molded stucco, wood carving, quadratura, or illusionist ceiling paintings, which were designed to give the impression that those entering the room were looking up at the sky, where cherubs and other figures were gazing down at them. Materials used painted or left white; the intent was to create an impression of surprise and wonder on first view. Rococo was influenced by chinoiserie and was sometimes in association with Chinese figures and pagodas.
The Rocaille style, or French Rococo, appeared in Paris during the reign of Louis XV, flourished between about 1723 and 1759. The style was used in salons, a new style of room designed to impress and entertain guests; the most prominent example was the salon of the Princess in Hôtel de Soubise in Paris, designed by Germain Boffrand and Charles-Joseph Natoire. The characteristics of French Rococo included exceptional artistry in the complex frames made for mirrors and paintings, which sculpted in plaster and gilded; the furniture featured sinuous curves and vegetal designs. The leading furniture designers and craftsmen in the style included Juste-Aurele Meissonier, Charles Cressent, Nicolas Pineau; the Rocaille style lasted in France until the mid-18th century, while it became more curving and vegetal, it never achieved the extravagant exuberance of the Rococo in Bavaria and Italy. The discoveries of Roman antiquities beginning in 1738 at Herculanum and at Pompeii in 1748 turned French architecture in the direction of the more symmetrical and less flamboyant neo-classicism.
Artists in Italy Venice produced an exuberant rococo style. Venetian commodes imitated the curving lines and carved ornament of the French rocaille, but with a particular Venetian variation. Notable decorative painters included Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, who painted ceilings and murals of both churches and palazzos, Giovanni Battista Crosato who painted the ballroom ceiling of the Ca Rezzonico in the quadraturo manner, giving the illusion of three dimensions. Tiepelo travelled to Germany with his son during 1752–1754, decorating the ceilings of the Würzburg Residence, one of the major landmarks of the Bavarian rococo. An earlier celebrated Venetian painter was Giovanni Battista Piazzetta, who painted several notable church ceilings; the Venetian Rococo featured exceptional glassware Murano glass, ofte
The Empire style is an early-nineteenth-century design movement in architecture, other decorative arts, the visual arts, representing the second phase of Neoclassicism. It flourished between 1800 and 1815 during the Consulate and the First French Empire periods, although its life span lasted until the late-1820s. From France it spread into much of the United States; the style originated in and takes its name from the rule of the Emperor Napoleon I in the First French Empire, when it was intended to idealize Napoleon's leadership and the French state. The previous fashionable style in France had been the Directoire style, a more austere and minimalist form of Neoclassicism, that replaced the Louis XVI style; the Empire style brought a full return to ostentatious richness. The style corresponds somewhat to the Biedermeier style in the German-speaking lands, Federal style in the United States, the Regency style in Britain; the style developed and elaborated the Directoire style of the preceding period, which aimed at a simpler, but still elegant evocation of the virtues of the Ancient Roman Republic: The stoic virtues of Republican Rome were upheld as standards not for the arts but for political behaviour and private morality.
Conventionels saw themselves as antique heroes. Children were named after Brutus and Lycurgus; the festivals of the Revolution were staged by David as antique rituals. The chairs in which the committee of Salut Publique sat were made on antique models devised by David.... In fact Neo-classicism became fashionable; the Empire style "turned to the florid opulence of Imperial Rome. The abstemious severity of Doric was replaced by Corinthian richness and splendour". Two French architects, Charles Percier and Pierre Fontaine, were together the creators of the French Empire style; the two had studied in Rome and in the 1790s became leading furniture designers in Paris, where they received many commissions from Napoleon and other statesmen. Architecture of the Empire style was based on elements of the Roman Empire and its many archaeological treasures, rediscovered starting in the eighteenth century; the preceding Louis XVI and Directoire styles employed straighter, simpler designs compared to the Rococo style of the eighteenth century.
Empire designs influenced the contemporary American Federal style, both were forms of propaganda through architecture. It was a style of the people, not sober and evenly balanced; the style was considered to have "liberated" and "enlightened" architecture just as Napoleon "liberated" the peoples of Europe with his Napoleonic Code. The Empire period was popularized by the inventive designs of Percier and Fontaine, Napoleon's architects for Malmaison; the designs drew for inspiration on symbols and ornaments borrowed from the glorious ancient Greek and Roman empires. Buildings had simple timber frames and box-like constructions, veneered in expensive mahogany imported from the colonies. Biedermeier furniture used ebony details due to financial constraints. Ormolu details displayed a high level of craftsmanship. General Bernadotte to become King Karl Johan of Sweden and Norway, introduced the Napoleonic style to Sweden, where it became known under his own name; the Karl Johan style remained popular in Scandinavia as the Empire style disappeared from other parts of Europe.
France paid some of its debts to Sweden in ormolu bronzes instead of money, leading to a vogue for crystal chandeliers with bronze from France and crystal from Sweden. After Napoleon lost power, the Empire style continued to be in favour for many decades, with minor adaptations. There was a revival of the style in the last half of the nineteenth century in France, again at the beginning of the twentieth century, again in the 1980s; the most famous Empire-style structures in France are the grand neoclassical Arc de Triomphe of Place de l'Étoile, Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, Vendôme column, La Madeleine, which were built in Paris to emulate the edifices of the Roman Empire. The style was used in Imperial Russia, where it was used to celebrate the victory over Napoleon in such memorial structures as the General Staff Building, Kazan Cathedral, Alexander Column, Narva Triumphal Gate. Stalinist architecture is sometimes referred to as Stalin's Empire style; the style survived in Italy longer than in most of Europe because of its Imperial Roman associations because it was revived as a national style of architecture following the unification of Italy in 1870.
Mario Praz wrote about this style as the Italian Empire. In the United Kingdom and the United States, the Empire style was adapted to local conditions and acquired further expression as the Egyptian Revival, Greek Revival, Biedermeier style, Regency style, late-Federal style. Historic sites which present an homogeneous ensemble, examples of the decoration of interiors of the early 19th century are: Château de Malmaison in France Casa del Labrador in Spain American Empire style Chariot clock Empire silhouette Federal architecture French Empire mantel clock Indies Empire style Lighthouse clock Lyre arm Neoclassicism in France Neo-Grec, the late Greek revival style architecture Palace of Fontainebleau Second Empire Stalin's Empire style Honour, Hugh. Neo-classicism. Style and Civilisation. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 9780140137606. OCLC 36284165. Media related to Empire architecture at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Empire silhouette at Wikimedia Commons
Frankenthal Porcelain Factory
The Frankenthal Porcelain Factory was one of the greatest porcelain manufacturers of Germany and operated in Frankenthal in the Rhineland-Palatinate between 1755 and 1799. From the start they made hard-paste porcelain, produced both figurines and dishware of high quality, somewhat reflecting in style the French origin of the business in their floral painting, they were a private business, but from 1761 were owned by the local ruler, like most German porcelain factories of the period. The porcelain factory in Frankenthal was established in 1755 by the Hannong family, who had manufactured porcelain, as well as Strasbourg faience, in Strasbourg until Louis XVI established a state monopoly on porcelain in favour of the Sèvres factory and closed down all others. Karl Hannong transferred his business to an empty barracks in Frankenthal, just outside Mannheim, staffed it with his Strasbourg workforce, under a privilege from the local ruler Elector Carl Theodor of Bavaria, who visited the factory himself in the following year, once production was well under way.
In 1757 additional craftsmen were hired from Meissen porcelain and in 1759 Hannong was able to open a shop in Strasbourg. However, in 1760 Karl Hannong died and the business became the property of his two sons Joseph Adam Hannong and Peter Anton Hannong, who fell out over the "arcanum", their disagreements had a damaging effect on the business and by 1761 they had borrowed so much from the Elector that it was impossible for them to repay it. In 1762 therefore the Elector bought the factory from the Hannongs for 40,804 guilders, plus another 10,00 for the arcanum, installed his own officials to manage it. Frankenthal Porcelain was always hard-paste, as Hannong senior had been in partnership in Strasbourg with an ex-employee of the Meissen factory, it is said that one of his sons sold the secret to Sèvres, although they were unable to obtain the right raw materials for some time. The years from 1762 to 1770 were extraordinarily successful: the products achieved high quality and established the factory's reputation.
They retained some of the French style of Strasbourg. From 1770 all items were marked with a date mark; the earlier body was "a fine creamy white with a well-used glaze", but from 1774 the paste was made with local china clay mixed with "Passau earth", resulting in lower quality. By 1776 the Frankenthal porcelain factory had shops in Aachen, Frankfurt am Main, Mainz and Nancy; the Napoleonic Wars brought an end to the business. Frankenthal was occupied by the French in 1794, who closed the porcelain factory down in 1799. Production had been lower since at least 1790, models and moulds had been moved to Nymphenburg, which the elector owned by having become Prince-Elector of Bavaria; the Frankenthal factory was in operation for only 44 years and is thus the shortest-lived of the major German porcelain manufacturers. It was marked by an unusually numerous succession of directors and principal modellers, although some of the main painters spent a long time at the factory. Collections of Frankenthal porcelain may be seen, among other places, in the Reiss Engelhorn Museum in Mannheim, the Kurpfälzisches Museum in Heidelberg, the Historisches Museum der Pfalz in Speyer and the Bavarian National Museum in Munich.
Works of the brothers Paul and Johann Hannong are displayed in the Musée des Arts décoratifs, Strasbourg and in the Musée du pain d'épice in Gertwiller. Porcelain manufacturing companies in Europe Most detailed sources are in German or French Battie, David, ed. Sotheby's Concise Encyclopedia of 1990, Conran Octopus. ISBN 1850292515 Schwarz: "Zur Geschichte der Frankenthaler Porzellan-Fabrik, nach den Akten des Kreisarchivs". 12, 1884 Beyars.com: Kunstlexikon Höfisches Leben Frankenthaler Porzellan des 18. Jahrhunderts Vor 250 Jahren: Frankenthaler Porzellanmanufaktur gegründet
The Baroque is a ornate and extravagant style of architecture, painting and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the mid-18th century. It preceded the Rococo and Neoclassical styles, it was encouraged by the Catholic Church as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity of Protestant architecture and music, though Lutheran Baroque art developed in parts of Europe as well. The Baroque style used contrast, exuberant detail, deep colour and surprise to achieve a sense of awe; the style began at the start of the 17th century in Rome spread to France, northern Italy and Portugal to Austria and southern Germany. By the 1730s, it had evolved into an more flamboyant style, called rocaille or Rococo, which appeared in France and central Europe until the mid to late 18th century; the English word baroque comes directly from the French, may have been adapted from the Portuguese term barroco, a flawed pearl. Both words are related to the Spanish term berruca; the term did not describe a style of music or art.
Prior to the 18th century, the French baroque and Portuguese barroco were terms related to jewelry, An example from 1531 uses the term to describe pearls in an inventory of Charles V's treasures. The word appears in a 1694 edition of Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française, which describes baroque as "only used for pearls that are imperfectly round." A 1728 Portuguese dictionary describes barroco as relating to a "coarse and uneven pearl."The French term for the artistic style may have had roots in the medieval Latin word baroco, a philosophical term, invented in the 13th century by scholastics to describe a complicated type of syllogism, or logical argument. In the 16th century the philosopher Michel de Montaigne associated the term'baroco' with "Bizarre and uselessly complicated." In the 18th century, the term was used to describe music, was not flattering. In an anonymous satirical review of the première of Jean-Philippe Rameau's Hippolyte et Aricie in October 1733, printed in the Mercure de France in May 1734, the critic wrote that the novelty in this opera was "du barocque", complaining that the music lacked coherent melody, was unsparing with dissonances changed key and meter, speedily ran through every compositional device.
In 1762, Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française wrote that the term could be used figuratively to describe something "irregular, bizarre or unequal."Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a musician and composer as well as philosopher, wrote in 1768 in the Encyclopédie: "Baroque music is that in which the harmony is confused, loaded with modulations and dissonances. The singing is harsh and unnatural, the intonation difficult, the movement limited, it appears that term comes from the word'baroco' used by logicians."In 1788, the term was defined by Quatremère de Quincy in the Encyclopédie Méthodique as "an architectural style, adorned and tormented". The terms "style baroque" and "musique baroque" appeared in Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française in 1835. By the mid-19th century, art critics and historians had adopted the term as a way to ridicule post-Renaissance art; this was the sense of the word as used in 1855 by the leading art historian Jacob Burkhardt, who wrote that baroque artists "despised and abused detail" because they lacked "respect for tradition."Alternatively, a derivation from the name of the Italian painter Federico Barocci has been suggested.
In 1888, the art historian Heinrich Wölfflin published the first serious academic work on the style, Renaissance und Barock, which described the differences between the painting and architecture of the Renaissance and the Baroque. The Baroque style of architecture was a result of doctrines adopted by the Catholic Church at the Council of Trent in 1545–63, in response to the Protestant Reformation; the first phase of the Counter-Reformation had imposed a severe, academic style on religious architecture, which had appealed to intellectuals but not the mass of churchgoers. The Council of Trent decided instead to appeal to a more popular audience, declared that the arts should communicate religious themes with direct and emotional involvement. Lutheran Baroque art developed as a confessional marker of identity, in response to the Great Iconoclasm of Calvinists. Baroque churches were designed with a large central space, where the worshippers could be close to the altar, with a dome or cupola high overhead, allowing light to illuminate the church below.
The dome was one of the central symbolic features of baroque architecture illustrating the union between the heavens and the earth, The inside of the cupola was lavishly decorated with paintings of angels and saints, with stucco statuettes of angels, giving the impression to those below of looking up at heaven. Another feature of baroque churches are the quadratura. Quadratura paintings of Atlantes below the cornices appear to be supporting the ceiling of the church. Unlike the painted ceilings of Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel, which combined different scenes, each with its own perspective, to be looked at one at a time, the Baroque ceiling paintings were created so the viewer on the floor of the church would see the entire ceiling in correct perspective, as if the figures were real; the interiors of baroque churches became more and more ornate in the High Baroque, an
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Stucco or render is a material made of aggregates, a binder, water. Stucco is applied wet and hardens to a dense solid, it is used as a decorative coating for walls and ceilings, as a sculptural and artistic material in architecture. Stucco may be used to cover less visually appealing construction materials, such as metal, cinder block, or clay brick and adobe. In English, "stucco" refers to a coating for the outside of a building and "plaster" to a coating for interiors. However, other European languages, notably including Italian, do not have the same distinction; this has led to English using "stucco" for interior decorative plasterwork in relief. The difference in nomenclature between stucco and mortar is based more on use than composition; until the latter part of the nineteenth century, it was common that plaster, used inside a building, stucco, used outside, would consist of the same primary materials: lime and sand. Animal or plant fibers were added for additional strength. In the latter nineteenth century, Portland cement was added with increasing frequency in an attempt to improve the durability of stucco.
At the same time, traditional lime plasters were being replaced by gypsum plaster. Traditional stucco is made of lime and water. Modern stucco is made of Portland cement and water. Lime is added to increase the workability of modern stucco. Sometimes additives such as acrylics and glass fibers are added to improve the structural properties of the stucco; this is done with what is considered a one-coat stucco system, as opposed to the traditional three-coat method. Lime stucco is a hard material that can be broken or chipped by hand without too much difficulty; the lime itself is white. Lime stucco has the property of being self-healing to a limited degree because of the slight water solubility of lime. Portland cement stucco is hard and brittle and can crack if the base on which it is applied is not stable, its color was gray, from the innate color of most Portland cement, but white Portland cement is used. Today's stucco manufacturers offer a wide range of colors that can be mixed integrally in the finish coat.
Other materials such as stone and glass chips are sometimes "dashed" onto the finish coat before drying, with the finished product known as "rock dash", "pebble dash", or as roughcast if the stones are incorporated directly into the stucco, used from the early 20th through the early 21st Century. As a building material, stucco is a durable and weather-resistant wall covering, it was traditionally used as both an interior and exterior finish applied in one or two thin layers directly over a solid masonry, brick, or stone surface. The finish coat contained an integral color and was textured for appearance. With the introduction and development of heavy timber and light wood-framed construction methods, stucco was adapted for this new use by adding a reinforcement lattice, or lath, attached to and spanning between the structural supports and by increasing the thickness and number of layers of the total system; the lath added support for the wet tensile strength to the brittle, cured stucco. The traditional application of stucco and lath occurs in three coats — the scratch coat, the brown coat and the finish coat.
The two base coats of plaster are either hand-applied or machine sprayed. The finish coat can be floated to a sand finish or sprayed; the lath material was strips of wood installed horizontally on the wall, with spaces between, that would support the wet plaster until it cured. This lath and plaster technique became used. In exterior wall applications, the lath is installed over a weather-resistant asphalt-impregnated felt or paper sheet that protects the framing from the moisture that can pass through the porous stucco. Following World War II, the introduction of metal wire mesh, or netting, replaced the use of wood lath. Galvanizing the wire made it corrosion resistant and suitable for exterior wall applications. At the beginning of the 21st century, this "traditional" method of wire mesh lath and three coats of exterior plaster is still used. In some parts of the United States, stucco is the predominant exterior for both residential and commercial construction. Stucco has been used as a sculptural and artistic material.
Stucco relief was used in the architectural decoration schemes of many ancient cultures. Examples of Egyptian and Etruscan stucco reliefs remain extant. In the art of Mesopotamia and ancient Persian art there was a widespread tradition of figurative and ornamental internal stucco reliefs, which continued into Islamic art, for example in Abbasid Samarra, now using geometrical and plant-based ornament; as the arabesque reached its full maturity, carved stucco remained a common medium for decoration and calligraphic inscriptions. Indian architecture used stucco as a material for sculpture in an architectural context, it is rare in the countryside. In Roman art of the late Republic and early Empire, stucco was used extensively for the decoration of vaults. Though marble was the preferred sculptural medium in most regards, stucco was better for use in vaults because it was lighter and better suited to adapt to the curvature of the ceiling