Muslims are people who follow or practice Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. Muslims consider the Quran, their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad; the majority of Muslims follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad as recorded in traditional accounts. "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "submitter". The largest denomination of Islam are Sunni Muslims who constitute 85-90% of the total Muslim population, followed by the Shia who make up most of the remainder of Muslims; the beliefs of Muslims include: that God is eternal and one. The religious practices of Muslims are enumerated in the Five Pillars of Islam: the declaration of faith, daily prayers, fasting during the month of Ramadan and the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime. To become a Muslim and to convert to Islam, it is essential to utter the Shahada, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God and that Muhammad is God's messenger.
It is a set statement recited in Arabic: lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu muḥammadun rasūlu-llāh "There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of God."In Sunni Islam, the shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah, Muhammadun rasul Allah, which are sometimes referred to as the first shahada and the second shahada. The first statement of the shahada is known as the tahlīl. In Shia Islam, the shahada has a third part, a phrase concerning Ali, the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam: وعليٌ وليُّ الله, which translates to "Ali is the wali of God; the word muslim is the active participle of the same verb of which islām is a verbal noun, based on the triliteral S-L-M "to be whole, intact". A female adherent is a muslima; the plural form in Arabic is muslimūn or muslimīn, its feminine equivalent is muslimāt. The ordinary word in English is "Muslim", it is sometimes transliterated as "Moslem", an older spelling. The word Mosalman is a common equivalent for Muslim used in South Asia.
Until at least the mid-1960s, many English-language writers used the term Mahometans. Although such terms were not intended to be pejorative, Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they imply that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God. Other obsolete terms include Muslimist. Musulmán/Mosalmán is modified from Arabic, it is the origin of the Spanish word musulmán, the German Muselmann, the French word musulman, the Polish words muzułmanin and muzułmański, the Portuguese word muçulmano, the Italian word mussulmano or musulmano, the Romanian word musulman and the Greek word μουσουλμάνος. In English it has become archaic in usage. Apart from Persian, Polish, Portuguese and Greek, the term could be found, with obvious local differences, in Armenian, Pashto, Hindi, Marathi, Turkish, Uzbek, Azeri, Hungarian, Bosnian, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and Sanskrit; the Muslim philosopher Ibn Arabi said: A Muslim is a person who has dedicated his worship to God... Islam means making one's religion and faith God's alone.
The Qur'an describes many prophets and messengers within Judaism and Christianity, their respective followers, as Muslim: Adam, Abraham, Jacob and Jesus and his apostles are all considered to be Muslims in the Qur'an. The Qur'an states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached His message and upheld His values, which included praying, charity and pilgrimage. Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Qur'an, Jesus' disciples tell him, "We believe in God. In Muslim belief, before the Qur'an, God had given the Tawrat to Moses, the Zabur to David and the Injil to Jesus, who are all considered important Muslim prophets; the most populous Muslim-majority country is Indonesia, home to 12.7% of the world's Muslims, followed by Pakistan and Egypt. About 20 % of the world's Muslims lives in the Middle North Africa. Sizable minorities are found in India, Russia, the Americas and parts of Europe; the country with the highest proportion of self-described Muslims as a proportion of its total population is Morocco.
Converts and immigrant communities are found in every part of the world. Over 75–90% of Muslims are Sunni; the second and third largest sects and Ahmadiyya, make up 10–20%, 1% respectively. With about 1.8 billion followers a quarter of earth's population, Islam is the second-largest and the fastest-growing religion in the world. Due to the young age and high fertilit
Stutthof concentration camp
Stutthof was a Nazi German concentration camp established in a secluded and wooded area near the small town of Sztutowo 34 km east of the city of Danzig in the former territory of the Free City of Danzig. The camp was set up around existing structures after the invasion of Poland in World War II, used for the imprisonment of Polish leaders and intelligentsia; the actual barracks were built the following year by hundreds of prisoners. Stutthof was the first Nazi concentration camp set up outside German borders in World War II, in operation from 2 September 1939, it was the last camp liberated by the Allies on 9 May 1945. It is estimated that between 63,000 and 65,000 prisoners of Stutthof concentration camp and its subcamps died as a result of murder, extreme labour conditions and lack of medical help; some 28,000 of them were Jews. In total, as many as 110,000 people were deported there in the course of the camp's existence. About 24,600 were transferred from Stutthof to other locations; the camp was established in connection with the ethnic cleansing project that included the liquidation of Polish elites in the Danzig area and Western Prussia.
Before the war began, the German Selbstschutz in Pomerania created lists of people to be arrested, the Nazi authorities were secretly reviewing suitable places to set up concentration camps in their area. Stutthof was a civilian internment camp under the Danzig police chief, before its subsequent massive expansion. In November 1941, it became a "labor education" camp, administered by the German Security Police. In January 1942, Stutthof became a regular concentration camp; the original camp was surrounded by the barbed-wire fence. It comprised eight barracks for the inmates and a "Kommandantur" for the SS guards, totaling 120,000 m². In 1943, the camp was enlarged and a new camp was constructed alongside the earlier one, it was surrounded by electrified barbed-wire fence and contained thirty new barracks, raising the total area to 1.2 km². A crematorium and gas chamber were added in 1943, just in time to start mass executions when Stutthof was included in the "Final Solution" in June 1944. Mobile gas wagons were used to complement the maximum capacity of the gas chamber when needed.
The camp staff consisted of German SS guards and after 1943, the Ukrainian auxiliaries brought in by SS-Gruppenführer Fritz Katzmann. In 1942 the first German female SS Aufseherinnen guards arrived at Stutthof along with female prisoners. A total of 295 women guards worked as staff in the Stutthof complex of camps. Among the notable female guard personnel were: Elisabeth Becker, Erna Beilhardt, Ella Bergmann, Ella Blank, Gerda Bork, Herta Bothe, Erna Boettcher, Hermine Boettcher-Brueckner, Steffi Brillowski, Charlotte Graf, Charlotte Gregor, Charlotte Klein, Gerda Steinhoff, Ewa Paradies, Jenny-Wanda Barkmann. Thirty-four female guards including Becker, Steinhoff and Barkmann were identified as having committed crimes against humanity; the SS in Stutthof began conscripting women from Danzig and the surrounding cities in June 1944, to train as camp guards because of their severe shortage after the women's subcamp of Stutthof called Bromberg-Ost was set up in the city of Bydgoszcz. Several Norwegian Waffen SS volunteers worked as guards or as instructors for prisoners from Nordic countries, according to senior researcher at the Norwegian Center for Studies of Holocaust and Religious Minorities, Terje Emberland.
The first 150 inmates, imprisoned on 2 September 1939, were selected among Poles and Jews arrested in Danzig right after the outbreak of war. The inmate population rose to 6,000 in the following two weeks, on 15 September 1939; until 1942, nearly all of the prisoners were Polish. The number of inmates increased in 1944, with Jews being a prominent group among the newcomers; the first contingent of 2,500 Jewish prisoners arrived from Auschwitz in July 1944. In total, 23,566 Jews were transferred to Stutthof from Auschwitz, 25,053 from camps in the Baltic states; when the Soviet army began its advance through German-occupied Estonia in July and August 1944, the camp staff of Klooga concentration camp evacuated the majority of the inmates by sea and sent them to Stutthof. Stutthof's registered inmates included citizens of 28 countries, besides Jews and Poles - Germans, Dutch, French, Finns, Lithuanians, Belarusians and others. Among 110,000 prisoners were Jews from all of Europe, members of the Polish underground, Polish civilians deported from Warsaw during the Warsaw Uprising and Latvian intelligentsia, Latvian resistance fighters, psychiatric patients, Soviet prisoners of war, communists.
It is believed. Conditions in the camp were harsh; the first executions were carried out on 11 January and 22 March 1940 - 89 Polish activists and government officials were shot. Many prisoners died in typhus epidemics that swept the camp in the winter of 1942 and again in 1944; those whom the SS guards judged too weak or sick to work were gassed in the camp's small gas chamber. Gassing with Zyklon B began in June 1944. 4,000 prisoners, including Jewish women and children, were killed in a gas chamber before the evacuation of the camp. Another method of execution practiced in Stutthof was lethal injection of phenol into the heart. Between 63,000 and 65,000 people died in the camp. Germans
Reichsführer-SS was a special title and rank that existed between the years of 1925 and 1945 for the commander of the Schutzstaffel. Reichsführer-SS was a title from 1925 to 1933, from 1934 to 1945 it was the highest rank of the SS; the longest serving and most noteworthy Reichsführer-SS was Heinrich Himmler. Reichsführer-SS was both a rank; the title of Reichsführer was first created in 1926 by the second commander of the SS, Joseph Berchtold. Julius Schreck, founder of the SS and Berchtold's predecessor, never referred to himself as Reichsführer. Yet, the title was retroactively applied to him in years. In 1929, Heinrich Himmler became Reichsführer-SS and referred to himself by his title instead of his regular SS rank of Obergruppenführer; this set the precedent for the commander of the SS to be called Reichsführer-SS. Prior to the Night of the Long Knives, the SS was an elite corps of the Sturmabteilung, the Reichsführer-SS was subordinate to the SA's operating head, the Stabschef. On 20 July 1934, as part of the purge of the SA, the SS was made an independent branch of the Nazi Party, responsible only to Hitler.
From that point on, the title of Reichsführer-SS became an actual rank, in fact the highest rank of the SS. In this position, Himmler was on paper the equivalent of a Generalfeldmarschall in the German Army; as Himmler's position and authority grew in Nazi Germany, so did his rank in a "de facto" sense. Further, there was never more than one Reichsführer-SS at any one time, with Himmler holding the position as his personal title from 1929 until April 1945. Under its original inception, the title and rank of Reichsführer-SS was the designation for the head of the Allgemeine-SS. In this capacity, the SS Reich Leader was the direct commander of the SS Senior District Leaders. During the Second World War, the Reichsführer-SS in effect held several additional roles and wielded enormous personal power, he was responsible for all internal security within Nazi Germany. He was overseer of the concentration camps, extermination camps, the Einsatzgruppen mobile death squads. Over time, his influence on both civil and foreign policy became marked, as the Reichsführer reported directly to Hitler and his actions were not tempered by checks and balances.
This meant the office holder could implement broad policy, such as the Nazi plan for the Genocide or extermination of the Jews, or order criminal acts such as the Stalag Luft III murders, without impediment. It is difficult to separate the office from the duties assigned to the individual; as of 20 April 1934, Himmler in his position of Reichsführer-SS controlled the SD and Gestapo. On 17 June 1936 Himmler was named chief of all German police, thereby placing all uniformed police and criminal police in Germany under his control. In the latter role, he was nominally subordinate to Wilhelm Frick, it is not clear how much of this power would technically reside in the office of the Reichsführer-SS were those duties to be split up. These questions became moot by the time Himmler became the Interior Minister in 1943, it is difficult to define the full detailed duties and responsibilities of the Reichsführer-SS beyond that of leader and senior member of the SS, since, in the words of historian Martin Windrow, "y the outbreak of the war it would have been impossible to define the role within the state" of the entire SS itself.
The rank of Reichsführer-SS was defined in the SS hierarchy as the highest possible rank of the Allgemeine-SS. The exact position of the rank within the military Waffen-SS evolved over many years, ranging from defined to vaguely associated; the Waffen-SS was a small armed SS unit called the SS-Verfügungstruppe, in the 1930s was under the command of Himmler who, in his position as Reichsführer-SS, issued directives and orders to SS-VT commanders. Hold-outs existed for some aspects of the armed SS however, as well as within the special bodyguard unit known as the SS-Leibstandarte. Although the unit was nominally under Himmler, Sepp Dietrich was the real commander and handled day-to-day administration; the Waffen-SS grew from three regiments to over 38 divisions and served alongside the German Army, but was never formally part of it. During World War II, the authority of the Reichsführer-SS over the Waffen-SS was administrative in that certain General-SS offices controlled supply and logistics aspects of the Waffen-SS.
Himmler held authority to create new Waffen-SS divisions as well as order the formation of various smaller SS combat units. The daily association with the Waffen-SS, encompassed inspecting Waffen-SS troops and presenting high-ranking medals to its members; the Reichsführer-SS further never exercised direct operational authority over Waffen-SS units until the end of the war and only through his capacity as an Army Group commander and not as the head of the SS. Top Waffen-SS commanders, such as Sepp Dietrich, Wilhelm Bittrich, Matthias Kleinheisterkamp, further held a certain derision for Himmler, describing him as "sly and unmilitary". Attached to the office was the 18,438-strong SS formations managed by the Kommandostab Reichsführer-SS reporting directly to Himmler. To head the Command Staff, Himmler appointed career army officer K
Primo Michele Levi was an Italian Jewish chemist and Holocaust survivor. He was the author of several books, collections of short stories and poems, his best-known works include If This Is a Man, his account of the year he spent as a prisoner in the Auschwitz concentration camp in Nazi-occupied Poland. Levi died in 1987 from injuries sustained in a fall from a third-story apartment landing, his death was ruled a suicide, but some have suggested that the fall was accidental. Levi was born in 1919 in Turin, into a liberal Jewish family, his father, worked for the manufacturing firm Ganz and spent much of his time working abroad in Hungary, where Ganz was based. Cesare was autodidact. Levi's mother, known to everyone as Rina, was well educated, having attended the Istituto Maria Letizia, she too was an avid reader, played the piano, spoke fluent French. The marriage between Rina and Cesare had been arranged by Rina's father. On their wedding day, Rina's father, Cesare Luzzati, gave Rina the apartment at Corso Re Umberto, where Primo Levi lived for his entire life.
In 1921 Anna Maria, Levi's sister, was born. In 1925 he entered the Felice Rignon primary school in Turin. A thin and delicate child, he thought he was ugly, his school record includes long periods of absence during which he was tutored at home, at first by Emilia Glauda and by Marisa Zini, daughter of philosopher Zino Zini. The children spent summers with their mother in the Waldensian valleys southwest of Turin, where Rina rented a farmhouse, his father remained in the city because of his dislike of the rural life, but because of his infidelities. In September 1930 Levi entered the Massimo d'Azeglio Royal Gymnasium a year ahead of normal entrance requirements. In class he was the shortest and the cleverest, as well as being the only Jew. For these reasons, he was bullied. In August 1932, following two years at the Talmud Torah school in Turin, he sang in the local synagogue for his Bar Mitzvah. In 1933, as was expected of all young Italian schoolboys, he joined the Avanguardisti movement for young Fascists.
He avoided rifle drill by joining the ski division, spent every Saturday during the season on the slopes above Turin. As a young boy Levi was plagued by illness chest infections, but he was keen to participate in physical activity. In his teens, Levi and a few friends would sneak into a disused sports stadium and conduct athletic competitions. In July 1934 at the age of 14, he sat the exams for the Liceo Classico D'Azeglio, a Lyceum specializing in the classics, was admitted that year; the school was noted for its well-known anti-Fascist teachers, among them the philosopher Norberto Bobbio, Cesare Pavese, who became one of Italy's best-known novelists. Levi continued to be bullied during his time at the Lyceum, although six other Jews were in his class. Upon reading Concerning the Nature of Things by Sir William Bragg, Levi decided that he wanted to be a chemist. In 1937, he was summoned before the War Ministry and accused of ignoring a draft notice from the Italian Royal Navy—one day before he was to write a final examination on Italy's participation in the Spanish Civil War, based on a quote from Thucydides: "We have the singular merit of being brave to the utmost degree."
Distracted and terrified by the draft accusation, he failed the exam—the first poor grade of his life—and was devastated. His father was able to keep him out of the Navy by enrolling him in the Fascist militia, he remained a member through his first year of university, until passage of the Italian Racial Laws of 1938 forced his expulsion. Levi recounted this series of events in the short story "Fra Diavolo on the Po", he retook and passed his final examinations, in October enrolled at the University of Turin to study chemistry. As one of 80 candidates, he spent three months taking lectures, in February, after passing his colloquio, he was selected as one of 20 to move on to the full-time chemistry curriculum. In the liberal period as well as in the first decade of the Fascist regime, Jews held many public positions, were prominent in literature and politics. In 1929 Mussolini signed an agreement with the Catholic Church, the Lateran Treaty, which established Catholicism as the State religion, allowed the Church to influence many sectors of education and public life, relegated other religions to the status of "tolerated cults".
In 1936 Italy's conquest of Ethiopia and the expansion of what the regime regarded as the Italian "colonial empire" brought the question of "race" to the forefront. In the context set by these events, the 1940 alliance with Hitler's Germany, the situation of the Jews of Italy changed radically. In July 1938 a group of prominent Italian scientists and intellectuals published the "Manifesto of Race," a mixture of racial and ideological antisemitic theories from ancient and modern sources; this treatise formed the basis for the Italian Racial Laws of October 1938. After its enactment Italian Jews lost their basic civil rights, positions in public offices, their assets, their books were prohibited: Jewish writers could no longer publish in magazines owned by Aryans. Jewish students who had begun their course of study were permitted to continue, but new Jewish students were ba
Nazi Germany built extermination camps during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically kill millions of Jews, Poles, Soviet POWs, political opponents and others whom the Nazis considered "Untermenschen". The victims of death camps were killed by gassing, either in permanent installations constructed for this specific purpose, or by means of gas vans; some Nazi camps, such as Auschwitz and Majdanek, served a dual purpose before the end of the war in 1945: extermination by poison gas, but through extreme work under starvation conditions. The idea of mass extermination with the use of stationary facilities to which the victims were taken by train, was the result of earlier Nazi experimentation with chemically manufactured poison gas during the secretive Aktion T4 euthanasia programme against hospital patients with mental and physical disabilities; the technology was adapted and applied in wartime to unsuspecting victims of many ethnic and national groups. The genocide of the Jewish people of Europe was the Third Reich's "Final Solution to the Jewish question".
It is now collectively known as the Holocaust, in which 11 million others were murdered during the Holocaust. Extermination camps were set up by the fascist Ustaše regime of the Independent State of Croatia, a puppet state of Germany, which carried out genocide between 1941 and 1945 against Serbs, Jews and its Croat and Bosniak Muslim political opponents. After the invasion of Poland in September 1939, the secret Aktion T4 euthanasia programme – the systematic murder of German and Polish hospital patients with mental or physical disabilities – was initiated by the SS in order to eliminate "life unworthy of life", a Nazi designation for people who had no right to life. In 1941, the experience gained in the secretive killing of these hospital patients led to the creation of extermination camps for the implementation of the Final Solution. By the Jews were confined to new ghettos and interned in Nazi concentration camps along with other targeted groups, including Roma, the Soviet POWs; the Nazi Endlösung der Judenfrage, based on the systematic killing of Europe's Jews by gassing, began during Operation Reinhard, after the onset of the Nazi-Soviet war of June 1941.
The adoption of the gassing technology by Nazi Germany was preceded by a wave of hands-on killings carried out by the SS Einsatzgruppen, who followed the Wehrmacht army during Operation Barbarossa on the Eastern Front. The camps designed for the mass gassings of Jews were established in the months following the Wannsee Conference chaired by Reinhard Heydrich in January 1942 in which the principle was made clear that the Jews of Europe were to be exterminated. Responsibility for the logistics were to be executed by Adolf Eichmann. On 13 October 1941, the SS and Police Leader Odilo Globocnik stationing in Lublin received an oral order from Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler – anticipating the fall of Moscow – to start immediate construction work on the killing centre at Bełżec in the General Government territory of occupied Poland. Notably, the order preceded the Wannsee Conference by three months, but the gassings at Kulmhof north of Łódź using gas vans began in December, under Sturmbannführer Herbert Lange.
The camp at Bełżec was operational by March 1942, with leadership brought in from Germany under the guise of Organisation Todt. By mid-1942, two more death camps had been built on Polish lands for Operation Reinhard: Sobibór under the command of Hauptsturmführer Franz Stangl, Treblinka under Obersturmführer Irmfried Eberl from T4, the only doctor to have served in such a capacity. Auschwitz concentration camp was fitted with brand new gassing bunkers in March 1942. Majdanek had them built in September; the Nazis distinguished between extermination and concentration camps, although the terms extermination camp and death camp were interchangeable, each referring to camps whose primary function was genocide. Todeslagers were designed for the systematic killing of people delivered en masse by the Holocaust trains; the executioners did not expect the prisoners to survive more than a few hours beyond arrival at Belzec, Sobibór, Treblinka. The Reinhard extermination camps were under Globocnik's direct command.
The Jewish men and children were delivered from the ghettos for "special treatment" in an atmosphere of terror by uniformed police battalions from both and Schupo. Death camps differed from concentration camps located in Germany proper, such as Bergen-Belsen, Ravensbrück, Sachsenhausen, which were prison camps set up prior to World War II for people defined as'undesirable'. From March 1936, all Nazi concentration camps were managed by the SS-Totenkopfverbände, who operated extermination camps from 1941 as well. An SS anatomist, Dr. Johann Kremer, after witnessing the gassing of victims at Birkenau, wrote in his diary on 2 September 1942: "Dante's Inferno seems to me a comedy compared to this, they don't call Auschwitz the camp of annihilation for nothing!" The distinction was evident during the Nuremberg trials, when Dieter Wisliceny was asked to name the extermination camps, h
Johannes Kepler University Linz
The Johannes Kepler University Linz is a public institution of higher education in Austria. It is located in the capital of Upper Austria, it offers bachelor's, master's, diploma and doctoral degrees in business, law and social sciences. Today, 18,036 students study at the park campus in the northeast of Linz, with one out of nine students being from abroad; the university was the first in Austria to introduce an electronic student ID in 1998. The university is the home of the Johann Radon Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. In 2012, the Times Higher Education ranked the JKU at # 41 and in 2015 at # 87 in its list of the top 100 universities under 50 years old. According to the 2012 ranking, the JKU was the fifth best young university in German-speaking Europe; the university attained high scores for quotations, third-party funding, internationalization efforts. The JKU was established as the "College of Social Sciences and Business" in 1966.
The Faculty of Sciences and Engineering was established three years and in 1975, the college was awarded university status and the Faculty of Law was integrated on campus. The university was named in honor of astronomer Johannes Kepler who wrote his magnum opus harmonices mundi in Linz during the early 17th century and taught mathematics at a school for the landed gentry near Linz. At present, the campus added the "JKU Science Park", an additional building for science and engineering institutes. JKU's campus is located in the Auhof area of the St. Magdalena district; the university buildings are placed in a 90-acre park centered around a pond. The campus is accessible by the Linz tram lines 1 and 2 and the express bus line 77. On weekdays, trams travel every 7–8 minutes and a trip to the city center takes 16 minutes; the JKU is located close to Austria's autobahn network at theDornach exit on the A7 Mühlkreisautobahn. In anticipation of extending the campus, an additional autobahn exit, Auhof, is in the construction stages and is expected to better facilitate traffic, allowing a more direct route to the university.
A bicycle path in the north-east corner of the town located along the north side of the Danube river provides direct access to the university and helps to reduce traffic in the area. Many larger dormitories are within walking distance of the university, such as the Julius Raab Heim, the WIST Haus, the Kepler Heim, the ESH and the KHG Heim. Several other dormitories are located in different parts of Linz, providing housing for more than 3,100 students in all of Linz; some of the dormitories become hotels during the summer holidays, most notably the Julius Raab Heim under the name Hotel Sommerhaus. The university Rector and Academic Senate are responsible for the university's management. There are four vice rectors who assist the Rector; the university board is an independent body that advises and counsels the Rector and Academic Senate on management issues. Deans and faculty committees are responsible for management on a faculty level. Rector and deans are elected for a 4-year period whereas faculty committees are elected for a 2-year period.
Helmut Paul was the rector from 1974 to 1977. In 2007 Richard Hagelauer was elected Rector. At present, Ferdinand Kerschner is head of the Academic Senate and Ludwig Scharinger is head of the University Council; the Johannes Kepler University has four faculties with a total of 110 institutes. The Faculty of Social Sciences and Business is the oldest and largest faculty in terms of students and graduates; the faculty consists of 32 institutes and offers academic degrees in Economics and Business Administration, Business Informatics and Education, Social Economics and Statistics. The faculty's abbreviation SoWi is derived from the German name of the faculty, Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät; the Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences was established in 1969 and offered degrees in Technical Mathematics, Computer Science and Technical Physics. Over time, degrees in Technical Chemistry and Information Electronics were introduced. Several master's degrees to specialize in the area of computer science and physics, such as pervasive computing, industrial mathematics or biophysics are available.
Doctorate degrees are offered in the areas of technical science. The TN faculty consists of 51 distinctive institutes and the German name is Technisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät, hence the abbreviation TN or TNF; the Faculty of Law was established in 1975. Before that time period, law degrees were offered by the SoWi faculty, theFaculty of Social Sciences, Economics and Law. In addition to Diploma and doctorate degrees in law, the RE faculty offers a Bachelor's degree in Business Law in cooperation with the SoWi faculty. Law degrees are offered via multimedia distance learning; the abbreviation RE is derived from the first two letters of the faculty's name German name, Rechtswissenschaftliche Fakultät. At present, the RE faculty consists of 20 institutes; the Faculty of Medicine was founded in 2014. The master's degree program in web sciences is divided into branches of study: social web, web art & design, web business & economy, web engineering as well as web and the law, it offers those with academic background in various fields a research-led expansion and in-depth look at
The Schutzstaffel was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party in Nazi Germany, throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II. It began with a small guard unit known as the Saal-Schutz made up of NSDAP volunteers to provide security for party meetings in Munich. In 1925, Heinrich Himmler joined the unit, which had by been reformed and given its final name. Under his direction it grew from a small paramilitary formation to one of the most powerful organizations in Nazi Germany. From 1929 until the regime's collapse in 1945, the SS was the foremost agency of security and terror within Germany and German-occupied Europe; the two main constituent groups were the Allgemeine SS and Waffen-SS. The Allgemeine SS was responsible for enforcing the racial policy of Nazi Germany and general policing, whereas the Waffen-SS consisted of combat units within Nazi Germany's military. A third component of the SS, the SS-Totenkopfverbände, ran the concentration camps and extermination camps.
Additional subdivisions of the SS included the Sicherheitsdienst organizations. They were tasked with the detection of actual or potential enemies of the Nazi state, the neutralization of any opposition, policing the German people for their commitment to Nazi ideology, providing domestic and foreign intelligence; the SS was the organization most responsible for the genocidal killing of an estimated 5.5 to 6 million Jews and millions of other victims in the Holocaust. Members of all of its branches committed war crimes and crimes against humanity during World War II; the SS was involved in commercial enterprises and exploited concentration camp inmates as slave labor. After Nazi Germany's defeat, the SS and the NSDAP were judged by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg to be criminal organizations. Ernst Kaltenbrunner, the highest-ranking surviving SS main department chief, was found guilty of crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg trials and hanged in 1946. By 1923, the Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler had created a small volunteer guard unit known as the Saal-Schutz to provide security at their meetings in Munich.
The same year, Hitler ordered the formation of a small bodyguard unit dedicated to his personal service. He wished it to be separate from the "suspect mass" of the party, including the paramilitary Sturmabteilung, which he did not trust; the new formation was designated the Stabswache. The unit was composed of eight men, commanded by Julius Schreck and Joseph Berchtold, was modeled after the Erhardt Naval Brigade, a Freikorps of the time; the unit was renamed Stoßtrupp in May 1923. The Stoßtrupp was abolished after the failed 1923 Beer Hall Putsch, an attempt by the NSDAP to seize power in Munich. In 1925, Hitler ordered Schreck to organize the Schutzkommando, it was tasked with providing personal protection for Hitler at NSDAP events. That same year, the Schutzkommando was expanded to a national organization and renamed successively the Sturmstaffel, the Schutzstaffel; the SS marked its foundation on 9 November 1925. The new SS was to provide protection for NSDAP leaders throughout Germany. Hitler's personal SS protection unit was enlarged to include combat units.
Schreck, a founding member of the SA and a close confidant of Hitler, became the first SS chief in March 1925. On 15 April 1926, Joseph Berchtold succeeded him as chief of the SS. Berchtold changed the title of the office to Reichsführer-SS. Berchtold was considered more dynamic than his predecessor, but became frustrated by the authority the SA had over the SS; this led to him transferring leadership of the SS to his deputy, Erhard Heiden, on 1 March 1927. Under Heiden's leadership, a stricter code of discipline was enforced than would have been tolerated in the SA. Between 1925 and 1929, the SS was considered to be a small Gruppe of the SA. Except in the Munich area, the SS was unable to maintain any momentum in its membership numbers, which declined from 1,000 to 280 as the SA continued its rapid growth; as Heiden attempted to keep the SS from dissolving, Heinrich Himmler became his deputy in September 1927. Himmler displayed good organizational abilities compared to Heiden; the SS established a number of Gaus.
The SS-Gaus consisted of SS-Gau Berlin, SS-Gau Berlin Brandenburg, SS-Gau Franken, SS-Gau Niederbayern, SS-Gau Rheinland-Süd, SS-Gau Sachsen. With Hitler's approval, Himmler assumed the position of Reichsführer-SS in January 1929. There are differing accounts of the reason for Heiden's dismissal from his position as head of the SS; the party announced that it was for "family reasons." Under Himmler, the SS gained a larger foothold. He considered the SS an elite, ideologically driven National Socialist organization, a "conflation of Teutonic knights, the Jesuits, Japanese Samurai", his ultimate aim was to turn the SS into the most powerful organization in Germany and most influential branch of the party. He expanded the SS to 3,000 members in his first year as its leader. In 1929, the SS-Hauptamt was expanded and reorganized into five main offices dealing with general administration, finance and race matters. At the same time, the SS-Gaus were expanded into three SS-Oberführerbereiche areas, namely the SS-Oberführerbereich Ost, SS-Oberführerbereich