Hyacinthe Rigaud was a French baroque painter most famous for his portraits of Louis XIV and other members of the French nobility. Hyacinthe Rigaud was born in Perpignan, the grandson of painter-gilders from Roussillon and the elder brother of another painter, he was trained in tailoring in his father's workshop but perfected his skills as a painter under Antoine Ranc at Montpellier from 1671 onwards, before moving to Lyon four years later. It was in these cities that he became familiar with Flemish and Italian painting that of Rubens, Van Dyck and Titian, whose works he collected. Arriving in Paris in 1681, he won the prix de Rome in 1682, but on the advice of Charles Le Brun did not make the trip to Rome to which this entitled him. Received into the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture in 1710, he rose to the top of this institution before retiring from it in 1735. Since Rigaud's paintings captured exact likenesses along with the subject's costumes and background details, his paintings are considered precise records of contemporary fashions.
Rigaud was born with the Catalan name Jyacintho Rigau or Jacint Rigau i Ros This is variously translated as Híacint Francesc Honrat Mathias Pere Martyr Andreu Joan Rigau – in Perpignan, which became part of France by the Treaty of the Pyrenees shortly after his birth. Rigaud was baptised with his Catalan name in the old cathédrale Saint-Jean de Perpignan on 20 July 1659, two days after his birth at rue de la Porte-d'Assaut, he would not have become French had not Roussillon and the Cerdanya been annexed to France the following 7 November thanks to the Treaty of the Pyrenees. That Treaty put an end to the wars that had taken place between France and Habsburg Spain since 1635 and married King Louis XIV of France to the infanta Maria Theresa of Spain. Hyacinthe's father, Josep Matias Pere Ramon Rigau, was a tailor in the parish of Saint-Jean de Perpignan, "as well as a painter", descended from a line of well-established artists in the Perpignanian basin, commissioned to decorate several tabernacles and other panels for liturgical use.
Few of these have survived to the present. Hyacinthe's grandfather, Jacinto major, more Jacinto's father, Honorat minor, were heads of the family and the local art world from 1570 to 1630. Working for the collège Saint-Éloi in his city since 1560, acting as representative of its guild of painters and gilders, on 22 November 1630 Jacinto major and other gilders and colleagues participated in the development of the statutes and minutes of the city's collège Saint-Luc. Honorat minor is identified as the painter of The Canonisation of Saint Hyacinthe in Perpignan's Dominican convent and now at Joch, the tabernacle of the church of Palau-del-Vidre and the retable at Montalba near Amélie-les-Bains; the father of Honorat minor is identified as the painter of the retable of Saint-Ferréol in the église Saint-Jacques de Perpignan and in the couvent des Minimes, whilst Honorat major is identified as the painter of the paintings of the retable of the église Saint-Jean-l'Évangéliste at Peyrestortes. On 13 March 1647 Hyacinthe's father Matias daughter of a carpenter.
Widowed shortly after, he decided to speedily remarry, to Maria Serra, daughter of a Perpignan textile merchant, on 20 December 1655. In 1665, he acquired a house "en lo carrer de las casas cremades" and received the income from a parcel of vineyards in the Bompas territory. By his second marriage, he acquired a house on place de l'Huile, but he soon sold it. Little is known about Rigaud's activities in Lyon, due to the lack of surviving documents. However, as per tradition, artists from Montpellier had strong ties with this city, as had, for example, Samuel Boissière, trained in there, in Lyon; the identity of Rigaud's future depicted models shows that he worked for the city's cloth merchants, whose flourishing trade had long since given the city its profitable income. If they had only been registered from 1681 onwards, the date when he moved to Paris, his "youthful" portraits were pre-dated, like those of Antoine Domergue, the king's councillor and provincial governor of Lyon, in 1686, "Mr Sarazin de Lion", of a famous dynasty of bankers of Swiss origins, in 1685.
Rigaud's portrait of Jean de Brunenc, painted in 1687, a silk merchant and consul of Lyon, assembles all the ingredients for which the painter was successful. In her thesis on the engravers from the Drevet family, Gilberte Levallois-Clavel revealed certain aspects of the private relations between Rigaud and Pierre Drevet. In 1681, when Hyacinthe Rigaud decided to move to Paris, inspired by Drevet, attracted to the capital, he had established a good reputation amongst the local clientele, from Switzerland to Aix-en-Provence. Going back to the artist's biography, Dezallier d'Argenville states that one of Rigaud's main reasons for his 1695 voyage was to paint his mother's portrait: "He painted her from many angles, had her marble bust made by the notable Coysevox, his cabinet's ornament for the rest of his life". In his first will, dated
Pierre Mignard or Pierre Mignard I, called "Mignard le Romain" to distinguish him from his brother Nicolas Mignard, was a French painter known for his religious and mythological scenes and portraits. He was a near-contemporary of the Premier Peintre du Roi Charles Le Brun with whom he engaged in a bitter, life-long rivalry. Pierre Mignard was born at Troyes in 1612 as the son of Marie Gallois, he came from a family of artisans. He was the younger brother of Nicolas, who became a painter and etcher, active in Avignon and was known as Mignard d'Avignon. Nicolas had two sons, Paul who became a painter and etcher and Pierre who became a painter and architect. To distinguish his nephew Pierre from his uncle, the nephew was called "Pierre II" or "Le Chevalier". Pierre Mignard trained in Bourges with the Mannerist painter Jean Boucher, he spent time making copies of the Mannerist works in the château of Fontainebleau. He studied for a period in the studio of Simon Vouet. Mignard left for Rome in 1635, it is because of his long residence in Rome that he got the nickname'Mignard le Romaine'.
In Rome he painted religious commissions. He was known for his many images of the Madonna and Child, they were so popular that they were referred to as "Mignardises." He painted altarpieces. His compatriot Nicolas Poussin hired Mignard to make copies of is works, he was active as a reproductive engraver making copies after Annibale Carracci. Mignard's life-long interest in portrait painting was developed at this time and he painted portraits of subsequent popes and prominent members of the Italian nobility, he travelled to Northern Italy where he visited Bologna, Mantua and Venice. His reputation was such that he was summoned to Paris in 1657 by Cardinal Mazarin, he travelled back via Avignon. Here he met the dramatist Molière, who became a close friend and of whom he painted several portraits. In Paris he became a popular portrait painter, he found favor with king Louis XIV. Mignard became a rival of the leading French painter of that time and first painter to the King, Charles Le Brun, he declined to enter the Academy.
Mignard opposed the authority of the Academy. His brother Nicolas and his nephew Paul, his pupil, chose the side of Le Brun against Pierre, which led to a break in the relationship. With the death of Le Brun in 1690, the situation changed. Mignard succeeded to all the posts held by his opponent, he died in 1695 at Paris. Mignard was active as a portrait painter, he produced mythological and religious scenes. Soon after his return to Paris, Mignard was able to attract the patronage of important personalities who commissioned portraits of him, his sitters included Turenne, Molière, Maintenon, La Vallière, Sévigné, Descartes. He was thus one of the most successful portrait painters of his time although according to some art historians the most boring one. Many of compositions were engraved by Gérard Audran, Pieter van Schuppen, Robert Nanteuil, Gérard Edelinck, Antoine Masson, François de Poilly and others. There is a good selection of works by Pierre and Pierre II in Avignon at the Musée Calvet; the Courtauld Institute of Art, Harvard University Art Museums, the Hermitage Museum, the Honolulu Museum of Art, Kunst Indeks Danmark, the Louvre, Musée d'Art et d'Histoire, Musée des Augustins, Musée Ingres, Museo Lombardi, the Museum of Fine Arts, the National Gallery, the National Portrait Gallery, the North Carolina Museum of Art, the Portland Art Museum and Versailles are among the public collections holding works by Pierre Mignard.
French Baroque and Classicism List of paintings by Pierre Mignard Media related to Pierre Mignard at Wikimedia Commons
Jean-Antoine Chaptal, comte de Chanteloup was a distinguished French chemist, agronomist, statesman and philanthropist. His multifaceted career unfolded during one of the most brilliant periods in French science. In chemistry it was the time of Antoine Lavoisier, Claude-Louis Berthollet, Louis Guyton de Morveau, Antoine-François Fourcroy and Joseph Gay-Lussac. Chaptal made his way into this elite company in Paris beginning in the 1780s, established his credentials as a serious scientist most with the publication of his first major scientific treatise, the Ėléments de chimie, his treatise brought the term "nitrogen" into the revolutionary new chemical nomenclature developed by Lavoisier. By 1795, at the newly established École Polytechnique in Paris, Chaptal shared the teaching of courses in pure and applied chemistry with Claude-Louis Berthollet, the doyen of the science. In 1798, Chaptal was elected a member of the prestigious Chemistry Section of the Institut de France, he became president of the section in 1802.
Chaptal was a key figure in the early industrialization in France under Napoleon and during the Bourbon Restoration. He was a founder and first president in 1801 of the important Society for the Encouragement of National Industry and a key organizer of industrial expositions held in Paris in 1801 and subsequent years, he compiled a valuable study, De l'industrie française, surveying the condition and needs of French industry in the early 1800s. Chaptal was strong in applied science. Beginning in the early 1780s, he published a continuous stream of practical essays on such things as acids and salts, sulfur and cheese making, sugar beets, bleaching, degreasing and dyeing; as a chemicals industrialist, he was a major producer of hydrochloric and sulfuric acids, was much sought after as a technical consultant for the manufacture of gunpowder. His reputation as a master of applied science, dedicated to using the discoveries of chemistry for the benefit of industry and agriculture, was furthered with the publication of his L'Art de faire, de gouverner et de perfectionner les vins and La Chimie appliquée aux arts, works that drew on the theoretical chemistry of Lavoisier to revolutionize the art of wine-making in France.
His new procedure of adding sugar to increase the final alcohol content of wines came to be called "chaptalization." In 1802, Chaptal purchased the Château de Chanteloup and its extensive grounds in Touraine, near Amboise. He raised merino sheep and experimented there in his years on a model farm for the cultivation of sugar beets, he wrote his classic study of the application of scientific principles to the cultivation of land, the Chimie appliquée à l'agriculture, composed his important political memoir, Mes souvenirs sur Napoléon. Napoleon named Chaptal Count of the Count of Chanteloup. In 1819 he was named by Louis XVIII to the Restoration's Chamber of Peers. Chaptal was born in Nojaret in southwestern France, the youngest son of well-to-do small landowners, Antoine Chaptal and Françoise Brunel, he was fortunate to have a rich uncle, Claude Chaptal, a prominent physician at Montpellier. The young Chaptal's brilliant record at the area collèges of Mende and Rodez encouraged his uncle to finance his way through medical school at the University of Montpellier, 1774-76.
After receiving his degree of doctor of medicine, he persuaded his uncle to continue his support for three and one-half years of postgraduate study in medicine and chemistry at Paris. There he attended courses on chemistry at the École de Médicine given by J. B. Bucquet, a friend of Lavoisier and instructor earlier of Berthollet, he returned to Montpellier in 1780 to a salaried chair in chemistry at the university, where his lectures were acclaimed. He composed Mémoires de chimie, reporting on his early studies in chemistry. In 1781, he married Anne-Marie Lajard, the daughter of a rich cottons merchant at Montpellier. With his new wife's substantial dowry, plus capital supplied by his generous uncle, he established at Montpellier one of the first modern chemical factories in France; the enterprise, manufacturing sulfuric, nitric and other acids, white lead and soda, among other substances, was a great success. By 1787 Montpellier became a center of innovation for the production of industrial chemicals in France.
Chaptal reported on his studies in chemistry applied to industry and agriculture for the Société Royale des Sciences de Montpellier. He communicated with the Controller General's department in Paris in 1782 regarding his projects for bottle-making and the manufacture of artificial soda, his articles were published by the Académie Royale des Sciences and in the Annales de chimie, the new journal founded in 1789 by Berthollet, Guyton and others for reporting on the new chemistry and its application. Chaptal was a master popularizer of the new chemistry, applying his knowledge and writing skills to everything that intrigued him from pottery and paper to wines and Roquefort cheese; the ten years or so prior to the Revolution in 1789 in France were "the best of times" for the young Chaptal. On the eve of the Revolution, he was thirty-three years old—wealthy, famous married, well connected, full of ideas and hopeful of human progress through science. Reflecting in his life on the Revolution in France, Chaptal wrote: "In the widespread confusion and flood of all passions, the wise man will consider the role he must play.
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France. A central landmark of the city, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the city's 1st arrondissement. 38,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are exhibited over an area of 72,735 square metres. In 2018, the Louvre was the world's most visited art museum; the museum is housed in the Louvre Palace built as the Louvre castle in the late 12th to 13th century under Philip II. Remnants of the fortress are visible in the basement of the museum. Due to the urban expansion of the city, the fortress lost its defensive function and, in 1546, was converted by Francis I into the main residence of the French Kings; the building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace. In 1682, Louis XIV chose the Palace of Versailles for his household, leaving the Louvre as a place to display the royal collection, from 1692, a collection of ancient Greek and Roman sculpture. In 1692, the building was occupied by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres and the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, which in 1699 held the first of a series of salons.
The Académie remained at the Louvre for 100 years. During the French Revolution, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum to display the nation's masterpieces; the museum opened on 10 August 1793 with an exhibition of 537 paintings, the majority of the works being royal and confiscated church property. Because of structural problems with the building, the museum was closed in 1796 until 1801; the collection was increased under Napoleon and the museum was renamed Musée Napoléon, but after Napoleon's abdication many works seized by his armies were returned to their original owners. The collection was further increased during the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, during the Second French Empire the museum gained 20,000 pieces. Holdings have grown through donations and bequests since the Third Republic; the collection is divided among eight curatorial departments: Egyptian Antiquities. The Louvre Palace, which houses the museum, was begun as a fortress by Philip II in the 12th century to protect the city from English soldiers which were in Normandy.
Remnants of this castle are still visible in the crypt. Whether this was the first building on that spot is not known. According to the authoritative Grand Larousse encyclopédique, the name derives from an association with wolf hunting den. In the 7th century, St. Fare, an abbess in Meaux, left part of her "Villa called Luvra situated in the region of Paris" to a monastery.. The Louvre Palace was altered throughout the Middle Ages. In the 14th century, Charles V converted the building into a residence and in 1546, Francis I renovated the site in French Renaissance style. Francis acquired what would become the nucleus of the Louvre's holdings, his acquisitions including Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa. After Louis XIV chose Versailles as his residence in 1682, constructions slowed. Four generations of Boulle were granted Royal patronage and resided in the Louvre in the following order: Pierre Boulle, Jean Boulle, Andre-Charles Boulle and his four sons, after him. André-Charles Boulle is the most famous French cabinetmaker and the preeminent artist in the field of marquetry known as "Inlay".
Boulle was "the most remarkable of all French cabinetmakers". He was commended to Louis XIV of France, the "Sun King", by Jean-Baptiste Colbert as being "the most skilled craftsman in his profession". Before the fire of 1720 destroyed them, André-Charles Boulle held priceless works of art in the Louvre, including forty-eight drawings by Raphael'. By the mid-18th century there were an increasing number of proposals to create a public gallery, with the art critic La Font de Saint-Yenne publishing, in 1747, a call for a display of the royal collection. On 14 October 1750, Louis XV agreed and sanctioned a display of 96 pieces from the royal collection, mounted in the Galerie royale de peinture of the Luxembourg Palace. A hall was opened by Le Normant de Tournehem and the Marquis de Marigny for public viewing of the Tableaux du Roy on Wednesdays and Saturdays, contained Andrea del Sarto's Charity and works by Raphael. Under Louis XVI, the royal museum idea became policy; the comte d'Angiviller broadened the collection and in 1776 proposed conversion of the Grande Galerie of the Louvre – which contained maps – into the "French Museum".
Many proposals were offered for the Louvre's renovation into a museum. Hence the museum remained incomplete until the French Revolution. During the French Revolution the Louvre was transformed into a public museum. In May 1791, the Assembly declared that the Louvre would be "a place for bringing together monuments of all the sciences and arts". On 10 August 1792, Louis XVI was imprisoned and the royal collection i
Valentin de Boulogne
Valentin de Boulogne, sometimes referred to as Le Valentin, was a French painter in the tenebrist style. Valentin was born in Coulommiers, where he was baptised in the parish of Saint-Denys on 3 January 1591, making 1590 his year of birth; the family name spelled Boullogne and Boulongne, appears to originate from Boulogne-sur-Mer, a city in northern France in the colony of Pas-de-Calais, though the family had dwelt at Coulommiers since at least 1489. His father named Valentin, his uncle Jean were both painters, it can be presumed that Valentin would have first started painting in his father's studio prior to moving to Paris or Fontainebleau, before leaving for Italy. Valentin is recorded in Italy in the stati d'anime for 1620, when he was living in the parish of Santa Maria del Popolo. While studying in Italy under Simon Vouet, Valentin came under the influence of Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio and Bartolomeo Manfredi. Caravaggio used anbold, naturalistic style, which emphasized the common humanity of the apostles and martyrs, flattered the aspirations of the Counter-Reformation Church, while his vivid chiaroscuro enhanced both three-dimensionality and drama, as well as evoking the mystery of the faith."
Caravaggio "followed a militantly realist agenda, rejecting both Mannerism and the classicizing naturalism" and "in the first 30 years of the 17th century his naturalistic ambitions and revolutionary artistic procedures attracted a large following from all over Europe. Manfredi an Italian painter, was known throughout Italy and beyond as Caravaggio's closest follower. In the lit canvases of his period Manfredi adopted a common theme from Caravaggio—the tavern scene featuring ordinary people religious subjects, whose figures are depicted close to the surface of the picture to involve the viewer in the action. While Caravaggio and Manfredi may have influenced the style and themes that became common in Valentin's work, Valentin studied as well under Simon Vouet, considered a leading French painter by contemporaries. Vouet's earliest works exhibit the influence of Caravaggio and deploy dramatic contrasts of light with a restricted palette of blacks and whites. Valentin had success with a type of composition invented by Caravaggio in which fortune tellers, drinkers, or gamblers are grouped around a table.
Valentin himself was fond of fine wine. 75 of his works survive. Valentin's genius shows in the subtleness of psychological expression and interplay among his characters, as well as in the refinement and finesse of his painting technique. Valentin's painting Fortune Teller with Soldiers depicts a group of young soldiers, one of whom is mesmerized by the fortune teller reading his palm. Behind the gypsy a shadowy figure looks at the viewer with his finger to his lips in a conspiratorial gesture as he steals the fortune teller's purse from her pocket. At the same time the thief is pickpocketed in turn by a small child. While one person's fortune is told, another's is being stolen. Valentin's pupils included Nicolas Tournier. Valentin de Boulogne is said to have died after bathing in the freezing cold waters of the Fontana del Tritone on Piazza Barberini, after having drunk too much. Selection of Valentin de Boulogne's works Jacques Thuillier, Un peintre passionné, L'Oeil, November 1958 Media related to Valentin de Boulogne at Wikimedia Commons
Jean-Antoine Houdon was a French neoclassical sculptor. Houdon is famous for his portrait busts and statues of philosophers and political figures of the Enlightenment. Houdon's subjects included Denis Diderot, Benjamin Franklin, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Molière, George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Louis XVI, Robert Fulton, Napoléon Bonaparte, he was born in Versailles, on 25 March 1741. In 1752, he entered the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture, where he studied with René-Michel Slodtz, Jean-Baptiste Lemoyne, Jean-Baptiste Pigalle. From 1761 to 1764, he studied at the École royale des élèves protégés. Houdon won the Prix de Rome in 1761, but was not influenced by ancient and Renaissance art in Rome, his stay in the city is marked by two characteristic and important productions: the superb écorché, an anatomical model which has served as a guide to all artists since his day, the statue of Saint Bruno in the church of Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri in Rome. After ten years stay in Italy, Houdon returned to Paris.
He submitted "Morpheus" to the Salon of 1771. He developed his practise of portrait busts, he became a member of the Académie de peinture et de sculpture in 1771, a professor in 1778. In 1778, he modeled Voltaire. In 1778, he joined the masonic lodge Les Neuf Sœurs, where he met Benjamin Franklin, John Paul Jones. For Salon of 1781, he submitted a "Diana", refused without drapery. Houdon's portrait sculpture of Washington was the result of a specific invitation by Benjamin Franklin to cross the Atlantic in 1785 to visit Mount Vernon, so that Washington could model for him. Washington sat for a plaster life mask; these models served for many commissions of Washington, including the standing figure commissioned by the Virginia General Assembly, for the Virginia State Capitol in Richmond. Numerous variations of the Washington bust were produced, portraying him variously as a general in uniform, in the classical manner showing chest musculature, as Roman Consul Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus clad in a toga.
A cast of the latter is located in the Vermont State House. In the 1780s Houdon produced two semi-nude sculptures and Bather. Perceived as bourgeois for his connections to the court of Louis XVI, he fell out of favour during the French Revolution, although he escaped imprisonment. Houdon returned to favor during the French Consulate and Empire, being taken on as one of the original artistic team for what became the Column of the Grande Armée at Wimille, he was made a Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur, on 17 December 1804. Houdon died in Paris on 15 July 1828, was interred at the Cimetière du Montparnasse. On 1 July 1786, he married Marie-Ange-Cecile Langlois. Houdon's sculptures were used as models for the engravings used on various U. S. postage stamps of the late early 20th centuries which depict Washington in profile. Neoclassicism in France Washington-Franklin Issues Harvard, Arnason H; the Sculptures of Houdon, London: Phaidon Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Houdon, Jean Antoine". Encyclopædia Britannica.
Cambridge University Press. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Jean-Antoine Houdon". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Christopher John Murray, ed. Encyclopedia of the Romantic Era, 1760–1850: A-K, 1, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 9781579584238 Poulet, Ann L. Jean-Antoine Houdon: Sculptor of the Enlightenment. University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-67647-1 Hart, Charles Henry. France and the Americas: Culture, And History, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 9781851094110 Virtual Gallery Jean-Antoine Houdon Art and the empire city: New York, 1825–1861, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Houdon Jean-Antoine Houdon in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census website