Fortified wine is a wine to which a distilled spirit brandy, is added. Many different styles of fortified wine have been developed, including Port, Madeira, Commandaria wine, the aromatised wine Vermouth. One reason for fortifying wine was to preserve it. Though other preservation methods now exist, fortification continues to be used because the process can add distinct flavors to the finished product. Although grape brandy is most added to produce fortified wines, the additional alcohol may be neutral spirit, made from grapes, sugar beets or sugarcane. Regional appellation laws may dictate the types of spirit. For example, in the U. S. only spirits from fruit may be used. The source of the additional alcohol and the method of its distillation can affect the flavour of the fortified wine. If neutral spirit is used, it will have been produced with a continuous still, rather than a pot still; when added to wine before the fermentation process is complete, the alcohol in the distilled beverage kills the yeast and leaves residual sugar behind.
The end result is a wine, both sweeter and stronger containing about 20% alcohol by volume. During the fermentation process, yeast cells in the must continue to convert sugar into alcohol until the must reaches an alcohol level of 16%–18%. At this level, the alcohol kills it. If fermentation is allowed to run to completion, the resulting wine will be low in sugar and will be considered a dry wine; the earlier in the fermentation process that alcohol is added, the sweeter the resulting wine will be. For drier fortified wine styles, such as sherry, the alcohol is added shortly before or after the end of the fermentation. In the case of some fortified wine styles, a high level of sugar will inhibit the yeast; this causes fermentation to stop. Commandaria is made in Cyprus' unique AOC region north of Limassol from high altitude vines of Mavro and Xynisteri, sun dried and aged in oak barrels. Recent developments have produced different styles of Commandaria. Madeira is a fortified wine made in the Madeira Islands.
The wine is produced in a variety of styles ranging from dry wines which can be consumed on their own as an aperitif, to sweet wines more consumed with dessert. Madeira is deliberately heated and oxidised as part of its maturation process, resulting in distinctive flavours and an unusually long lifespan once a bottle is opened. Marsala wine is a wine from Sicily, available in both fortified and unfortified versions, it was first produced in 1772 by an English merchant, John Woodhouse, as an inexpensive substitute for sherry and port, gets its name from the island's port, Marsala. The fortified version is blended with brandy to make two styles, the younger weaker Fine, at least 17% abv and aged at least four months; the unfortified Marsala wine is aged in wooden casks for five years or more and reaches a strength of 18% by evaporation. Mistelle is sometimes used as an ingredient in fortified wines Vermouth and Sherry, though it is used as a base for apéritifs such as the French Pineau des Charentes.
It is produced by adding alcohol to non-fermented or fermented grape juice. The addition of alcohol stops the fermentation and, as a consequence Mistelle is sweeter than fermented grape juice in which the sugars turn to alcohol. Moscatel de Setúbal is a Portuguese wine produced around the Setúbal Municipality on the Península de Setúbal; the wine is made from the Muscat of Alexandria grape and fortified with aguardente. The style was believed to have been invented by José Maria da Fonseca, the founder of the oldest table wine company in Portugal dating back to 1834. Port wine is a fortified wine from the Douro Valley in the northern provinces of Portugal, it is a sweet red wine, but comes in dry, semi-dry and white varieties. Sherry is a fortified wine made from white grapes that are grown near the town of Spain; the word "sherry" itself is an anglicisation of Jerez. In earlier times, sherry was known as sack. In the European Union "sherry" is a protected designation of origin. After fermentation is complete, sherry is fortified with brandy.
Because the fortification takes place after fermentation, most sherries are dry, with any sweetness being added later. In contrast, port wine is fortified halfway through its fermentation, which stops the process so that not all of the sugar is turned into alcohol. Sherry is produced in a variety of styles, ranging from dry, light versions such as finos to much darker and sometimes sweeter versions known as olorosos. Cream sherry is always sweet. Vermouth is a fortified wine flavoured with aromatic herbs and spices using guarded recipes; some of the herbs and spices used may include cardamom, cinnamon and chamomile. Some vermouth is sweetened; the person credited with the second vermouth recipe, Antonio
Monbazillac is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée for sweet white wine produced in the village of Monbazillac on the left bank of the Dordogne River just across from the town of Bergerac in South West France. The appellation covers 2,000 hectares of vineyards; the AOC of Monbazillac was first established in 1936, but the area has a long history of sweet wine production. Only wine made from grapes grown in Monbazillac that are affected by the "noble rot" can be sold under the Monbazillac designation; the grape varieties Sémillon, Sauvignon blanc and Muscadelle are used for Monbazillac, the permitted base yield is 40 hectoliter per hectare, although actual yields are lower for many producers. Monbazillac wines are broadly similar to Sauternes, but a difference is that Monbazillac has a higher proportion of Muscadelle in the blend, which can lead to different aromas. While Monbazillac in former times could be a simpler semi-sweet wine, the style in more recent years has been that of a botrytized wine, since from 1993 no mechanical harvesting is allowed and harvesting in several tries is required
Sémillon is a golden-skinned grape used to make dry and sweet white wines in France and Australia. Its thin skin and susceptibility to botrytis make it dominate the sweet wine region Sauternes AOC and Barsac AOC; the Sémillon grape is native to the Bordeaux region. It was known as Sémillon de Saint-Émilion in 1736, while Sémillon resembles the local pronunciation of the town’s name, it first arrived in Australia in the early 19th century and by the 1820s the grape covered over 90 percent of South Africa's vineyards, where it was known as Wyndruif, meaning "wine grape". It was once considered to be the most planted grape in the world, although this is no longer the case. In the 1950s, Chile's vineyards were made up of over 75% Sémillon. Today, it accounts for just 1% of South African Cape vines. Sémillon, easy to cultivate produces six to eight tons of grapes per acre from its vigorous vines, it is resistant to disease, except for rot. The grape ripens early. Since the grape has a thin skin, there is a risk of sunburn in hotter climates.
The Sémillon grape is rather heavy, with low acidity and an oily texture. It has a high yield and wines based on it can age a long time. Along with Sauvignon blanc and Muscadelle, Sémillon is one of only three approved white wine varieties in the Bordeaux region; the grape is key to the production of sweet wines such as Sauternes. For the grapes to be used for sweet wine production, they need to have been affected by Botrytis; this fungus dries out the grapes, thus concentrating the sugar and flavours in the grape berry. Sémillon is an important cultivar in two significant wine producing countries. In France, Sémillon is the preeminent white grape in the Bordeaux wine regions; the grape has found a home in Australia. In France, the Sémillon grape is grown in Bordeaux where it is blended with Sauvignon blanc and Muscadelle; when dry, it is referred to as Bordeaux blanc and is permitted to be made in the appellations of Pessac-Léognan, Entre-Deux-Mers and other less-renowned regions. In this form, Sémillon is a minor constituent in the blend.
However, when used to make the sweet white wines of Bordeaux it is the dominant variety. In such wines the vine is exposed to the "noble rot" of Botrytis cinerea which consumes the water content of the fruit, concentrating the sugar present in its pulp; when attacked by Botrytis cinerea, the grapes shrivel and the acid and sugar levels are intensified. Due to the declining popularity of the grape variety, fewer clones are cultivated in nurseries causing producers to project a future shortage of quality wine. In 2008, 17 Bordeaux wine producers, including Château d'Yquem, Château Olivier, Château Suduiraut and Château La Tour Blanche, formed an association to grow their own clones. Sémillon is grown in Australia in the Hunter Valley north of Sydney, where for a long time it was known as "Hunter River Riesling". Four styles of Sémillon-based wines are made there: a commercial style blended with Chardonnay or Sauvignon blanc; the latter two styles were pioneered by Lindemans, Tulloch, McWilliam's Elizabeth, Drayton's and Tyrrell's, are considered unique to Australia.
Most examples of these bottle-aged Hunter Semillons exhibit a buttercup-yellow colour, burnt toast or honey characteristics on the nose and excellent complex flavours on the palate, with a long finish and soft acid. Young Hunter Valley semillon is always a dry wine exhibiting citrus flavours of lemon, lime or green apple. Cooler-year Hunter Semillons seem to be the most sought after, with some of the 1974 and 1977 vintages still drinking well; the newer, fruit-accentuated styles are championed by the likes of Iain Riggs at Brokenwood Wines and The Rothbury Estate. Sémillon is finding favour with Australian producers outside the Hunter Valley in the Barossa Valley and Margaret River regions; the Adelaide Hills is becoming a flourishing region for Semillon, with the cooler climate producing some wines of great complexity. Vineyards such as Amadio and Paracombe produce some premium blends of the classical style. Semillon is one of the Cape’s true heritage white varietals, with origins as early as the 17th century, the grape variety accounted for more than 90% of plantings in the first half of the 19th century.
While South African Semillon has not quite taken off as a serious commercial category in single varietal form in the modern era, there are stunning wines being made from older vineyards. More the variety plays a role in beefing up the volume of Sauvignon blancs; the best South African Semillons have juicy fruit with an ethereal-like citrus perfume, fine texture, herbal interest and manage to marry the intensity of flavour with finesse. Outside of these regions, however, Sémillon is unpopular and criticised for lack of complexity and intensity; as such, plantings have decreased over the last century. As referenced above, the grape can still be found in South Chile; the latter is reputed to have the largest plantin
Gouais blanc or Weißer Heunisch is a white grape variety, grown today but is important as the ancestor of many traditional French and German grape varieties. The name Gouais derives from the old French adjective ‘gou’, a term of derision befitting its traditional status as the grape of the peasants; the German name Weißer Heunisch labels it as one the lesser, Hunnic grapes. Gouais is known to have been planted in central and northeastern France in Medieval times. At this time, it was used to produce simple, acidic white wines, were grown in less good plots that were not suited for the much more regarded Pinot noir or Pinot gris. Gouais Blanc was thus the grape of the peasantry rather than of the nobility, its history before Medieval times is not known with any certainty, but is the subject of much conjecture, in similarity to many other grape varieties with a long history. Gouais blanc has been proposed as a candidate for the grape given to the Gauls by Marcus Aurelius Probus, from Pannonia and who overturned Domitian's decree banning grape growing north of the Alps.
Another hypothesis claims it originates in Croatia, but the Vitis International Variety Catalogue lists it as originating from Austria, which should be interpreted as "likely to originate somewhere in Central Europe". Gouais blanc was grown in the Jura, but the Phylloxera epidemic wiped out the variety in France, it now survives only in the INRA collection at Domaine de Vassal, Montpellier. DNA fingerprinting at the University of California, Davis in the late 1990s identified Gouais blanc as the ancestor of a large number of classical European grape varieties; this came as something of a surprise, given the old division into Frankish and Hunnic grape varieties used in the Germanic world, as it meant that the prototype simple "Hunnic" grape was in fact an ancestor to most of the noble "Frankish" grapes. Having been grown in proximity to Pinot, the two varieties had many opportunities to cross, and having such distant origins, those crosses showed hybrid vigour and were propagated. This unique combination of events means that many grape varieties today have Gouais blanc as a parent, the most famous of, Chardonnay.
DNA fingerprinting research at the University of California, Davis has identified Gouais blanc as an ancestor of the Aligoté, Aubin vert, Bachet noir, Blaufränkisch, Franc Noir de la-Haute-Saône, Gamay Blanc Gloriod, Gamay noir, Knipperlé, Peurion and Sacy grape varieties. Dameron is another result of the same cross, whereas a cross with Pinot fin teinturier produced Romorantin, it produced Räuschling, Petit Meslier and Aubin when pollinated by Traminer/Savagnin, Riesling and Elbling when pollinated by a cross of a wild grape with Traminer. When pollinated by Chenin blanc it produced Colombard, Balzac blanc and Meslier Saint François, with Bastardo it produced Genouillet. Despite Gouais blanc having the synonym Enfarine blanc, the Jura wine grape Enfariné noir is not a color mutation of Gouais blanc. One of the synonyms of Gouais blanc is Gouget blanc and DNA analysis has suggested that the Allier wine grape Gouget noir may be related to Gouais blanc; as mentioned above, the Gouais blanc variety has, until survived as a museum curiosity.
Since the Middle Ages there have been regular attempts to ban the peasants' grape from the soils of France, which says something about its typical winemaking qualities. However, Gouais blanc has continued to be commercially grown at several vineyards in Switzerland and in recent years, a few interested wine producers have started to plant small amounts of Gouais blanc. Gouais has been grown for over 100 years by Chambers Rosewood Winery in Rutherglen, Australia. Gouais blanc is known under the following synonyms: Absenger, Bauernweinbeere Weiss, Debela, Best's N°4, Blanc De Serres, Bogatyur, Bon Blanc, Borzenauer, Bouillaud, Bouillen, Bourgeois, Branestraube, Burgegger Weiss, Cagnas, Champagner Langstielig, Coulis, Dickwiss, Enfarine Blanc, Figuier, Foirard Blanc, Gau, Gauche Blanc, Geuche Blanc, Goet, Goi, Goix, Gouai, Gouais Jaune, Gouais Long, Gouais Rond, Gouaulx, Gouche, Gouche Blanche, Gouest, Gouest Sauge, Gouet Blanc, Gouge, Gouget Blanc, Gouis De Mardeuil, Grauhuensch, Grobes, Grobweine, Gros Blanc, Grünling, Guay Jaune, Gueche Blanc, Guest Salviatum, Gueuche Blanc, Guinlan, Guy Blanc, Harthuensch, Heinisch, Heinsch, Heinschen Weiss, Hennische Weiss, Heunisch Blanc, Heunisch Weisser, Heunish Weiss, Heunscher, Heunschlir, Hinschene, Huensch, Huentsch, Hunsch, Huntsch, Issal, Kleinbeer, Laxiertraube, Lombard Blanc, Mehlweisse, Mehlweisse Gruen, Moreau Blanc, Nargouet, Pendrillart Blanc, Petit Gouge, Plant De Sechex, Plant Madame, Plant Seche, Regalaboue, Riesling Grob, Rous Hette, Roussaou Blanc, Rudeca Saboule Boey, Sadoule Boey, Sadoulo Bouyer, Seestock Grob, Tejer Szozeloe, Trompe Bouvier, Trompe Valet, Verdin Blanc, Weisse Traube, Weisser Heunisch, Weissheinsch, Weisstock, Zoeld Hajnos VIVC Bibliography
The Muscat family of grapes includes over 200 grape varieties belonging to the Vitis vinifera species that have been used in wine production and as raisin and table grapes around the globe for many centuries. Their colors range from white, to pink to near black. Muscat grapes and wines always have a pronounced sweet floral aroma; the breadth and number of varieties of Muscat suggest that it is the oldest domesticated grape variety, there are theories that most families within the Vitis vinifera grape variety are descended from the Muscat variety. Among the most notable members of the Muscat family are Muscat blanc à Petits Grains, the primary grape variety used in the production of the Italian sparkling wine Asti made in the Piedmont region, it is used in the production of many of the French fortified wines known as vin doux naturels. In Australia, this is the main grape used in the production of Liqueur Muscat, from the Victorian wine region of Rutherglen. Young and unfortified examples of Muscat blanc tend to exhibit the characteristic Muscat "grapey" aroma as well as citrus and peach notes.
Fortified and aged examples tend to be dark in color due to oxidation with aroma notes of coffee, fruit cake and toffee. Muscat of Alexandria is another Muscat variety used in the production of French vin doux naturel, but it is found in Spain, where it is used to make many of the fortified Spanish Moscatels. Elsewhere it is used to make off-dry to sweet white wines labeled as Moscato in Australia and South Africa. In Alsace and parts of Central Europe, Muscat Ottonel is used to produce dry and perfumed wines. Theories about the origins of Muscat grapes date ancestors of the varieties back to the ancient Egyptians and Persians of early antiquity while some ampelographers, such as Pierre Galet, believe that the family of Muscat varieties were propagated during the period of classical antiquity by the Greeks and Romans. However, while domestic wine production had a long history in ancient Egypt and Persia and classical writers such as Columella and Pliny the Elder did describe "muscat-like" grape varieties such as Anathelicon Moschaton and Apianae that were sweet and attractive to bees, there is no solid historical evidence that these early wine grapes were members of the Muscat family.
The first documented mention of grapes called "muscat" was in the works of the English Franciscan scholar Bartholomeus Anglicus who wrote of wine made from Muscat grapes in his work De proprietatibus rerum written between 1230 and 1240 while Anglicus was studying in what is now modern Saxony in Germany. Anglicus' Latin work was translated into French in 1372 with the wine being described by Anglicus as "vin extrait de raisins muscats"; because the exact origins of the Muscat family cannot be pinpointed, the theories as to the origins of the name "Muscat" are numerous. The most cited belief is the name is derived from the Persian word muchk. Similar etymology follows Latin muscus and French musc. In Italy, the Italian word mosca for fly could be one possibility with the sweet aroma and high sugar levels of Muscat grapes being a common attractant for insects such as fruit flies. Other theories suggest that the grape family originated in the Arabian country of Oman and was named after the city of Muscat located on the coast of the Gulf of Oman.
Another city, sometimes suggested as a potential birthplace/namesake is the Greek city of Moschato, located southwest of Athens in Attica with Moschato being a common synonym in Greece for Muscat varieties. Of the more than 200 grape varieties sharing "Muscat" in their name, the majority are not related to each other; the exception are the members of the Muscat blanc à Petits Muscat of Alexandria families. In the early 21st century, DNA analysis showed that Muscat of Alexandria was, itself, a natural crossing of Muscat blanc à Petits Grains and a black-skinned table grape variety from the Greek islands known as Axina de Tres Bias. Seen outside of Greece, Axina de Tres Bias is grown in Malta and Sardinia. Muscat blanc à Petits Grains and Muscat of Alexandria, have crossed and have produced at least 14 different grape varieties, 5 of which are cultivated in South America and 9 still found in Italy though none are of major use in wine production. More notable and planted offspring have come from Muscat blanc à Petits Grains and Muscat of Alexandria crossing with other grape varieties, such as the Argentine wine grapes of Cereza, Torrontés Riojano and Torrontés Sanjuanino, stemming from a cross of Muscat of Alexandria with "Listán negro" Muscat of Alexandria has been crossed with the German / Italian wine grape Trollinger to produce Muscat of Hamburg and Malvasia del Lazio, with the Italian wine grapes Catarratto bianco and Bombino bianco to produce the Marsala wine grape Grillo and Moscatello Selvatico, respectively.
Muscat Ottonel is the result of a crossing between one Muscat variety, "Muscat d'Eisenstadt", with the Swiss wine grape ChasselasMuscat blanc à Petits Grains has been identified as one of the parent grapes of several varieties, though with which crossing partner is unknown. These include the Italian wine grapes Aleatico, Moscato Giallo, Moscato rosa del Trentino and Moscato di Scanzo. DNA analysis was able to identify t
Rutherglen pronunciation is a small town in north-eastern Victoria, near the Murray River border with New South Wales. The town was named after the Scottish town of Rutherglen. At the 2016 census, Rutherglen had a population of 2,109. Rutherglen is located north of Wangaratta and west of Wodonga, just 10 kilometres from the Murray River at the border towns of Wahgunyah and Corowa. A gold-mining town of the mid-19th century, it has since developed into a major wine-producing area, with 17 wineries all located within a short drive from the town centre, the best of which are regarded by wine critics; the Muscat and Topaque wines are sometimes described as having no worldwide equal. The region produces a good Port style of fortified wine; the largest winery in the region is the All Saints Winery, located just a short drive north-west outside of Wahgunyah. Established in 1864, it features landscaped gardens, ponds, a restaurant and wine tasting facilities; the Rutherglen Wine Experience Visitor Information Centre, located in the town centre on Main Street, offers displays of the town's rich history, how wines are made, comprehensive tourist information.
The main street of Rutherglen maintains its historical charm, with most of the shop fronts retaining the same look they had a century ago. Rutherglen Post Office opened on 1 November 1860. Attractions within the town include Lake King, surrounded by Apex Park and Rutherglen Park, as well as the historical wine-bottle-shaped water tower in Campbell Street; the Rutherglen wine region is a wine-producing area around the town of Rutherglen and is noted for its sweet fortified wines. The town in conjunction with nearby town Corowa has an Australian Rules football team competing in the Ovens & Murray Football League. Another Australian rules football team, Rutherglen Football Club, play in the Tallangatta & District Football League. Golfers play at the course of the Rutherglen Golf Club on Murray Street; the current club professional is Paul Black. Sir John Harris and sherry pioneer Michael Joseph Savage, Prime Minister of New Zealand, lived at North Prentice Erle Cox, author Robert Campbell, former Hawthorn footballer Stanley Thomas Downs, Order of Australia, Champion Lawn Bowler, Vice President World Bowls.
Rutherglen Regatta: second weekend of January Tastes of Rutherglen: second weekend of March - third weekend of March Winery Walkabout: Queen's Birthday long weekend of June Rutherglen Agricultural Show: third weekend of October Tour de Rutherglen: first weekend of November Rutherglen Farmers Market: second weekend each month Australian wine Heritage citation for the Victoria Hotel in the National Trust Register Wine styles of Rutherglen by Australian wine critic, James Halliday Rutherglen Tokay and Muscat by U. S. wine critic Robert M. Parker, Jr. Wine styles of Rutherglen by Australian wine critic, James Halliday Rutherglen Tokay and Muscat by U. S. wine critic Robert M. Parker, Jr. Rotary Club of Rutherglen
Pinot gris, pinot grigio or Grauburgunder is a white wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. Thought to be a mutant clone of the pinot noir variety, it has a grayish-blue fruit, accounting for its name but the grapes can have a brownish pink to black and white appearance; the word pinot could have been given to it because the grapes grow in small pine cone-shaped clusters. The wines produced from this grape vary in color from a deep golden yellow to copper and a light shade of pink, it is one of the more popular grapes for skin-contact wine. Pinot gris is grown around the globe with the "spicy" full-bodied Alsatian and lighter-bodied, more acidic Italian styles being most recognized; the Alsatian style duplicated in New World wine regions such as Marlborough, South Australia and Oregon, tend to have moderate to low acidity, higher alcohol levels and an "oily" texture that contributes to the full-bodied nature of the wine. The flavors can range from ripe tropical fruit notes of melon and mango to some botrytis-influenced flavors.
In Italy, Pinot grigio grapes are harvested early to retain the refreshing acidity and minimize some of the overt-fruitiness of the variety, creating a more neutral flavor profile. This style is imitated in other Old World wine regions, such as Germany where the grape is known as Ruländer. Pinot gris has been known since the Middle Ages in the Burgundy region, where it was called Fromenteau, it spread from Burgundy, along with Pinot noir, arriving in Switzerland by 1300. The grape was a favorite of the Emperor Charles IV, who had cuttings imported to Hungary by Cistercian monks: the brothers planted the vines on the slopes of Badacsony bordering Lake Balaton in 1375; the vine soon after developed the name Szürkebarát meaning "grey monk." In 1711, a German merchant, named Johann Seger Ruland discovered a grape growing wild in the fields of the Palatinate. The subsequent wine he produced became known as Ruländer and the vine was discovered to be Pinot gris; until the 18th and 19th century, the grape was a popular planting in Burgundy and Champagne but poor yields and unreliable crops caused the grape to fall out of favor in those areas.
The same fate nearly occurred in Germany, but vine breeders in the early 20th century were able to develop clonal varieties that would produce a more consistent and reliable crop. Researchers at the University of California, have determined that Pinot gris has a remarkably similar DNA profile to Pinot noir and that the color difference is derived from a genetic mutation that occurred centuries ago; the leaves and the vines of both grapes are so similar that the coloration is the only aspect that differentiates the two. Santa Margherita wine group, a wine producer located in the north of Italy, has been the first company in the world in 1961 to vinify pink Pinot Grigio grapes as a white wine. Around 2005, Pinot gris was enjoying increasing popularity in the marketplace in its Pinot grigio incarnation and similar New World varietal wines; the total area cultivated by this vine worldwide is about 15,000 hectares. Argentina – San Juan and Mendoza Australia – Tasmania, Yarra Valley, Adelaide Hills, New South Wales, Mornington Peninsula.
2,836 hectares. Austria – 300 hectares or 0.6% of the total wine growing area. Canada – British Columbia, Ontario Chile – Casablanca, Chile Czech Republic – Bohemia, Moravia France – Burgundy, Alsace. 2,582 hectares. Germany – Baden, Palatinate. 5,042 hectares or 4.9% of the wine growing area. Hungary – Badacsony, Mátraalja Italy – Roverè della Luna, Trentino Luxembourg Moldova New Zealand – 1,383 hectares. In 2007, the area was only 1,146 hectares. Romania – Constanța County, Jidvei South Africa Slovakia – about 285 hectares Slovenia – Primorska, Podravje Switzerland – Valais. About 214 hectares. Turkey – Thrace Region, Kırklareli, Arcadia Vineyards Ukraine – Crimea United States – Oregon, New Mexico, Michigan, Virginia, New Jersey, Washington A major grape in Alsace, grown on 13.9% of the region's vineyard surface in 2006, the varietal Pinot-gris d'Alsace is markedly different from Pinot gris found elsewhere. The cool climate of Alsace and warm volcanic soils are well suited for Pinot gris, with its dry autumns allowing plenty of time for the grapes to hang on the vines resulting in wines of powerful flavours.
Pinot gris is one of the so-called noble grapes of Alsace, along with Riesling, Gewürztraminer, Muscat, which may be used for varietal Alsace Grand Cru AOC and the late harvest wines Vendange Tardive and Sélection de Grains Nobles. The Pinot gris wines produced in Alsace were labeled Tokay d'Alsace. In the Middle Ages, the grape was popularized in the region by Hungarian traders who were introduced to the grape from Burgundy. During this time, Tokaji was one of the most popular and sought after wines on the market and the name was used to gain more prestige for the Alsatian wine. Pinot gris was believed to have been brought back to Alsace by General Lazarus von Schwendi after his campaign against the Turks in the 16th century, it was planted in Kientzheim under the name "Tokay". However, the Pinot gris grape has no known genetic relations to the Furmint, Hárslevelű, Yellow Muscat and Orémus grapes that are traditionally used in Tokaji wine. In 1980, the European Economic Community passed regulations related to Protected designations of origin, when Hungary started negotiations for European Union membership, it became clear that the Tokay name would have to become a PDO for the Tokaj-Hegyalja region.
Therefore, in 1993, an agreement was reached betw