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Musa I of Mali

Musa I, or Mansa Musa, was the tenth Mansa, which translates to "sultan", "conqueror" or "emperor", of the wealthy West African Islamic Mali Empire. At the time of Musa's rise to the throne, the Mali Empire consisted of territory belonging to the Ghana Empire in present-day southern Mauritania and in Melle and the immediate surrounding areas. Musa held many titles, including "Emir of Melle", "Lord of the Mines of Wangara", "Conqueror of Ghanata" and at least a dozen others. Mansa Musa conquered 24 cities, each with surrounding districts containing estates. During his reign, Mali may have been the largest producer of gold in the world, he was one of the richest people in history. Musa Keita was referred to as Mansa Musa in Western manuscripts and literature, his name appears as Kankou Musa, Kankan Musa, Kanku Musa. "Kankou" is a popular Manding female name, thus Kankou Musa reads "Musa whose mother was Kankou". Other alternatives are Mali-Koy Kankan Musa, Gonga Musa, the Lion of Mali. What is known about the kings of the Malian Empire is taken from the writings of Arab scholars, including Al-Umari, Abu-sa'id Uthman ad-Dukkali, Ibn Khaldun, Ibn Battuta.

According to Ibn-Khaldun's comprehensive history of the Malian kings, Mansa Musa's grandfather was Abu-Bakr Keita, a nephew of Sundiata Keita, the founder of the Malian Empire as recorded through oral histories. Abu-Bakr did not ascend the throne, his son, Musa's father, Faga Laye, has no significance in the History of Mali. Mansa Musa came to the throne through a practice of appointing a deputy when a king goes on his pilgrimage to Mecca or some other endeavor, naming the deputy as heir. According to primary sources, Musa was appointed deputy of Abubakari Keita II, the king before him, who had embarked on an expedition to explore the limits of the Atlantic Ocean, never returned; the Arab-Egyptian scholar Al-Umari quotes Mansa Musa as follows:The ruler who preceded me did not believe that it was impossible to reach the extremity of the ocean that encircles the earth, wanted to reach that and obstinately persisted in the design. So he equipped two hundred boats full of men, as many others full of gold and victuals sufficient enough for several years.

He ordered the chief not to return until they had reached the extremity of the ocean, or if they had exhausted the provisions and the water. They set out, their absence extended over a long period, and, at last, only one boat returned. On our questioning, the captain said:'Prince, we have navigated for a long time, until we saw in the midst of the ocean as if a big river was flowing violently. My boat was the last one; as soon as any of them reached this place, it never came out. I sailed backwards to escape this current.' But the Sultan would not believe him. He ordered two thousand boats to be equipped for him and for his men, one thousand more for water and victuals, he conferred on me the regency during his absence, departed with his men on the ocean trip, never to return nor to give a sign of life. Musa's son and successor, Mansa Magha Keita, was appointed deputy during Musa's pilgrimage. Musa was a devout Muslim, his pilgrimage to Mecca made him well known across northern Africa and the Middle East.

To Musa, Islam was "an entry into the cultured world of the Eastern Mediterranean". He would spend much time fostering the growth of the religion within his empire. Musa made his pilgrimage between 1324 and 1325, his procession included 60,000 men, all wearing brocade and Persian silk, including 12,000 slaves, who each carried 1.8 kg of gold bars, heralds dressed in silks, who bore gold staffs, organized horses, handled bags. Musa provided all necessities for the procession, feeding the entire company of animals; those animals included 80 camels -- 136 kg of gold dust. Musa gave the gold to the poor he met along his route. Musa not only gave to the cities he passed on the way to Mecca, including Cairo and Medina, but traded gold for souvenirs, it was reported. Musa's journey was documented by several eyewitnesses along his route, who were in awe of his wealth and extensive procession, records exist in a variety of sources, including journals, oral accounts, histories. Musa is known to have visited the Mamluk sultan of Egypt, Al-Nasir Muhammad, in July 1324.

However, Musa's generous actions inadvertently devastated the economies of the regions through which he passed. In the cities of Cairo and Mecca, the sudden influx of gold devalued the metal for the next decade. Prices of goods and wares became inflated. To rectify the gold market, on his way back from Mecca, Musa borrowed all the gold he could carry from money-lenders in Cairo at high interest; this is the only time recorded in history that one man directly controlled the price of gold in the Mediterranean. During his long return journey from Mecca in 1325, Musa heard news. Sagmandia, one of his generals, led the endeavor; the city of Gao had been within the empire since before Sakura's reign and was an important − though rebellious − trading center. Musa made a detour and visited the city where he received, as hostages, the two sons of the Gao king, Ali Kolon and Suleiman Nar, he returned to Niani with the two boys and educated them at his court. When Mansa Musa returned, he brought back


Bletchley is a constituent town of Milton Keynes, England. It is situated in the south-west of Milton Keynes, is split between the civil parishes of Bletchley and Fenny Stratford and West Bletchley. Bletchley is best known for Bletchley Park, the headquarters of Britain's World War II codebreaking organisation, now a major tourist attraction; the National Museum of Computing is located on the Park. The town name means Blæcca's clearing, it was first recorded in manorial rolls in the 12th century as Bicchelai later as Blechelegh and Blecheley. Just to the south of Fenny Stratford, there was Romano-British town, MAGIOVINIUM on either side of Watling Street, a Roman road. Within the West Bletchley parish, in the Church Green district, is Bletchley Park, during the Second World War, was home to the Government Code and Cypher School; the German Enigma code was cracked here amongst others, Alan Turing. Another cipher machine was solved with the aid of early computing devices, known as Colossus; the park is now a museum, although many areas of the park grounds have been sold off for housing development.

Bletchley grew from an obscure hamlet on the road from Fenny Stratford to Buckingham with the arrival of the London and North Western Railway in 1845 and its subsequent junction with the Oxford-Cambridge Varsity Line shortly afterwards. Bletchley grew to service the junction. Bletchley railway station was for many years an important node on the railway, it is now one of the five stations. Forty years after the construction of Bletchley railway station, the 1884/5 Ordnance Survey shows Bletchley as still just a small village around the C of E church at Bletchley Park, a hamlet near the Methodist chapel and Shoulder of Mutton public house at the junction of Shenley Road/Newton Road with Buckingham Road.. The major settlement of the time is nearby Fenny Stratford. In the urban growth of the Victorian period brought by the railway, the town merged with Fenny Stratford; the latter had been constituted an urban district in 1895, Bletchley was added in 1898. By 1911, the population of the combined parishes was 5,166 but the balance between them had changed: in that year, the name of the local council changed from Fenny Stratford UD to Bletchley UD.

The 1926 Ordnance Survey shows the settlements beginning to merge, with large private houses along the Bletchley Road between them. In 1933, the newly founded Bletchley Gazette began a campaign for a "Bigger, Brighter, Bletchley"; as the nation emerged from World War II, Bletchley Council renewed its desire to expand from its 1951 population of 10,919. By mid-1952, the Council was able to agree terms with five London Boroughs to accept people and businesses from bombed-out sites in London; this trend continued through the 1950s and 1960s, culminating in the GLC-funded Lakes Estate in Water Eaton parish as Milton Keynes was being founded. Industrial development kept pace, with former London businesses relocating to new industrial estates in Mount Farm and DenbighMarshall Amplification being the most notable. With compulsory purchase, Bletchley Road became the new high street with wide pavements where front gardens once lay. Houses near the railway end were replaced by shops but those nearer Fenny Stratford became banks and professional premises.

At the 1971 Census, the population of the Bletchley Urban District was 30,642. Proposals for a new city in North Buckinghamshire had been floated from the early 1960s. Bletchley had fought to be the centre of the proposed new city; the 1971 Plan for Milton Keynes placed Central Milton Keynes on a new hill-top site four miles further north, half way to Wolverton. Bletchley was relegated to the status of suburb. Bletchley thrived in the early years of the growth of Milton Keynes, since it was the main shopping area. Bletchley centre was altered when the Brunel Shopping Centre was built in the early 1970s, creating a new end to Queensway.. Bletchley's boom came to an end when the new Central Milton Keynes Shopping Centre was built and commercial Bletchley has declined as a retail destination in recent years. For more details about the districts of Bletchley,see these civil parish articles; the Bletchley built-up area is divided for admistrative purposes into two civil parishes and Fenny Stratford and West Bletchley The districts that make up Bletchley and Fenny Stratford CP are: Brickfields, Central Bletchley, Eaton Manor, Fenny Stratford, Manor Farm, Mount Farm, Newton Leys and Water Eaton.

At the 2011 Census, the population of the parish was 15,313. West Bletchley CP covers that part of Milton Keynes, south of Standing Way, west of the West Coast Main Line and north of the Varsity Line. At the 2011 Census, the population of the parish was 15,313; the districts and neighbourhoods in the parish are: Church Green. The town is served by Bletchley railway station, on Sherwood Drive and Bletchley Bus Station, on South Terrace off Saxon Street. Bletchley has a rugby union club, Bletchley RUFC, both of which play at Manor Fields just south of Fenny Stratford. Stadium MK, home of Milton Keynes Dons is at the northern edge of the tow

Old East York

Old East York is a district of the city of Toronto, Canada. It consists of the southern, portion of the former borough of East York. Old East York is continuous and functionally integrated with the old City of Toronto, bounded by the old municipal boundary between East York and Old Toronto on the south, by the Don River Valley on the west and northwest, by Taylor-Massey Creek on the north, Victoria Park Avenue in the east. Most of Old East York south of Cosburn, was constructed before World War II in a traditionally urban, pedestrian-oriented block pattern. Populated by immigrants of predominantly British and Irish descent, Old East York is now home to a wide range of ethnicities, including people of Greek and Chinese descent. Old East York can be divided into several smaller neighbourhoods. Broadview North is a neighbourhood at the western end of Old East York bordered by Pape Avenue to the East and Fulton to the South and the DVP to the west and north; the area is dominated by high rise buildings.

There are numerous low income buildings in the area, renting is the norm in this area. However at the north the area contains many bungalows, many of which are being redone into 2-storey houses because of the decent area and the low housing price; the area has significant Serbian populations. Crescent Town is at the eastern end of Old East York and was founded on the former site of the Crescent School to take advantage of the adjacent Victoria Park station. Crescent Town is today a diverse multicultural neighbourhood, whose population includes extensive numbers of Bengali, Jamaican and Tamil Canadians. Housing stock is a pleasing mixture of mid-rise apartments, Victorian mansions, highrise condominiums, Edwardian workers cottages, stately 1920s Craftsman homes; the adjoining stretch of Danforth Avenue Street hosts a high concentration of Bangladeshi grocers, clothing stores and entertainment venues.'"Dentonia Park'" is at the eastern edge of Old East York and is located south of Crescent Town, west of Victoria Park, north of the Danforth and east of either Main or Dawes.

There is an athletic field and park known as Dentonia Park Athletic Field and a street known as Dentonia Park Avenue in the neighbourhood plus a golf course named Dentonia Park Golf Course just across Victoria Park to the northeast.'Glebe Land/Danforth Village located in the central section of Old East York. Much of the central section of what became East York was first set aside as'Clergy Reserves', called'Glebe Land', a hotly debated feature of the original system of land granting in Ontario which retained land for the use of the church. Arguments over which church should have the use of this land led to the eventual sale of the clergy reserves, most of which had remained undeveloped for many years as surrounding areas were cleared and built on; the clergy lots between Donlands and Woodbine only began to be developed after the construction of the Prince Edward Viaduct and Leslie Bridge and successful development of the old Todmorden postal village west of Donlands as Pape Village. Given the central location of this within the former East York and the presence of both the former East York Municipal Office and East York Collegiate on its eastern edge, this is an area, just referred to as "East York" or "Old East York".

Pape Village is a commercial district in the eastern portion of Old East York along Pape Street. It has mixed-use shopping street, consisting of small-scale retail and personal service uses. Todmorden Village is located north of O'Connor, at the edge of Old East York. Much of the village lies atop the Don Valley Ravine, lined with forest. Mature trees are a big presence in this area of the neighbourhood and create an peaceful and natural area found this close to downtown Toronto. Where Pape and the Donlands head north past O'Connor is an area consisting of few streets and beautiful homes. Woodbine Heights is an Edwardian neighbourhood, straddling parts of old Toronto, it is bounded by Coxwell on the West, Main on the East, the Taylor-Massey Creek Ravine on the north and Danforth on the south. Aside from the Danforth, its main foci are the "East York Village", located Coxwell Avenue, north of Mortimer, the Woodbine Village, centered on the intersection of Woodbine and Mortimer. While Woodbine Heights is situated to the east of the Glebe Lands, it was developed earlier, around the railway station and horse-racing facilities at Main and Danforth.

Housing stock and street patterns in this area are chiefly of Edwardian design, are typified by distinctive, narrow-lot variants of the Dutch Colonial Revival and Cotswold styles. Notable landmarks include the Toronto East General Hospital a full-service teaching hospital founded in 1929, the Woodbine Heights Royal Canadian Legion, the Church of the Resurrection, founded in 1912 and the Gledhill Public School built 1917; as late as 2010, this neighborhood was dominated by middle-aged retirees. It is undergoing rapid social transformation, with an influx of young families attracted to car-free city living, character-filled, yet affordable, Edwardian homes. East York Civic Centre East York Collegiate Institute Toronto East General Hospital The area west of Coxwell Avenue is the federal and provincial riding of To

Michael McCann (politician)

Michael McCann is a British Labour Party politician, the Member of Parliament for East Kilbride and Lesmahagow 2010–2015. He was a councillor in South Lanarkshire, serving on the planning and estates committees. McCann was elected as a councillor in South Lanarkshire in 2003 and 2007. McCann was elected to the UK Parliament in 2010, he won the East Kilbride and Lesmahagow seat, succeeding Adam Ingram. McCann was chairman of the Scottish Parliamentary Labour Party, he served on the International Development Committee in the 2010–2015 ParliamentMcCann is known to be a fierce critic of the SNP, ruled out any formal post-election deal with them in March 2015 He lost the seat in 2015 to the Scottish National Party's Lisa Cameron, part of the landslide 56 SNP MPs returned on 7 May 2015. McCann belongs to the Labour Friends of Israel lobby group. McCann endorsed the Conservative candidate and former Secretary of State for Transport Chris Grayling in the 2019 general election. Former MSP for East Kilbride Andy Kerr described hi, at a meeting of the Scottish Labour Party as the "dumbest Fenian in the Labour movement" archive of Profile at Parliament of the United Kingdom Contributions in Parliament at Hansard Voting record at Public Whip Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou

Dunedin Blue Jays

The Dunedin Blue Jays are a minor league baseball team based in Dunedin, Florida. They play in the Florida State League, are the Class A-Advanced affiliate of the Toronto Blue Jays Major League Baseball club, they play their home games at TD Ballpark, which seats 5,509 fans. For the 2019 season, the team played at Jack Russell Memorial Stadium while TD Ballpark underwent renovations. Two teams named the Blue Jays, both affiliates of Toronto, have played in Dunedin: the original incarnation, from 1978 to 1979, the current team, established in 1987. Since their inception they have won five division championships, in 1999, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2017. In 2017 they were named co-champions of the FSL; the original incarnation of the Dunedin Blue Jays was founded in 1978. They were established as the Class A affiliate of the new Toronto Blue Jays franchise, they played for two seasons in the Florida State League and were one of four Class A teams in Toronto's farm system. After the 1979 season the team was disbanded as Toronto expanded its farm system into higher classifications.

Local interests were unable to sign a deal with other major league teams to keep minor league baseball in Dunedin. In 1987, Toronto decided to establish a new Florida State League franchise in Dunedin, they played at Grant Field until 1990, when Dunedin Stadium was completed. When Major League Baseball owners considered locking out the regular players and using "scabs" instead for the 1995 season, Dunedin would have been used as the Toronto Blue Jays' home field due to Ontario laws concerning replacement workers; the MLB labor dispute was resolved. In 2006, the Blue Jays made it to the Florida State League Championship Series, losing to the St. Lucie Mets 3 games to 0. In 2007, the Dunedin Blue Jays were nominated for the 2007 Corporate Support Award, awarded annually by the Florida Recreation & Park Association, to an organization that goes above and beyond to support and fund recreational programming. On September 6, 2017, Dunedin won their first Florida State League championship by defeating the Tampa Yankees two games to one.

Dunedin shared the FSL championship with the Palm Beach Cardinals, as the impending threat from Hurricane Irma forced the cancellation of the championship series. These statistics are current through the 2019 season. A The championship series was canceled due to the impending threat from Hurricane Irma. B The playoffs were canceled due to the impending threat from Hurricane Dorian. Dunedin Blue Jays players who have made it to Toronto: Official website

Illinois's at-large congressional district

Illinois elected its United States Representative at-Large on a general ticket upon achieving statehood December 3, 1818. It last elected a US Representative in the Election of 1946; the district has been inactive since. From statehood to 1833, Illinois had only one congressional district, therefore it was at-large. From 1863 to 1873 there was one at-large seat in addition to the districted seats. From 1893 to 1895, there were two at-large seats in addition to the districted seats. Two at-large seats were re-established March 4, 1913. From that date to January 3, 1943, there were two at-large seats, reduced to one seat from 1943 to 1949. Representation by districts continued during this period; the at-large seat was abolished effective January 3, 1949. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Illinois Territory's at-large congressional district