Grand Canal (Venice)
The Grand Canal is a channel in Venice, Italy. It forms one of the major water-traffic corridors in the city. One end of the canal leads into the lagoon near the Santa Lucia railway station and the other end leads into the basin at San Marco, it is 3.8 km long, 30 to 90 m wide, with an average depth of 5 metres. The banks of the Grand Canal are lined with more than 170 buildings, most of which date from the 13th to the 18th century, demonstrate the welfare and art created by the Republic of Venice; the noble Venetian families faced huge expenses to show off their richness in suitable palazzos. Amongst the many are the Palazzi Barbaro, Ca' Rezzonico, Ca' d'Oro, Palazzo Dario, Ca' Foscari, Palazzo Barbarigo and to Palazzo Venier dei Leoni, housing the Peggy Guggenheim Collection; the churches along the canal include the basilica of Santa Maria della Salute. Centuries-old traditions, such as the Historical Regatta, are perpetuated every year along the Canal; because most of the city's traffic goes along the Canal rather than across it, only one bridge crossed the canal until the 19th century, the Rialto Bridge.
There are three more bridges, the Ponte degli Scalzi, the Ponte dell'Accademia, the controversial Ponte della Costituzione from 2008, designed by Santiago Calatrava, connecting the train station to Piazzale Roma, one of the few places in Venice where buses and cars can enter. As was usual in the past, people can still take a ferry ride across the canal at several points by standing up on the deck of a simple gondola called a traghetto, although this service is less common than a decade ago. Most of the palaces emerge from water without pavement. One can only tour past the fronts of the buildings on the grand canal by boat; the Grand Canal follows the course of an ancient river flowing into the lagoon. Adriatic Veneti groups lived beside the formerly-named "Rio Businiacus" before the Roman age, they relied on fishing and commerce. Under the rule of the Roman empire and of the Byzantine empire the lagoon became populated and important, in the early 9th century the doge moved his seat from Malamocco to the safer "Rivoaltus".
Increasing trade followed the doge and found in the deep Grand Canal a safe and ship accessible canal-port. Drainage reveals that the city became more compact over time: at that time the Canal was wider and flowed between small, tide-subjected islands connected by wooden bridges. Along the Canal, the number of "fondaco" houses increased, buildings combining the warehouse and the merchant's residence. A portico facilitates the ships' unloading. From the portico a corridor flanked by storerooms reaches a posterior courtyard. On the first floor a loggia as large as the portico illuminates the hall into which open the merchant's rooms; the façade is thereby divided into two more solid sides. A low mezzanine with offices divides the two floors; the fondaco house had lateral defensive towers, as in the Fondaco dei Turchi. With the German warehouse, the Fondaco dei Tedeschi, it reflects the high number of foreign merchants working in Venice, where the republic supplied them with storerooms and lodging and controlled their trading activity.
More public buildings were built along the Canal at Rialto: palaces for commercial and financial Benches and a mint. In 1181 Nicolò Barattieri constructed a pontoon bridge connecting Rialto to Mercerie area, replaced by a wooden bridge with shops on it. Warehouses for flour and salt were more peripheral. From the Byzantine empire, goods arrived together with sculptures, friezes and capitals to decorate the fondaco houses of patrician families; the Byzantine art merged with previous elements resulting in a Venetian-Byzantine style. Along the Grand Canal, these elements are well preserved in Ca' Farsetti, Ca' Loredan and Ca' da Mosto, all dating back to the 12th or 13th century. During this period Rialto had an intense building development, determining the conformation of the Canal and surrounding areas; as a matter of fact, in Venice building materials are precious and foundations are kept: in the subsequent restorations, existing elements will be used again, mixing the Venetian-Byzantine and the new styles.
Polychromy, three-partitioned façades, diffuse openings, rooms disposition formed a particular architectural taste that continued in the future. The Fourth Crusade, with the loot obtained from the sack of Constantinople, other historical situations, gave Venice an Eastern influence until the late 14th century. Venetian Gothic architecture found favor quite late, as a splendid flamboyant Gothic beginning with the southern façade of the Doge's Palace; the verticality and the illumination characterizing the Gothic style are found in the porticos and loggias of fondaco houses: columns get thinner, elongated arches are replaced by pointed or ogee or lobed ones. Porticos rise intertwining and drawing open marbles in quatrefoils or similar figures. Façades were plastered in brilliant col
Victor Emmanuel III of Italy
Victor Emmanuel III was the King of Italy from 29 July 1900 until his abdication on 9 May 1946. In addition, he held the thrones of Ethiopia and Albania as Emperor of Ethiopia and King of the Albanians. During his reign of nearly 46 years, which began after the assassination of his father Umberto I, the Kingdom of Italy became involved in two world wars, his reign encompassed the birth and fall of Italian Fascism. During World War I, Victor Emmanuel III accepted the resignation of Prime Minister Paolo Boselli and named Vittorio Emanuele Orlando in his place. Following the March on Rome, he appointed Benito Mussolini as Prime Minister and deposed him in 1943 during World War II. Victor Emmanuel abdicated his throne in 1946 in favour of his son Umberto II, hoping to strengthen support for the monarchy against an successful referendum to abolish it, he went into exile to Alexandria, where he died and was buried the following year. His remains were returned in 2017 to rest in Italy, following an agreement between Italian President Sergio Mattarella and Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi.
He was called by the Italians Sciaboletta due to his height of 1.53 m, or Il Re soldato for having led his country during both the world wars. Victor Emmanuel was born in Italy, he was the only child of Umberto I, King of Italy, his consort, Princess Margherita of Savoy. Margherita was the daughter of the Duke of Genoa. Unlike his paternal first cousin's son, the 1.98 m tall Amedeo, 3rd Duke of Aosta, Victor Emmanuel was short of stature by 19th-century standards, to the point that today he would appear diminutive. He was just 1.53 m tall. From birth until his accession, Victor Emmanuel was known by the title of the Prince of Naples. On 24 October 1896, Prince Victor Emmanuel married Princess Elena of Montenegro. On 29 July 1900, at the age of 30, Victor Emmanuel acceded to the throne upon his father's assassination; the only advice that his father Umberto gave his heir was "Remember: to be a king, all you need to know is how to sign your name, read a newspaper, mount a horse". His early years showed evidence that, by the standards of the Savoy monarchy, he was a man committed to constitutional government.
Indeed though his father was killed by an anarchist, the new King showed a commitment to constitutional freedoms. Though parliamentary rule had been established in Italy, the Statuto Albertino, or constitution, granted the king considerable residual powers. For instance, he had the right to appoint the Prime Minister if the individual in question did not command majority support in the Chamber of Deputies. A shy and somewhat withdrawn individual, the King hated the day-to-day stresses of Italian politics, though the country's chronic political instability forced him to intervene on no fewer than ten occasions between 1900 and 1922 to solve parliamentary crises; when World War I began, Italy at first remained neutral, despite being part of the Triple Alliance. However, in 1915, Italy signed several secret treaties committing her to enter the war on the side of the Triple Entente. Most of the politicians opposed war and the Italian Chamber of Deputies forced Prime Minister Antonio Salandra to resign.
At this juncture, Victor Emmanuel declined Salandra's resignation and made the decision for Italy to enter the war. He was well within his rights to do so under the Statuto, which stipulated that ultimate authority for declaring war rested with the crown. Popular demonstrations in favor of the war were staged in Rome, with 200,000 gathering on 16 May 1915, in the Piazza del Popolo. However, the corrupt and disorganised war effort, the stunning loss of life suffered by the Italian army at the great defeat of Caporetto, the Post–World War I recession turned the King against what he perceived as an inefficient political bourgeoisie; the King visited the various areas of northern Italy suffering repeated strikes and mortar hits from elements of the fighting there, demonstrated considerable courage and concern in visiting many people, his wife the queen taking turns with nurses in caring for Italy's wounded. It was at this time, the period of World War I, that the King enjoyed the genuine affection of the majority of his people.
Still, during the war he received about 400 threatening letters from people of every social background working class. The economic depression which followed World War I gave rise to much extremism among Italy's sorely tried working classes; this caused the country as a whole to become politically unstable. Benito Mussolini, soon to be Italy's Fascist dictator, took advantage of this instability for his rise to power. In 1922, Mussolini led a force of his Fascist supporters on a March on Rome. Prime Minister Luigi Facta and his cabinet drafted a decree of martial law. After some hesitation the King refused to sign it, citing doubts about the ability of the army to contain the uprising. Fascist violence had been growing in intensity throughout the summer and autumn of 1922, climaxing in rumours of a possible coup. On 24 October 1922, during the Fascist congress in Naples, Mussolini announced that the Fascists would march on Rome "take by the throat our miserable ruling class". General Pietro Badoglio
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is identified as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was or desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years, the Messinian salinity crisis, before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years ago. It covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, representing 0.7 % of the global ocean surface, but its connection to the Atlantic via the Strait of Gibraltar-the narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa- is only 14 km wide. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere.
The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of 1,500 m and the deepest recorded point is 5,267 m in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia, in the south by Africa, it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southwestern coast of Turkey, is 4,000 km; the sea's average north-south length, from Croatia's southern shore to Libya, is 800 km. The sea was an important route for merchants and travellers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region; the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. The countries surrounding the Mediterranean in clockwise order are Spain, Monaco, Slovenia, Croatia and Herzegovina, Albania, Turkey, Lebanon, Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia have coastlines on the sea.
The Ancient Greeks called the Mediterranean ἡ θάλασσα or sometimes ἡ μεγάλη θάλασσα, ἡ ἡμέτερα θάλασσα, or ἡ θάλασσα ἡ καθ'ἡμᾶς. The Romans called it Mare Mare Internum and, starting with the Roman Empire, Mare Nostrum; the term Mare Mediterrāneum appears later: Solinus used it in the 3rd century, but the earliest extant witness to it is in the 6th century, in Isidore of Seville. It means'in the middle of land, inland' in Latin, a compound of medius, -āneus; the Latin word is a calque of Greek μεσόγειος, from μέσος and γήινος, from γῆ. The original meaning may have been'the sea in the middle of the earth', rather than'the sea enclosed by land'; the Carthaginians called it the "Syrian Sea". In ancient Syrian texts, Phoenician epics and in the Hebrew Bible, it was known as the "Great Sea" or as "The Sea". Another name was the "Sea of the Philistines", from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites. In Modern Hebrew, it is called HaYam HaTikhon'the Middle Sea'. In Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ'the Middle Sea'.
In Islamic and older Arabic literature, it was Baḥr al-Rūm'the Sea of the Romans' or'the Roman Sea'. At first, that name referred to only the Eastern Mediterranean, but it was extended to the whole Mediterranean. Other Arabic names were Baḥr al-šām'the Sea of Syria' and Baḥr al-Maghrib'the Sea of the West'. In Turkish, it is the Akdeniz'the White Sea'; the origin of the name is not clear, as it is not known in earlier Greek, Byzantine or Islamic sources. It may be to contrast with the Black Sea. In Persian, the name was translated as Baḥr-i Safīd, used in Ottoman Turkish, it is the origin of the colloquial Greek phrase Άσπρη Θάλασσα. Johann Knobloch claims that in Classical Antiquity, cultures in the Levant used colours to refer to the cardinal points: black referred to the north, yellow or blue to east, red to south, white to west; this would explain both the Turkish Akdeniz and the Arab nomenclature described above. Several ancient civilizations were located around the Mediterranean shores and were influenced by their proximity to the sea.
It provided routes for trade and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages. Due to the shared climate and access to the sea, c
Napoléon Bonaparte was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. He was Emperor of the French as Napoleon I from 1804 until 1814 and again in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars, he won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over much of continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history, he was born in Corsica to a modest family of Italian origin from minor nobility. He was serving as an artillery officer in the French army when the French Revolution erupted in 1789.
He rose through the ranks of the military, seizing the new opportunities presented by the Revolution and becoming a general at age 24. The French Directory gave him command of the Army of Italy after he suppressed a revolt against the government from royalist insurgents. At age 26, he began his first military campaign against the Austrians and the Italian monarchs aligned with the Habsburgs—winning every battle, conquering the Italian Peninsula in a year while establishing "sister republics" with local support, becoming a war hero in France. In 1798, he led a military expedition to Egypt, he became First Consul of the Republic. Napoleon's ambition and public approval inspired him to go further, he became the first Emperor of the French in 1804. Intractable differences with the British meant that the French were facing a Third Coalition by 1805. Napoleon shattered this coalition with decisive victories in the Ulm Campaign and a historic triumph over the Russian Empire and Austrian Empire at the Battle of Austerlitz which led to the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.
In 1806, the Fourth Coalition took up arms against him because Prussia became worried about growing French influence on the continent. Napoleon defeated Prussia at the battles of Jena and Auerstedt marched his Grande Armée deep into Eastern Europe and annihilated the Russians in June 1807 at the Battle of Friedland. France forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July 1807, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. Tilsit signified the high-water mark of the French Empire. In 1809, the Austrians and the British challenged the French again during the War of the Fifth Coalition, but Napoleon solidified his grip over Europe after triumphing at the Battle of Wagram in July. Napoleon invaded the Iberian Peninsula, hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, declared his brother Joseph Bonaparte the King of Spain in 1808; the Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support. The Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, ended in victory for the Allies against Napoleon.
The Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states Russia. The Russians were unwilling to bear the economic consequences of reduced trade and violated the Continental System, enticing Napoleon into another war; the French launched a major invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The campaign did not yield the decisive victory Napoleon wanted, it resulted in the collapse of the Grande Armée and inspired a renewed push against Napoleon by his enemies. In 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in the War of the Sixth Coalition against France. A lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, but his tactical victory at the minor Battle of Hanau allowed retreat onto French soil; the Allies invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814, forcing Napoleon to abdicate in April. He was exiled to the island of Elba off the coast of Tuscany, the Bourbon dynasty was restored to power.
Napoleon took control of France once again. The Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition which defeated him at the Battle of Waterloo in June; the British exiled him to the remote island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, where he died six years at the age of 51. Napoleon's influence on the modern world brought liberal reforms to the numerous territories that he conquered and controlled, such as the Low Countries and large parts of modern Italy and Germany, he implemented fundamental liberal policies throughout Western Europe. His Napoleonic Code has influenced the legal systems of more than 70 nations around the world. British historian Andrew Roberts states: "The ideas that underpin our modern world—meritocracy, equality before the law, property rights, religious toleration, modern secular education, sound finances, so on—were championed, consolidated and geographically extended by Napoleon. To them he added a rational and efficient local administration, an end to rural banditry, the encouragement of science and the arts, the abolition of feudalism and the greatest codification of laws since the fall of the Roman Empire".
The ancestors of Napoleon descended from minor Italian nobility of Tuscan origin who had come to Corsica fr
Tintoretto was an Italian painter and a notable exponent of the Venetian school. The speed with which he painted, the unprecedented boldness of his brushwork, were both admired and criticized by his contemporaries. For his phenomenal energy in painting he was termed Il Furioso, his work is characterised by his muscular figures, dramatic gestures and bold use of perspective, in the Mannerist style. In his youth, Tintoretto was known as Jacopo Robusti as his father had defended the gates of Padua in a way that others called robust, against the imperial troops during the War of the League of Cambrai, his real name "Comin" was discovered by Miguel Falomir of the Museo del Prado and was made public on the occasion of the retrospective of Tintoretto at the Prado in 2007. Comin translates to the spice cumin in the local language. Tintoretto was born in Venice as the eldest of 21 children, his father, was a dyer, or tintore. The family was believed to have originated from Brescia, in Lombardy part of the Republic of Venice.
Older studies gave the Tuscan town of Lucca as the origin of the family. In childhood Jacopo, a born painter, began daubing on the dyer's walls; this was around 1533, when Titian was over 40 years of age. Tintoretto had only been ten days in the studio when Titian sent him home for good, because the great master observed some spirited drawings, which he learned to be the production of Tintoretto. This, however, is mere conjecture. From this time forward the two always remained upon distant terms, though Tintoretto being indeed a professed and ardent admirer of Titian, but never a friend, Titian and his adherents turned a cold shoulder to him. There was active disparagement, but it passed unnoticed by Tintoretto; the latter studied on his own account with laborious zeal. His noble conception of art and his high personal ambition were both evidenced in the inscription which he placed over his studio Il disegno di Michelangelo ed il colorito di Tiziano, he studied more from models of Michelangelo's Dawn, Noon and Night, became expert in modelling in wax and clay method which afterwards stood him in good stead in working out the arrangement of his pictures.
The models were sometimes taken from dead subjects studied in anatomy schools. Now and afterwards he frequently worked by night as well as by day; the young painter Andrea Schiavone, four years Tintoretto's junior, was much in his company. Tintoretto helped Schiavone at no charge with wall-paintings; the two earliest mural paintings of Tintoretto—done, like others, for next to no pay—are said to have been Belshazzar's Feast and a Cavalry Fight. These have both long since perished, as have all his frescoes, later; the first work of his to attract some considerable notice was a portrait-group of himself and his brother—the latter playing a guitar—with a nocturnal effect. It was followed by some historical subject. One of Tintoretto's early pictures still extant is in the church of the Carmine in Venice, the Presentation of Jesus in the Temple. For the Scuola della Trinità he painted four subjects from Genesis. Two of these, now in the Gallerie dell'Accademia in Venice, are Adam and Eve and the Death of Abel, both noble works of high mastery, which leave us in no doubt that Tintoretto was by this time a consummate painter—one of the few who have attained to the highest eminence in the absence of any recorded formal training.
Up till 2012, The Embarkation of St Helena in the Holy Land was attributed to his contemporary Andrea Schiavone. But new analysis of the work has revealed it as one of a series of three paintings by Tintoretto, depicting the legend of St Helena And The Holy Cross; the error was uncovered during work on a project to catalogue continental European oil paintings in the UK. The Embarkation of St Helena was acquired by the V&A in 1865, its sister paintings, The Discovery Of The True Cross and St Helen Testing The True Cross, are held in galleries in the US. Towards 1546 Tintoretto painted for the church of the Madonna dell'Orto three of his leading works: the Worship of the Golden Calf, the Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple, the Last Judgment, he took the commission for two of the paintings, the Worship of the Golden Calf and the Last Judgment, on a cost only basis in order to make himself better known. He settled down in a house hard by the church, it is a Gothic building, looking over the Fondamenta de Mori, still standing.
In 1548 he was commissioned for four pictures
Michele Taddeo di Giovanni Bono, known as Giambono was an Italian painter, whose work reflected the International Gothic style with a Venetian influence. He designed the mosaics of the Birth of the Presentation in the Temple, his best known paintings are the Man of the St. Peter. Michele Taddeo di Giovanni Bono, known as Giambono was born in Venice c. 1400. His grandfather and father were painters, he was married in 1420. There is no known portrait of Giambono and little is known of his personal life, he was an artist of the International Gothic style of art prevalent in Europe during the last half of the 14th century and the early years of the 15th century and decorated frames and wood in gold and polychromy. Known for his mosaic designs located in the Mascoli Chapel, San Marco, Venice, he is now recognized as an accomplished panel painter. Giambono died in Venice in 1462; the International Gothic style is characterized by elegant and graceful figures with noble men and women wearing elaborate jewelry and richly embroidered clothes, featuring masses of curled hair and complex head pieces.
“Landscapes and architectural settings were miniaturize. Artwork of the period is typified by the use of light, bright colors gold used in “manuscripts and panel paintings and polychromed sculpture”. Giambono was active as an artist between 1420 and 1462 and was a follower of Jacobello del Fiore, Gentile da Fabriano Pisanello. Birth of the Virgin Mascoli Chapel, San Marco, Venice On the left vault in the Mascoli Chapel are two mosaics depicting the life of the Virgin, the Birth and the Presentation; the Birth panel shows “fanciful architecture, obliquely placed” similar to the backgrounds found in art work by Gentile da Fabriano. A group of people surround the infant child; the mosaic has elaborate decorative elements that give the appearance of "complexity and detailed observation". The Visitation Mascoli Chapel, San Marco, Venice On the opposite side of the vault in Mascoli Chapel the life cycle of the Virgin is continued with the Visitation and Dornition of the Virgin; the style of these two panels differs from that used in the Presentation.
As seen in the Visitation the building has several classical triangular shaped construction elements above horizontal structures with rounded arches and Corinthian capitals associated with the Florentine Renaissance style. The facades are centrally placed and symmetrical and the three-dimensional structure is realistic. St. Chrysogonus on Horseback San Trovaso, Venice In a painting representative of the International Gothic style, a youthful St. Chrysogonus wears a suit of armor and a cloak embroidered with a raised black and gold pattern while mounted on a richly-caparisoned horse; the posture and color of the white horse is highlighted by the dark green trees that serve as a background in the lower half of the picture. Above the trees, the sky is represented by gold; the emblems on the shield and the presence of angels in the top corners of the painting generates a Christian theme with the Saint in a protective role. The "tense pose of the Saint", suggested movement of the horse, the flowing shape of the pennant and cloak provides an emotional force, not seen in comparable paintings of this time period.
Virgin and Child Galleria Franchetti, Ca' d'Oro, Venice The figures are dressed in solid colors and are silhouetted against the brocaded textile in the background. The Virgin's angular facial features and serious expression contrast with the rounded features of the Christ-Child; the child is holding a goldfinch that represents a “premonition of the Passion". The richly decorated velvet background features pomegranates, a fruit “associated with blood and resurrection”. Textiles featuring pomegranate fruit in the pattern were adopted by Italians and are found in ecclesiastical and courtly depictions. Giambono was among the first Italian artists to use the iconographic meaning of these textiles in a Christian context. Portrait of a Man Palazzo Rosso, Genoa Movement: Renaissance, Theme: Portrait, Technique: Tempera and silver on wood, Size: 53 x 40 cm The painting is important as one of the few surviving examples of a Venetian portrait from the early 15th century; the unknown subject is dressed in an ornately decorated velvet robe with the neck opening lined with fur.
The man wears a doublet with a high collar worn under the robe. The dress and facial features of the man suggest the subject is not Italian, but rather a northern European, living in Venice; the portrait has been attributed to Gentile de Fabriano and Pisanello, but the generalized facial characteristics set “against a uniform bluish background are typical of Giambono's work". Polyptych of St. James Gallerie dell’Accademia, Venice The polyptych has five panels each featuring a religious saint. St. James the Greater occupies the larger central panel with St John the Evangelist and St Filippo Benizzi situated to the left, is St Michael the Archangel and St Louis of Toulouse are to the right of the central panel; the detailed figures provide a “slow semicircular rhythm” to the polyptych. Each figure is painted in bold solid colors contrasting against a gold background; the depiction of the Archangel Michael in his heavy armor decorated with gold, his pale face and mass of curls reflects the strong