Modena is a city and comune on the south side of the Po Valley, in the Province of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. One of Ferraris cars, the 360 Modena, was named after the town itself, the University of Modena, founded in 1175 and expanded by Francesco II dEste in 1686, has traditional strengths in economics and law and is the second oldest athenaeum in Italy. Italian military officers are trained at the Military Academy of Modena, the Biblioteca Estense houses historical volumes and 3,000 manuscripts. The Cathedral of Modena, the Torre della Ghirlandina and Piazza Grande are a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1997, Modena is known in culinary circles for its production of balsamic vinegar. Modena lies on the Pianura Padana, and is bounded by the two rivers Secchia and Panaro, both affluents of the Po River and their presence is symbolized by the Two Rivers Fountain in the citys center, by Giuseppe Graziosi. The city is connected to the Panaro by the Naviglio channel, the Apennines begin some 10 kilometres from the city, to the south.
The commune is divided into four circoscrizioni and these are, Centro storico Crocetta Buon Pastore San Faustino Modena has a humid subtropical climate, with an average annual precipitation of 809 millimetres. Summers are warm and winters are chilly and wetter, with the possibility of snowfall and this climate is described by the Köppen climate classification as Cfa. From 1945 to 1992, Modena had a consecutive series of Communist mayors. From the 1990s, the city has been governed by center-left coalitions, at the April 2006 elections, the city of Modena gave about 50% of its votes to the Democratic Party. The legislative body of the municipality is the City Council which is composed by 35 members elected every five years, Modenas executive body is the City Committee composed by 9 assessors, the deputy-mayor and the mayor. The current mayor of Modena is Giancarlo Muzzarelli, member of the Democratic Party of Italy, the territory around Modena was inhabited by the Villanovans in the Iron Age, and by Ligurian tribes and the Gaulish Boii.
Livy described it as a fortified citadel where Roman magistrates took shelter, the outcome of the siege is not known, but the city was most likely abandoned after Hannibals arrival. Mutina was refounded as a Roman colony in 183 BC, to be used as a base by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. In the 1st century BC Mutina was besieged twice, the first siege was by Pompey in 78 BC, when Mutina was defended by Marcus Junius Brutus. The city eventually surrendered out of hunger, and Brutus fled, in the civil war following Caesars assassination, the city was besieged again, this time by Mark Antony, in 44 BC, and defended by Decimus Junius Brutus. Octavian relieved the city with the help of the Senate, cicero called it Mutina splendidissima in his Philippics. It is said that Mutina was never sacked by Attila, for a dense fog hid it, as of December 2008, Italian researchers have discovered the pottery center where the oil lamps that lit the ancient Roman empire were made
The Ferrari 348 is a mid-engined, rear-wheel-drive V8-powered 2-seat sports car by Ferrari, replacing the 328 in 1989 and continuing until 1995. It was the final V8 mid-engine model developed by Enzo Ferrari before his death, the 348, badged 348 tb for the coupé and 348 ts and the 348sp versions, features a normally aspirated 3. 4-litre version of the quad-cam, four-valve-per-cylinder V8 engine. As with its predecessors, the number was derived from this configuration. The engine, which produced 300 hp, was mounted longitudinally and coupled to a manual gearbox. The T in the model name 348 tb and ts refers to the position of the gearbox. Overall,2,895 examples of the 348 tb and 4,230 of the 348 ts were produced, the F355 that replaced it returned to the styling cues of the 328 with round tail lights and rounded side air scoops. Fifty-seven Challenge models were built for owners who wanted a more track-ready car, the 348 was fitted with dual-computer engine management using twin Bosch Motronic ECUs, double-redundant anti-lock brakes, and self-diagnosing air conditioning and heating systems.
Late versions have Japanese-made starter motors and Nippondenso power generators to improve reliability, U. S. spec 348s have OBD-I engine management systems, though European variants do not come with the self-test push button installed, which is needed to activate this troubleshooting feature. This had the effect of making the doors very wide. The 348 was equipped with an oil system to prevent oil starvation at high speeds. The oil level can only be checked on the dipstick when the motor is running due to this setup. The 348 was fitted with adjustable suspension and a removable rear sub-frame to speed up the removal of the engine for maintenance. This vehicle served as a test mule for the Ferrari Enzo, between 1992 and 1993 Ferrari made 100 units of 348 Serie Speciale of its tb and ts versions. It was a limited edition made for the US market. During 1992 -1993 there were only 35 TB Serie Speciales manufactured with the remainder being the TS Serie Speciale, Ferrari indicates a 0-60 mph time of 5.3 seconds and a standing ¼ mile of 13.75 seconds.
The cars were offered with F40 style sport seats in Connolly leather, the door panels were modified and made of leather. Each car is numbered, with a 348 Serie Speciale plate on the passengers side door-post, in 1994, a further 15 units were produced, bringing the total production of this limited edition to 115. The Ferrari Challenge was initiated by Ferrari Club Nederland and designated for the Ferrari 348, using the un-modified engine, the only changes of the car were slick tyres, better brake-pads, roll-bar, smaller battery in a different position and seat belts
Ferrari 575M Maranello
The Ferrari 575M Maranello is a two-seat, two-door, grand tourer built by Ferrari. Launched in 2002, it is essentially an updated 550 Maranello featuring minor styling changes from Pininfarina, the 575M was replaced by the 599 GTB in the first half of 2006. Two six-speed transmissions were available, a manual gearbox and, for the first time on a Ferrari V12. The model number refers to engine displacement in litres, whilst the M is an abbreviation of modificato. For 2005, the company developed a new GTC handling package and Superamerica version, configuration, 65° V12 engine Displacement,5.2 seconds 0–400 m,12.25 seconds 0-1,000 m,21. The new brakes were based on the companys Formula One technology and they used 15.7 in discs with six-piston calipers in front and 14.2 in discs with four-piston calipers in the rear. Patented Revocromico roof incorporates carbon fibre structure that is hinged on the axis with a luggage compartment lid. With the roof open the window, apart for holding the third stop light.
This roof design was used on 2001-designed Vola by Leonardo Fioravanti. The Superamerica used the tune of the V-12 engine, F133 G, rated at 533 hp and Ferrari marketed it as the worlds fastest convertible. The GTC handling package was optional, a total of 559 Superamericas were built, this number followed Enzo Ferraris philosophy that there should always be one fewer car available than what the market demanded. A special 575M was built by Zagato for Japanese Ferrari collector Yoshiyuki Hayashi, in 2003, Ferrari announced the sale of several 575M-based racing cars, known as the 575 GTC. Following the success of Prodrive in running the Ferrari 550, Ferrari wished to offer their own racing car to customers, used primarily in the FIA GT Championship, the 575 GTCs managed to take a single win in their first season, followed by another lone win in 2004. Unfortunately the 575 GTCs were not as capable as the Prodrive-built 550 GTSs, and would fall from use by the end of 2005
The Ferrari 250 is a sports car built by Ferrari from 1953 to 1964. The companys most successful line, the 250 series included several variants. It was replaced by the 275 and the 330, most 250 road cars share the same two wheelbases,2,400 mm for short wheelbase and 2,600 mm for long wheelbase. Most convertibles used the SWB type, nearly all 250s share the same Colombo Tipo 125 V12 engine. At 2,953 cc, it was notable for its weight and impressive output of up to 300 PS in the Testa Rossa. The V12 weighed hundreds of less than its chief competitors — for example. Ferrari uses the displacement of a cylinder as the model designation. The light V12 propelled the small Ferrari 250 racing cars to numerous victories, typical of Ferrari, the Colombo V12 made its debut on the race track, with the racing 250s preceding the street cars by three years. The first 250 was the experimental 250 S berlinetta prototype entered in the 1952 Mille Miglia for Giovanni Bracco, the car was entered at Le Mans and in the Carrera Panamericana.
The 250 S used a 2,250 mm wheelbase with a Tuboscocca tubular trellis frame, suspension was by double wishbones at the front, with double longitudinal semi-elliptic springs locating the live axle at the rear. The car had the drum brakes and worm-and-sector steering typical of the period, the dry-sump 3.0 L engine used three Weber 36DCF carburettors and was mated directly to a five-speed manual transmission. Following the success of the 250 S in the Mille Miglia, Pinin Farina created coupé bodywork which had a small grille, compact tail and panoramic rear window, and the new car was launched as the 250 MM at the 1953 Geneva Motor Show. Carrozzeria Vignales open barchetta version was a design whose recessed headlights. The 250 MMs wheelbase was longer than the 250 S at 2,400 mm, the V12 engines dry sump was omitted from the production car, and the transmission was reduced by one gear. Power was increased to 240 PS, the four-cylinder 625 TF and 735 S replaced the V12-powered 250 MM in 1953. The 250 MMs race debut was at the 1953 Giro di Sicilia with privateer Paulo Marzotto, a Carrozzeria Morelli-bodied 250 MM barchetta driven by Clemente Biondetti came fourth in the 1954 Mille Miglia.
The 1954250 Monza was and unusual hybrid of the light four-cylinder 750 Monza, the model used the 250 engine in the short-wheelbase chassis from the 750 Monza. The first two used the Pininfarina barchetta shape of the 750 Monza and a one-off 500 Mondial, two more 250 Monzas were built by Carrozzeria Scaglietti, an early use of the now-familiar coachbuilder
Enzo Ferrari (automobile)
The Enzo Ferrari is a 12 cylinder mid-engine berlinetta sports car named after the companys founder, Enzo Ferrari. Also used are not allowed in F1 such as active aerodynamics. After a downforce of 7600 N is reached at 300 km/h the rear wing is actuated by computer to maintain that downforce, the Enzos F140 B V12 engine was the first of a new generation for Ferrari. It is based on the design of the V8 found in Maseratis Quattroporte and this design will replace the former architectures seen in V12 and V8 engines used in most other contemporary Ferraris. The 2005 F430 is the second Ferrari to get a version of this new powerplant. The Enzo was designed by Ken Okuyama, the Japanese former Pininfarina head designer, the company sent invitations to existing customers, those who had previously bought the F40 and F50. All 349 cars were sold in this way before production began, after numerous requests, Ferrari decided to build 50 more Enzos, bringing the total to 399. Before being unveiled at the Paris Motor show, the Enzo was flown from Italy to the U. S.
to be filmed in Charlies Angels and it was driven on a beach by actress Demi Moore. After filming was complete, the Enzo was flown to France to be in the Motor Show, Enzos are listed as being built in 2003. In 2004, a 400th Enzo was built and donated to the Vatican for charity, three development mules were built, M1, M2, and M3. Each was bodied to look like a 348, a model which had succeeded by two generations of mid-engined V8 sports cars—the F355 and the 360 Modena—by the time the mules were built. The third mule was offered for auction alongside the 400th Enzo in June 2005, the Enzo is a rear mid-engined vehicle with a 43. 9/56.1 front/rear weight distribution. The engine is Ferraris F140B 65° V12 with 4 valves per cylinder, dual overhead cams, bosch Motronic ME7 fuel injection is used and the engine is naturally aspirated. It displaces 5998 cc and produces 660 PS at 7800 rpm and 657 N·m at 5500 rpm, the Enzo has a semi-automatic transmission using paddles to control an automated shifting and clutch mechanism, with LED lights on the steering wheel telling the driver when to change gears.
The gearbox has a time of just 150 milliseconds. The transmission was a first generation design from the late 1990s. The Enzo has 4 wheel independent suspension with push-rod actuated shock absorbers which can be adjusted from the cabin, complemented with anti-roll bars at the front, the Enzo uses 19-inch wheels and has 15-inch Brembo disc brakes. The wheels are held by a lug nut and fitted with Bridgestone Potenza Scuderia RE050A tires
He was widely known as il Commendatore or il Drake. In his final years he was referred to as lIngegnere or il Grande Vecchio. Ferrari was born on 18 February 1898 in Modena and his birth certificate had recorded his birth date on 20 February because a heavy snowstorm had prevented his father from reporting the birth at the local registry office. He was the younger of two children to Alfredo and Adalgisa Ferrari, after his elder sibling Alfredo Junior, Alfredo Senior was the son of a grocer from Carpi and started a workshop fabricating metal parts at the family home. Enzo grew up with formal education. At the age of 10 he witnessed Felice Nazzaros win at the 1908 Circuit di Bologna, during World War I he served in the 3rd Mountain Artillery Regiment of the Italian Army. His father Alfredo, and his brother, Alfredo Jr. died in 1916 as a result of a widespread Italian flu outbreak. Ferrari became severely sick himself in the 1918 flu pandemic and was discharged from Italian service. Following the familys carpentry business collapse, Ferrari started searching for a job in the car industry and he unsuccessfully volunteered his services to FIAT in Turin, eventually settling for a job as test-driver for C. M. N.
A car manufacturer in Milan, which rebuilt used truck bodies into small passenger cars, on November 23 of the same year, he took part in the Targa Florio but had to retire after his cars fuel tank developed a leak. The prancing horse emblem was created when Italian fighter pilot Francesco Baracca was shot down during World War I, Baracca gave Enzo Ferrari a necklace with the prancing horse on it prior to takeoff. Baracca was tragically shot down and killed, in memory of his death, Enzo Ferrari used the prancing horse to create the emblem that would become the world famous Ferrari shield. However the world first saw this emblem on an Alfa Romeo as Ferrari was still tied up with Alfa Romeo and it was not until 1947 that the shield was first seen on a Ferrari. This was the birth of Ferrari, in 1924 Ferrari won the Coppa Acerbo at Pescara, a success that encouraged Alfa Romeo to offer him a chance to race in much more prestigious competitions. Ferrari himself continued racing until 1932, before he left Alfa Romeo to found Scuderia Ferrari, despite the quality of the Scuderia drivers, the team struggled to compete with Auto Union and Mercedes.
In 1937 Alfa Romeo decided to regain control of its racing division. Unhappy with the arrangement, Ferrari left and founded Auto-Avio Costruzioni, with the outbreak of World War II in 1943, Ferraris factory was forced to undertake war production for Mussolinis fascist government. Following Allied bombing of the factory, Ferrari relocated from Modena to Maranello, at the end of the conflict, Ferrari decided to start making cars bearing his name, and founded Ferrari S. p. A. in 1947
Ferrari 375 MM
See Ferrari 375 F1 for the 375 used in Formula 1 racing Ferrari 375 MM, was a race car produced by Ferrari in 1953 and 1954. It was named 375 for the displacement in the 4. 5L V12 engine. The engine was based on its Ferrari 375 F1 counterpart, but with smaller stroke, the first prototype was a Vignale Spyder and 3 next cars were Pinin Farina Berlinettas, all converted from Ferrari 340 MM. Perhaps the most known 375 MM is the Ingrid Bergman version, commissioned in 1954 by director Roberto Rossellini for his wife, the Bergman 375 MM was subsequently bought and restored by the Microsoft executive Jon Shirley and the restoration specialist Butch Dennison. It became the first postwar Ferrari to win Best of Show at the Pebble Beach Concours dElegance
The Ferrari 330 was a series of V12 powered automobiles produced by Ferrari in 2+2 GT Coupé, two-seat Berlinetta and race car versions between 1963 and 1968. Production ended in 1968 with the introduction of the Ferrari 365 series, all 330 models used an evolution of the 400 Superamericas 4.0 L Colombo V12 engine. It was substantially changed, with wider spacing and an alternator replacing a generator. The 1963330 America shared the outgoing 250 GTEs chassis but not its engine, being powered by the new 4.0 L Tipo 209 V12, as for the 250-series,330 refers to the approximate displacement of each single cylinder. Socialite Sandra West is buried with her blue 330 America at the Alamo Masonic Cemetery at San Antonio, about 50330 Americas were built before being replaced by the larger 330 GT 2+2. The provisional 330 America was replaced in January 1964 by the new 330 GT 2+2 and it was first shown at the Brussels Show, early that year. It was much more than a re-engined 250, with a nose and tail, quad headlights.
The wheelbase was 50 mm longer, but Koni adjustable shock absorbers improved handling, a dual-circuit Dunlop braking system was used with discs all around, though it separated brakes front to back rather than diagonally as on modern systems. When leaving the factory the 330 GT originally fitted Pirelli Cinturato 205VR15 tyres, the 1965 Series II version featured a five-speed gearbox instead of the overdrive four-speed of the prior year. Other changes included the switch back to a dual-light instead of quad-light front clip, alloy wheels,625 Series I and 455 Series II330 GT 2+2 cars had been built when the car was replaced by the 365 GT 2+2 in 1967. Production of the smaller 330 GTC and GTS models overlapped with the GT 2+2 for more than a year, the 330 GTC and 330 GTS were more like their 275 counterparts than the 330 GT 2+2. They shared the wheelbase of the 275 as well as its independent rear suspension. These models were more refined than earlier Ferraris and easier to drive and it has been stated that this was probably the first Ferrari in which you could actually enjoy a radio.
The GTC berlinetta was introduced at the Geneva Motor Show in March,1966 and it was a two-seater coupé with a Pininfarina-designed body. A1967 GTC was given one-off bodywork by Zagato at the behest of American importer Luigi Chinetti in 1974 and this car was called the Zagato Convertibile, since it was of a targa-style. The GTS spider followed at the Paris Motor Show, about 600 coupés and 100 spiders were produced before the 1968 introduction of the 365 GTC and GTS. Four 330 Le Mans Berlinettas were built in 1963, first presented in March 1963 alongside the mid-engined 250 P, they were essentially a development of the 250 GTOs and fitted with the 4-litre 330 engine, here rated at 390 hp at 7,500 rpm. Although the front is similar to the 250 GTOs, the main structure came from the 250 Lusso
Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2, 400 and 412
The Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2, Ferrari 400 and Ferrari 412 are front-engined V12 2+2 grand tourers made by Italian manufacturer Ferrari between 1972 and 1989. The three cars are related, using the same body and engine evolved over time. Following Ferrari practice, their numeric designations refer to their engines single-cylinder displacement expressed in cubic centimetres, the 365 GT4 2+2 was introduced in 1972 to replace the 365 GTC/4. It evolved into the 400, the first Ferrari available with an automatic transmission, in 1979 the 400 was replaced by the fuel injected 400 i. The improved 412 ran from 1985 to 1989, bringing to an end Ferraris longest-ever production series, however, entered as grey imports. Ferrari turned to frequent styling partner Leonardo Fioravanti at Pininfarina, whose design for the 365 GT4 2+2 was a clear departure from its fastback predecessor. It followed Fioravantis Ferrari 365 GTB/4 Daytona as the second Ferrari to feature the characteristic swage line dividing the body into upper and lower halves, various coachbuilders, such as Carrozzeria Pavesi and Straman, offered convertible conversions of the 400 series.
Switzerlands Felber showed a shooting brake version on 400 GT basis called the Felber Croisette at the 1981 Geneva Salon de lAuto, the tubular steel chassis was based on that of the GTC/4, but the wheelbase was lengthened 200 mm to 2,700 mm. The bodies were steel, with a floor, they were manufactured by Pininfarina at its Turin plant. Suspension consisted of double wishbones, coil springs coaxial with the shock absorbers, and anti-roll bars all around, under the bonnet there was a Tipo F101 Colombo V12 that underwent many changes through the years. It was a head and block, four overhead cams. The transmission was conventionally coupled directly to the engine, as on the GTC/4, brakes were discs on all four wheels. In 1972, just a year after the launch of the GTC/4, a new 2+2 debuted at the Paris Motor Show, the name refers to the single cylinder displacement, four overhead camshafts and seat configuration. Most of the mechanicals, including the 4,390.35 cc engine, were carried over from its predecessor, the V12 used six side-draft Weber 38 DCOE 59/60 carburetors and produced 340 PS at 6200 rpm.
The gearbox was a five-speed, all-synchromesh manual with a single-plate clutch, five-spoke alloy wheels were mounted on Rudge knock-off hubs, Borrani wire wheels were still offered at extra cost. Fittingly for a grand tourer, standard equipment included leather upholstery, electric windows. The GT4 was replaced in 1976 by the identical looking Ferrari 400. At the 1976 Paris Motor Show Ferrari unveiled the replacement for the 365 GT4 2+2, the new 400 was offered in two models,400 Automatic, using a GM THM400 3-speed automatic transmission, and 400 GT, using a five-speed transmission
Ferrari 612 Scaglietti
The Ferrari 612 Scaglietti is a 2+2 coupé grand tourer produced by Ferrari between 2004 and 2010. The 612 Scaglietti was designed to replace the smaller 456 M, the design, especially the large side scallops and the headlights, pays homage to the custom 1954 Ferrari 375 MM that director Roberto Rossellini had commissioned for his wife, Ingrid Bergman. The 612 is Ferraris second all-aluminium vehicle, the first being the 360 Modena and its space frame, developed with Alcoa, is made from extrusions and castings of the material, and the aluminium body is welded on. The chassis of the 612 forms the basis of the 599 GTB, the 612 Scaglietti shares its engine with the Ferrari 575 Superamerica. The engine has compression ratio of 11,1 and it has a top speed of 320 km/h and has a 0–100 km/h acceleration time of 4.2 seconds. The 612 comes with 6-speed manual or the 6-speed F1A semi-automatic paddle shift system, the 612 was produced at Ferraris Carrozzeria Scaglietti plant, the former home of the cars namesake coachbuilder in Modena, Italy.
It was taken down the road to the Maranello factory, the Ferrari 612 was replaced by the Ferrari FF in 2011. This may render the vehicle inoperable and possibly result in a crash, the 612 Sessanta is a limited version commemorating 60th anniversary of the company. It includes HGTC package, Blu Cornes coloured body, a carbon fiber filler cap and it has a MSRP of 33,980,000 Yen. The 612 Kappa is a built for Peter S. Kalikow. The GG50 was a car developed by Italdesign-Giugiaro S. P. A design studio. The vehicle was unveiled in 2006 NAIAS and it has a MSRP of £200,411 including a four-year warranty. The vehicle began its relay at the UK on 18 May 2007,612 OTO F1- Mid 2008 to 2010 demonstrated a revised second generation 612 similar to revisions Ferrari typically makes during their product life cycles. The HGT2 package option gave the 612 a sport and suspension package similar to the HGTE package offered on 599s and its said that less than 50 are circulating within the U. S. market. Total production,3025 Ferrari 612 Scaglietti in police livery for Ferraris 60th Anniversary relay Special 30th Anniversary edition for Japan Ferrari 60th Anniversary Version
The Ferrari 275 is a series of two-seat front-engined V12-powered automobiles produced in GT, and spyder form by Ferrari between 1964 and 1968. The first Ferrari to be equipped with a transaxle, the 275 is powered by a 3.3 L Colombo 60° V12 engine that produces 280-300 hp, Pininfarina designed the GT and roadster bodies, Scaglietti the rare NART Spyder, among the most valuable of all Ferraris made. In a contemporary road test, Road & Track described it as the most satisfying car in the world. Motor Trend Classic named the 275 GTB gran turismo/GTS roadster as number three in their list of the ten Greatest Ferraris of all time, the 275 GTB/4 debuted in 1966. A much updated 275 GTB, the four overhead camshaft, six 2-barrel carbuerated 275 GTB/4 was named number seven on Sports Car Internationals 2004 list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s. The 275 GTB was a gran turismo automobile produced between 1964 and 1968 with a 3.3 litre Colombo 60-degree V-12 engine displacing 275 cc per cylinder. The standard 275 GTB coupe was produced by Scaglietti and was available with 3 or 6 Weber twin-choke carburettors and it was more of a pure sports car than the GT name suggested.
Some cars were built with a body instead of the standard steel body. A Series Two version with a longer nose appeared in 1965, for the 1965 racing season,4 lightweight 275 GTB Competizione Speciales, a prototype and three production models, were built and equipped with 250 LM engines. The design was by Pininfarina and the coachwork by Scaglietti, mauro Forghieri designed a special super-lightweight steel and aluminium version of the 275 GTB chassis. A regular suspension was fitted, but it was slightly stiffer by the addition of extra springs. In all, this focus on saving weight made a difference of over 150 kg compared to the alloy bodied road cars, like the four Competizione Speciales, the 275 GTB/C was powered by the 250 LM engine. Somehow Ferrari forgot to mention to the body that the 275 GTB had a six carburetor option. Specifically for the 275 GTB/C, Weber constructed the 40 DF13 carburetor of which three would replace the six 38 DCNs found on the 250 LM, the rest of the drivetrain was similar to the 275 GTB, but strengthened slightly.
Two of the twelve built were sold for street use, unlike the race cars, these street cars were fitted with alloy wheels shod with Pirelli tires. Competition cars were fitted with special Borrani wire wheels, shod with Dunlops latest racing tires and it was this combination that would prove to be the weak spot of the 275 GTB/C, the tires had so much grip that they could overstress and break the spokes on the wheels. After the 275 GTB/C, no competition Ferrari would be fitted with wire wheels again, a British-entered 275 GTB/C finished 8th overall, gaining class victory in the 196624 Hours of Le Mans. Pininfarina built 200275 GTS roadsters for the American market between 1964-1966 with entirely different bodywork, the 275 GTS was replaced by the 330 GTS, leaving no 3.3 L convertible in the range until the creation of the 275 GTB/4 NART Spider
Ferrari Berlinetta Boxer
A Ferrari Berlinetta Boxer is one of a series of cars produced by Ferrari in Italy between 1973 and 1984. They used a mid-mounted flat-12 engine, replacing the FR layout Daytona and it was designed by Leonardo Fioravanti. The Boxer was the very first mid-engined road-car to bear the Ferrari name, no BB was ever originally sold in North America, as Enzo did not believe it to be worth the cost of complying with the extra environmental and safety regulations. However, third parties made conversions, and quite a few of them are now in the United States, production of the BB was a major step for Enzo Ferrari. He felt that a road car would be too difficult for his buyers to handle. This attitude began to change as the marque lost its dominance in the late 1950s to mid-engined competitors. The mid-engined 6- and 8-cylinder Dino racing cars were the result, the company moved its V12 engines to the rear with its P and LM racing cars, but the Daytona was launched with its engine in front. It was not until 1970 that a mid-engined 12-cylinder road car would appear, the first Boxer was the 365 GT4 BB shown at the 1971 Turin Motor Show.
Designed to rival the Lamborghini Miura and the newly developed Lamborghini Countach,387 were built, of which 88 were right-hand drive, making it the rarest of all Berlinetta Boxers. The Pininfarina-designed body followed the P6 show car with popup headlights, though it shared its numerical designation with the Daytona, the Boxer was radically different. It was a car like the Dino, and the now flat-12 engine was mounted longitudinally rather than transversely. It has 380 hp which is slightly higher than the Daytona. The engine shared its dimensions with the V12 from the Daytona. One major difference in engine was its use of timing belts rather than chains. Although referred to as a Boxer, the 180° V12 was not a boxer engine. The 365 GT4 BB was updated as the BB512 in 1976, the name 512 referred to the cars 5 liter,12 cylinder engine, a deviation from Ferraris established practice of naming 12-cylinder road cars after their cylinder displacement. The engine was enlarged to 4943.04 cc, with a compression ratio of 9.2,1.
Power was slightly down to 360 hp, while a dual plate clutch handled the added torque, dry sump lubrication prevented oil starvation in hard cornering