Madeline is a media franchise that originated as a series of children's books written and illustrated by Ludwig Bemelmans, an Austrian-American author. The books have been adapted into numerous formats, spawning telefilms, television series and a live action feature film; the adaptations are famous for the closing line, a famous phrase Ethel Barrymore used to rebuff curtain calls, "That's all there is, there isn't any more." The stories take place in a Catholic boarding school in Paris. Much of the media start with the line "In an old house in Paris, covered in vines, lived twelve little girls in two straight lines..." The stories are written in rhyme, include simple themes of daily life, the unharmful mischief of Madeline, which appeal to children and parents alike. Miss Clavel, in charge is strict but loves the children, cares for them, is open to their ideas. Several themes are repeated in most of the books, such as Miss Clavel turning on the light and saying: Something is not right. Madeline was written in British English by Ludwig Bemelmans and published in 1939.
Bemelmans wrote five sequels between 1953 and 1961. Books in the series were written by Bemelmans' grandson John Bemelmans Marciano; the books focus on a group of girls in a Catholic boarding school in Paris. Madeline is the smallest of the girls, she is seven years old, the only redhead. She is most outgoing of the girls; the images seem classical and show scenery and Landmarks of the location where the story takes place such as the Eiffel Tower and the Seine River. In the first book, Madeline gets sick, is taken to the hospital and has her appendix removed to the envy of all the other girls. In Madeline's Rescue she brings back the dog that saved her. Dell Comics published a Four Color Comics issue in 1942 titled "Ludwig Bemelman's Madeline and Genevieve"; the earliest appearance in the cinema was in the 1952 animated short Madeline, produced by United Productions of America and directed by Bob Cannon. It was nominated for the 1952 Academy Award for Best Short Subject, but lost to Tom and Jerry's seventh cartoon Johann Mouse.
In 1959, William L. Snyder's Rembrandt Films produced animated adaptations of Madeline's Rescue and the Bad Hat, Madeline and the Gypsies for the educational film market; the latter two were featured, along with other similar adaptations of children's books, in Snyder and Gene Deitch's 1966 theatrical feature Alice of Wonderland in Paris. A live-action feature adaptation of Madeline, produced in France by Jaffilms but shot in English with predominantly British accents, was released in 1998 by TriStar Pictures, it starred Hatty Jones as the title character, Frances McDormand as Miss Clavel, a supporting cast with British actors Ben Daniels and Nigel Hawthorne. Its script encompassed the plots of four of the books. Original music was composed by Michel Legrand and Carly Simon sang the theme song "In Two Straight Lines", it was directed by Daisy Mayer. The 1998 live action version differed from the TV series and the main book continuity; the filming location of the boarding house and neighbouring Spanish Ambassador's house, can be found at Avenue du Colifichet, Croissy-sur-Seine, although both houses are now obscured by hedging and fencing.
In 1960, the Madeline stories were adapted to a one-hour color episode for the NBC series The Shirley Temple Show. In 1988, DIC Entertainment adapted the first book into an animated television special for HBO. Between 1990 and 1991, Cinar and France animation produced animated adaptations of the other five original books for The Family Channel, In 1993, DIC produced a Madeline television series of twenty episodes, which aired on the Family Channel, in 1995, an additional 13 episodes were produced by DIC for ABC, under the title The New Adventures of Madeline. Between 2000 and 2001, DIC produced 26 episodes for Disney Channel, it features songs written by Judy Rothman. Madeline audiobooks have been appearing since the early 1970s as vinyl records; the record consists of a mixture of stories and songs. The first soundtrack for the TV series was Madeline's Favorite Songs, released in 1995, it contains 16 tracks of music composed by Joe Raposo or Jeffrey Zahn with lyrics by Judy Rothman and Howard Ashman from the DIC and Cinar specials.
The second soundtrack, Hats off to Madeline, was released in 1996. It contained 17 tracks of music from the 1993 and 1995 episodes with music by Andy Street and lyrics by Judy Rothman. In 2002, the latest Madeline soundtrack to date, Sing-A-Long With Madeline, was released, featuring 27 tracks of music from the 2001 episodes and they were written by Andy Street and Judy Rothman. Madeline toys were produced by Eden Toys LLC, since acquired by Learning Curve. Most popular during the 1990s was a Madeline rag doll, with a signature half-smile and scar from the appendectomy that corresponds with the story from the book. Eden's Madeline Doll House received the Toy of the Year Award for Best Specialty Toy at the first annual Toy Of The Year Awards in 2000. Official website Madeline on IMDb Madeline at Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on February 11, 2016
Melvin Jerome Blanc was an American voice actor and radio personality. After beginning his over-60-year career performing in radio, he became known for his work in animation as the voices of Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig, Tweety Bird, Sylvester the Cat, Yosemite Sam, Foghorn Leghorn, Marvin the Martian, Pepé Le Pew, Speedy Gonzales, Wile E. Coyote, Road Runner, the Tasmanian Devil, many of the other characters from the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies theatrical cartoons during the golden age of American animation, he voiced all of the major male Warner Bros. cartoon characters except for Elmer Fudd, whose voice was provided by fellow radio personality Arthur Q. Bryan, although Blanc voiced Fudd, as well, after Bryan's death, he voiced characters for Hanna-Barbera's television cartoons, including Barney Rubble on The Flintstones and Mr. Spacely on The Jetsons. Blanc was the original voice of Woody Woodpecker for Universal Pictures and provided vocal effects for the Tom and Jerry cartoons directed by Chuck Jones for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, replacing William Hanna.
During the golden age of radio, Blanc frequently performed on the programs of famous comedians from the era, including Jack Benny and Costello, Burns and Allen and Judy Canova. Having earned the nickname The Man of a Thousand Voices, Blanc is regarded as one of the most influential people in the voice acting industry. Blanc was born in San Francisco, California, to Russian-Jewish parents Frederick and Eva Blank, the younger of two children, he grew up in the Western Addition neighborhood in San Francisco, in Portland, where he attended Lincoln High School. Growing up, he had a fondness for voices and dialect, which he began voicing at the age of 10, he claimed that he changed the spelling of his name when he was 16, from "Blank" to "Blanc", because a teacher told him that he would amount to nothing and be like his name, a "blank". Blanc joined the Order of DeMolay as a young man, was inducted into its Hall of Fame. After graduating from high school in 1927, he split his time between leading an orchestra, becoming the youngest conductor in the country at the age of 19, performing shtick in vaudeville shows around Washington and northern California.
Blanc began his radio career at the age of 19 in 1927, when he made his acting debut on the KGW program The Hoot Owls, where his ability to provide voices for multiple characters first attracted attention. He moved to Los Angeles in 1932, where he met Estelle Rosenbaum, whom he married a year before returning to Portland, he moved to KEX in 1933 to produce and co-host his Cobweb and Nuts show with his wife Estelle, which debuted on June 15. The program played Monday through Saturday from 11:00 pm to midnight, by the time the show ended two years it appeared from 10:30 pm to 11:00 pm. With his wife's encouragement, Blanc returned to Los Angeles and joined Warner Bros.–owned KFWB in Hollywood in 1935. He joined The Johnny Murray Show, but the following year switched to CBS Radio and The Joe Penner Show. Blanc was a regular on the NBC Red Network show The Jack Benny Program in various roles, including voicing Benny's Maxwell automobile, violin teacher Professor LeBlanc, Polly the Parrot, Benny's pet polar bear Carmichael, the train announcer.
The first role came from a mishap when the recording of the automobile's sounds failed to play on cue, prompting Blanc to take the microphone and improvise the sounds himself. The audience reacted so positively that Benny decided to dispense with the recording altogether and have Blanc continue in that role. One of Blanc's most memorable characters from Benny's radio programs was "Sy, the Little Mexican", who spoke one word at a time; the famous "Sí... Sy... Sue... sew" routine was so effective that no matter how many times it was performed, the laughter was always there, thanks to the comedic timing of Blanc and Benny. Blanc continued to work with him on radio until the series ended in 1955 and followed the program into television from Benny's 1950 debut episode through guest spots on NBC specials in the 1970s, they last appeared together on a Johnny Carson Tonight Show in January 1974. A few months Blanc spoke of Benny on a Tom Snyder Tomorrow show special aired the night of the comedian's death.
By 1946, Blanc appeared on over 15 radio programs in supporting roles. His success on The Jack Benny Program led to his own radio show on the CBS Radio Network, The Mel Blanc Show, which ran from September 3, 1946, to June 24, 1947. Blanc played himself as the hapless owner of a fix-it shop, as well as his young cousin Zookie. Blanc appeared on such other national radio programs as The Abbott and Costello Show, the Happy Postman on Burns and Allen, as August Moon on Point Sublime. During World War II, he appeared as Private Sad Sack on various radio shows, including G. I. Journal. Blanc recorded a song titled "Big Bear Lake". In December 1936, Mel Blanc joined Leon Schlesinger Productions, producing theatrical cartoon shorts for Warner Bros. After sound man Treg Brown was put in charge of cartoon voices, Carl Stalling became music director, Brown introduced Blanc to animation directors Tex Avery, Bob Clampett, Friz Freleng, Frank Tashlin, who loved his voices; the first cartoon Blanc worked on was Picador Porky as the voice of a drunken bull.
He soon after received his first starring role when he replaced Joe Dougherty as Porky Pig's voice in Porky's Duck Hunt, which marked the debut of Daffy Duck voiced by Blanc. Following this, Blanc became a prominent vocal artist for Warner Bros. voicing a wide variety of the "Looney Tunes" characters. Bugs Bunny, whom Blanc made his debut as in A Wild Hare, was
Technicolor is a series of color motion picture processes, the first version dating to 1916, followed by improved versions over several decades. It was the second major color process, after Britain's Kinemacolor, the most used color process in Hollywood from 1922 to 1952. Technicolor became known and celebrated for its saturated color, was most used for filming musicals such as The Wizard of Oz and Down Argentine Way, costume pictures such as The Adventures of Robin Hood and Gone with the Wind, animated films such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Gulliver's Travels, Fantasia; as the technology matured it was used for less spectacular dramas and comedies. A film noir—such as Leave Her to Heaven or Niagara —was filmed in Technicolor. "Technicolor" is the trademark for a series of color motion picture processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation, now a division of the French company Technicolor SA. The Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation was founded in Boston in 1914 by Herbert Kalmus, Daniel Frost Comstock, W. Burton Wescott.
The "Tech" in the company's name was inspired by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where both Kalmus and Comstock received their undergraduate degrees and were instructors. Technicolor, Inc. was chartered in Delaware in 1921. Most of Technicolor's early patents were taken out by Comstock and Wescott, while Kalmus served as the company's president and chief executive officer; the term "Technicolor" has been used to describe at least five concepts: Technicolor: an umbrella company encompassing all of the below as well as other ancillary services. Technicolor labs: a collection of film laboratories across the world owned and run by Technicolor for post-production services including developing and transferring films in all major color film processes, as well as Technicolor's proprietary ones. Technicolor process or format: several custom image origination systems used in film production, culminating in the "three-strip" process in 1932. Technicolor IB printing: a process for making color motion picture prints that allows the use of dyes which are more stable and permanent than those formed in ordinary chromogenic color printing.
Used for printing from color separation negatives photographed on black-and-white film in a special Technicolor camera. Prints or Color by Technicolor: used from 1954 on, when Eastmancolor supplanted the three-film-strip camera negative method, while the Technicolor IB printing process continued to be used as one method of making the prints; this meaning of the name applies to nearly all Wikipedia articles about films made from 1954 onward in which Technicolor is named in the credits. Technicolor existed in a two-color system. In Process 1, a prism beam-splitter behind the camera lens exposed two consecutive frames of a single strip of black-and-white negative film one behind a red filter, the other behind a green filter; because two frames were being exposed at the same time, the film had to be photographed and projected at twice the normal speed. Exhibition required a special projector with two apertures, two lenses, an adjustable prism that aligned the two images on the screen; the results were first demonstrated to members of the American Institute of Mining Engineers in New York on February 21, 1917.
Technicolor itself produced the only movie made in Process 1, The Gulf Between, which had a limited tour of Eastern cities, beginning with Boston and New York on September 13, 1917 to interest motion picture producers and exhibitors in color. The near-constant need for a technician to adjust the projection alignment doomed this additive color process. Only a few frames of The Gulf Between, showing star Grace Darmond, are known to exist today. Convinced that there was no future in additive color processes, Comstock and Kalmus focused their attention on subtractive color processes; this culminated in what would be known as Process 2. As before, the special Technicolor camera used a beam-splitter that exposed two consecutive frames of a single strip of black-and-white film, one behind a green filter and one behind a red filter; the difference was that the two-component negative was now used to produce a subtractive color print. Because the colors were physically present in the print, no special projection equipment was required and the correct registration of the two images did not depend on the skill of the projectionist.
The frames exposed behind the green filter were printed on one strip of black-and-white film, the frames exposed behind the red filter were printed on another strip. After development, each print was toned to a color nearly complementary to that of the filter: orange-red for the green-filtered images, cyan-green for the red-filtered ones. Unlike tinting, which adds a uniform veil of color to the entire image, toning chemically replaces the black-and-white silver image with transparent coloring matter, so that the highlights remain clear, dark areas are colored, intermediate tones are colored proportionally; the two prints, made on film stock half the thickness of regular film, we
Carl W. Stalling
Carl W. Stalling was an American composer and arranger for music in animated films, he is most associated with the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies shorts produced by Warner Bros. where he averaged one complete score each week, for 22 years. Stalling was born to Ernest and Sophia C. Stalling, his parents were from Germany. The family settled in Missouri where his father was a carpenter, he started playing piano at six. By the age of 12, he was the principal piano accompanist in his hometown's silent movie house. For a short period, he was the theatre organist at the St. Louis Theatre, which became Powell Symphony Hall. By his early 20s, he was conducting his own orchestra and improvising on the organ at the Isis Movie Theatre in Kansas City, his actual job at the time was to play "organ accompaniment" for silent films. During that time, he met and befriended a young Walt Disney, producing animated comedy shorts in Kansas City. According to music critic Neil Strauss, the chance meeting between Stalling and Disney in the early 1920s was of great importance to the development of music for animation.
Stalling was at his job at the Isis Movie Theatre, demonstrating his ability to combine well-known music by other creators with his own, improvised compositions. Disney stepped into the movie theater and was impressed with his style, he approached Stalling to introduce himself, their acquaintance was mutually beneficial. Stalling was able to arrange the screening of a few Disney animated shorts at the Isis, Disney ensured that Stalling would play the accompaniment for his films. Disney left Kansas City and moved to California in order to open a new studio. Stalling and Disney kept in touch through correspondence, considered each other friends. In 1928, Disney was on a journey from California to New York City in order to record the sound and make the preview of Steamboat Willie, Disney's first released sound short. During the journey he stopped at Kansas City to hire Stalling to compose film scores for two other animated shorts. Stalling composed several early cartoon scores for Walt Disney, including Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho in 1928.
Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho were silent films and were the first two Mickey Mouse animated short films in production. When finishing composing the film scores, Stalling went to New York City to record them for Disney. Walt was pleased with the results, offered to hire Stalling as his studio's first music director. In order to get the job, Stalling had to move to California. According to Martha Sigall, Stalling accepted, he realized that his career as an organist for a silent movie theatre was coming to an end, because the silent film era was at its end. Sound films were the new trend. Stalling soon followed Disney in moving to Hollywood. Animation historian Allan Neuwirth credits Stalling for inventing the process of creating a film score for cartoons. According to Neil Strauss, the "wildly talented" Stalling was suitable as a film score composer for animated films. Stalling voiced Mickey Mouse in Wild Waves in 1929. Stalling encouraged Disney to create a new series of animated short films, in which the animation and its action would be created to match the music.
This was still unusual at the time, since film music was played or composed to match the action of a film. Stalling's discussions with Disney on whether the animation or the musical score should come first led to Disney creating the Silly Symphonies series of animated short films. Stalling is credited with both the composition and the musical arrangement of The Skeleton Dance, the first of the Silly Symphonies; these cartoons allowed Stalling to create a score. While there, Stalling pioneered the use of "bar sheets", which allowed musical rhythms to be sketched out with storyboards for the animation; the Silly Symphonies was an innovative animated film series, in which pre-recorded film scores were making use of well-known classical works and the animation sequences were choreographed to match the music. Stalling helped Disney streamline and update the sound process used in creating early animated sound films, following the long and laborious synchronization process used in Steamboat Willie.
The close synchronization of music and on-screen movement pioneered by the Disney short films became known as Mickey Mousing. While working at the Disney studio, Stalling invented a tick system which helped synchronize music to visuals; this system was a forerunner to the click track, a method which would become a standard process used in both live-action and animated films. An early example of a click track was used in the production of The Skeleton Dance; the method used in this film involved a reel of unexposed film with holes punched out to make clicks and pops when run on the sound head. According to Neil Strauss, this version of the click track is credited to sound effects artist Jimmy MacDonald. Stalling left Disney at the same time as animator Ub Iwerks, he had completed the scoring of about 20 animated films for Disney. Finding few outlets in New York, Stalling rejoined Iwerks at his studio in California, while freelancing for Disney and others. Stalling served as the music director of Iwerks' studio until the studio shut down in 1936.
In 1936, when Leon Schlesinger—under contract to produce animated shorts for Warner Bros.—hired Iwerks, Stalling went with him to become a full-time cartoon music composer. Ac
UPA (animation studio)
United Productions of America, better known as UPA, was an American animation studio active from the 1940s through the 1970s. Beginning with industrial and World War II training films, UPA produced theatrical shorts for Columbia Pictures such as the Mr. Magoo series. In 1956, UPA produced a television series for CBS, The Boing-Boing Show, hosted by Gerald McBoing Boing. In the 1960s, UPA produced syndicated Mr. Magoo and Dick Tracy television series and other series and specials, including Mister Magoo's Christmas Carol. UPA produced two animated features, 1001 Arabian Nights and Gay Purr-ee, distributed Japanese films from Toho Studios in the 1970s and 1980s. Gerald McBoing-Boing is a more recent television series based on UPA's memorable character and licensed and co-produced by Cookie Jar Entertainment and Classic Media, for Cartoon Network. A French-American reboot television series of Mr. Magoo, another one of UPA's memorable characters has been announced by Xilam as their first collaboration with DreamWorks Animation, is set to premiere on France 3 in France and Universal Kids.
UPA Pictures' legacy in the history of animation has been overshadowed by the commercial success and availability of the cartoon libraries of Warner Bros. MGM and Disney. Nonetheless, UPA had a significant impact on animation style and technique, its innovations were recognized and adopted by the other major animation studios and independent filmmakers all over the world. UPA pioneered the technique of limited animation. Although this style of animation came to be used in the 1960s and 1970s as a cost-cutting measure, it was intended as a stylistic alternative to the growing trend of recreating cinematic realism in animated films; the UPA library was purchased by Universal Pictures, after their successful acquisition of DreamWorks Animation. UPA was founded in the wake of the Disney animators' strike of 1941, which resulted in the exodus of a number of long-time Walt Disney staff members. Among them was John Hubley, a layout artist, unhappy with the ultra-realistic style of animation that Disney had been utilising.
Along with a number of his colleagues, Hubley believed that animation did not have to be a painstakingly realistic imitation of real life. Chuck Jones' 1942 cartoon The Dover Boys had demonstrated that animation could experiment with character design and perspective to create a stylized artistic vision appropriate to the subject matter. Hubley, Bobe Cannon, others at UPA, sought to produce animated films with sufficient freedom to express design ideas considered radical by other established studios. In 1943, Zack Schwartz, David Hilberman, Stephen Bosustow formed a studio called first Industrial Film and Poster Service, where they were free to apply their new techniques in film animation. Finding work in the then-booming field of wartime work for the government, the small studio produced a cartoon sponsored by the United Auto Workers in 1944. Hell-Bent for Election was directed by Chuck Jones and was produced for the reelection campaign of FDR; the film was a success, it led to another assignment from the UAW, Brotherhood of Man.
The film, directed by Bobe Cannon, advocated tolerance of all people. The short was innovative not only in its message but in its flat, stylized design, in complete defiance of the Disney approach. With its new-found status, the studio renamed itself UPA Pictures. UPA contracted with the United States government to produce its animation output, but the government contracts began to evaporate as the FBI began investigating Communist activities in Hollywood in the late 1940s. No formal charges were filed against anyone at UPA in the beginnings of McCarthyism, but the government contracts were lost as Washington severed its ties with Hollywood. UPA entered the crowded field of theatrical cartoons to sustain itself and gained a contract with Columbia Pictures. Columbia had been an also-ran in the field of animated shorts, it was not satisfied with the output of its Screen Gems cartoon studio; the UPA animators applied their stylistic concepts and storytelling to Columbia's characters The Fox and the Crow with the shorts Robin Hoodlum and The Magic Fluke, both directed by Hubley.
Both were nominated for Academy Awards, Columbia granted the studio permission to create its own new characters. UPA responded, not with another "funny animal," but a star, a human character, a crotchety, nearsighted old man; the Ragtime Bear, the first appearance of Mr. Magoo, was a box-office hit, UPA's star rose as the 1950s dawned. With a unique, sparse drawing style that contrasted with other cartoons of the day, not to mention the novelty of a human character in a field crowded with talking cats and rabbits, the Mr. Magoo series won accolades for UPA. Two Magoo cartoons won the Academy Award for Best Short Subject: When Magoo Flew and Magoo's Puddle Jumper. UPA scored another hit based on a record by Dr. Seuss. Gerald McBoing Boing won UPA the Academy Award in 1951. In December 1950, UPA announced plans for a feature-length film based on the work of cartoonist and humorist James Thurber; the film was to combine live action and animation and was tentatively titled Men and Dogs, but it was never completed.
Daffy Duck is an animated cartoon character produced by Warner Bros. Styled as an anthropomorphic black duck, the character has appeared in cartoon series such as Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies, in which he has been depicted as a foil for Bugs Bunny. Daffy was one of the first of the new "screwball" characters that emerged in the late 1930s to replace traditional everyman characters who were more popular earlier in the decade, such as Mickey Mouse and Popeye. Daffy starred in 130 shorts in the golden age, making him the third-most frequent character in the Looney Tunes/Merrie Melodies cartoons, behind Bugs Bunny's 167 appearances and Porky Pig's 162 appearances; every Warner Bros. cartoon director put his own spin on the Daffy Duck character – he may be a lunatic vigilante in one short but a greedy gloryhound in another. Both Bob Clampett and Chuck Jones made extensive use of these two different variants of Daffy's character. Daffy was number 14 on TV Guide's list of top 50 greatest cartoon characters.
Daffy first appeared in Porky's Duck Hunt, released on April 17, 1937. The cartoon was directed by Tex animated by Bob Clampett. Porky's Duck Hunt is a standard hunter/prey pairing, but Daffy was something new to moviegoers: an assertive unrestrained, combative protagonist. Clampett recalled: "At that time, audiences weren't accustomed to seeing a cartoon character do these things, and so, when it hit the theaters it was an explosion. People would leave the theaters talking about this daffy duck."This early Daffy is less anthropomorphic and resembles a "normal" black duck. In fact, the only aspects of the character that have remained consistent through the years are his voice characterization by Mel Blanc. Blanc's characterization of Daffy once held the world record for the longest characterization of one animated character by his or her original actor: 52 years; the origin of Daffy's voice, with its lateral lisp, is a matter of some debate. One often-repeated "official" story is that it was modeled after producer Leon Schlesinger's tendency to lisp.
However, in Mel Blanc's autobiography, That's Not All Folks!, he contradicts that conventional belief, writing, "It seemed to me that such an extended mandible would hinder his speech on words containing an s sound. Thus'despicable' became'desthpicable.'" Daffy's slobbery, exaggerated lisp was developed over time, it is noticeable in the early cartoons. In Daffy Duck & Egghead, Daffy does not lisp at all except in the separately drawn set-piece of Daffy singing "The Merry-Go-Round Broke Down" in which just a slight lisp can be heard. In The Scarlet Pumpernickel, Daffy has a middle name, Dumas as the writer of a swashbuckling script, a nod to Alexandre Dumas. In the Baby Looney Tunes episode "The Tattletale", Granny addresses Daffy as "Daffy Horatio Tiberius Duck". In The Looney Tunes Show, the joke middle names "Armando" and "Sheldon" are used. Tex Avery and Bob Clampett created the original version of Daffy in 1937. Daffy established his status by jumping into the water, hopping around, yelling, "Woo-hoo!
Woo-hoo! Woo-hoo! Woo-hoo! Woo-hoo!" Animator Bob Clampett seized upon the Daffy Duck character and cast him in a series of cartoons in the 1930s and 1940s. The early Daffy is a wild and zany screwball, perpetually bouncing around the screen with cries of "Hoo-hoo! Hoo-hoo!" Clampett physically redesigned the character, making him taller and lankier and rounding out his feet and bill. He was paired with Porky Pig. Daffy would feature in several war-themed shorts during World War II. Daffy always stays true to his unbridled nature, however. Daffy was "drafted" as a mascot for the 600th Bombardment Squadron. For Daffy Doodles, Robert McKimson tamed Daffy a bit, redesigning him yet again to be rounder and less elastic; the studio instilled some of Bugs Bunny's savvy into the duck, making him as brilliant with his mouth as he was with his battiness. Daffy was teamed up with Porky Pig. Arthur Davis, who directed Warner Bros. cartoon shorts for a few years in the late 1940s until upper management decreed there should be only three units, presented a Daffy similar to McKimson's.
McKimson is noted as the last of the three units to make his Daffy uniform with Jones', with late shorts, such as Don't Axe Me, featuring traits of the "screwball" Daffy. While Daffy's looney days were over, McKimson continued to make him as bad or good as his various roles required him to be. McKimson would use this Daffy from 1946 to 1961. Friz Freleng's version took a hint from Chuck Jones to make the duck more sympathetic, as in the 1957 Show Biz Bugs. Here, Daffy is over-emotional and jealous of Bugs, yet he has real talent, ignored by the theater manager and the crowd; this cartoon finishes with a sequence in which Daffy attempts to wow the Bugs-besotted audience with an act in which he drinks gasoline and swallows nitroglycerine and uranium-238, jumps up and down to "shake well" and swallows a lit match that detonates the whole improbable mixture. When Bugs tells Daffy that the audience loves the act an