The Ferrari 599 is an Italian sports car produced by Ferrari. It was the brands flagship, replacing the 575M Maranello in 2006 as a 2007 model. Styled by Pininfarina under the direction of Ferraris Frank Stephenson, the 599 GTB debuted at the Geneva Motor Show in February 2006 and it is named for its total engine displacement, Gran Turismo Berlinetta nature, and the Fiorano Circuit test track used by Ferrari. The Tipo F140 C6.0 L V12 engine produces a maximum 620 PS and its 608 N·m of torque was a record for Ferraris GT cars. Most of the modifications to the engine were done to allow it to fit in the Fioranos engine bay, a traditional 6-speed manual transmission as well as Ferraris 6-speed called F1 SuperFast is offered. The Fiorano sees the debut of Ferraris new traction control system, the vast majority of the 599 GTBs have been equipped with the semi-automatic gearbox as opposed to the manual 6-speed gearbox. Only 30 examples have been produced with a manual gearbox of which 20 were destined to the United States and 10 remained in Europe.
0-100 km/h in 3.7 seconds 0-200 km/h in 11.0 seconds Top speed, the ride height has been lowered, which lowers the cars center of gravity. The package includes optimised tyres featuring a compound that offers improved grip, the cars electronics have changed. The gearboxs shifts are faster in high-performance settings, while new engine software improved accelerator response, the exhaust silencer was modified to produce more marked and thrilling sound under hard usage while still delivering just the right comfort levels at cruising speed. The exterior and interior were upgraded with more carbon fiber components, on 8 April 2010, Ferrari announced official details of the 599 GTO. Its engine produces 670 PS at 8250 rpm, with 620 N·m of torque at 6500 rpm, Ferrari claims the 599 GTO can reach 100 km/h in under 3.3 seconds and has a top speed of over 335 km/h. At 1,605 kilograms, the 599 GTO weighs almost 100 kg less than the standard GTB, production is limited to 599 cars. Of these, approximately 125 were produced for the United States market, Ferrari has given only two other models that used the GTO designation, the 1962250 GTO and the 1984288 GTO.
Unlike the previous GTOs however, the 599 GTO was not designed for homologation in any racing series, the convertible version of the 599, the SA Aperta, was introduced 2010 Paris Motor Show as a unique limited edition in honor of designers Sergio Pininfarina and Andrea Pininfarina. The SA Aperta used the performance engine from the 599 GTO. The 599XX is a car designed for use only and is not street legal. The rev limiter is raised to 9000 rpm, with the engine rated for 730 PS at 9000 rpm, weight is reduced by reducing the weight of the engine unit components, the use of composite materials, and the use of carbon-fiber body parts and brake pads
The Ferrari 330 was a series of V12 powered automobiles produced by Ferrari in 2+2 GT Coupé, two-seat Berlinetta and race car versions between 1963 and 1968. Production ended in 1968 with the introduction of the Ferrari 365 series, all 330 models used an evolution of the 400 Superamericas 4.0 L Colombo V12 engine. It was substantially changed, with wider spacing and an alternator replacing a generator. The 1963330 America shared the outgoing 250 GTEs chassis but not its engine, being powered by the new 4.0 L Tipo 209 V12, as for the 250-series,330 refers to the approximate displacement of each single cylinder. Socialite Sandra West is buried with her blue 330 America at the Alamo Masonic Cemetery at San Antonio, about 50330 Americas were built before being replaced by the larger 330 GT 2+2. The provisional 330 America was replaced in January 1964 by the new 330 GT 2+2 and it was first shown at the Brussels Show, early that year. It was much more than a re-engined 250, with a nose and tail, quad headlights.
The wheelbase was 50 mm longer, but Koni adjustable shock absorbers improved handling, a dual-circuit Dunlop braking system was used with discs all around, though it separated brakes front to back rather than diagonally as on modern systems. When leaving the factory the 330 GT originally fitted Pirelli Cinturato 205VR15 tyres, the 1965 Series II version featured a five-speed gearbox instead of the overdrive four-speed of the prior year. Other changes included the switch back to a dual-light instead of quad-light front clip, alloy wheels,625 Series I and 455 Series II330 GT 2+2 cars had been built when the car was replaced by the 365 GT 2+2 in 1967. Production of the smaller 330 GTC and GTS models overlapped with the GT 2+2 for more than a year, the 330 GTC and 330 GTS were more like their 275 counterparts than the 330 GT 2+2. They shared the wheelbase of the 275 as well as its independent rear suspension. These models were more refined than earlier Ferraris and easier to drive and it has been stated that this was probably the first Ferrari in which you could actually enjoy a radio.
The GTC berlinetta was introduced at the Geneva Motor Show in March,1966 and it was a two-seater coupé with a Pininfarina-designed body. A1967 GTC was given one-off bodywork by Zagato at the behest of American importer Luigi Chinetti in 1974 and this car was called the Zagato Convertibile, since it was of a targa-style. The GTS spider followed at the Paris Motor Show, about 600 coupés and 100 spiders were produced before the 1968 introduction of the 365 GTC and GTS. Four 330 Le Mans Berlinettas were built in 1963, first presented in March 1963 alongside the mid-engined 250 P, they were essentially a development of the 250 GTOs and fitted with the 4-litre 330 engine, here rated at 390 hp at 7,500 rpm. Although the front is similar to the 250 GTOs, the main structure came from the 250 Lusso
Ferrari 575M Maranello
The Ferrari 575M Maranello is a two-seat, two-door, grand tourer built by Ferrari. Launched in 2002, it is essentially an updated 550 Maranello featuring minor styling changes from Pininfarina, the 575M was replaced by the 599 GTB in the first half of 2006. Two six-speed transmissions were available, a manual gearbox and, for the first time on a Ferrari V12. The model number refers to engine displacement in litres, whilst the M is an abbreviation of modificato. For 2005, the company developed a new GTC handling package and Superamerica version, configuration, 65° V12 engine Displacement,5.2 seconds 0–400 m,12.25 seconds 0-1,000 m,21. The new brakes were based on the companys Formula One technology and they used 15.7 in discs with six-piston calipers in front and 14.2 in discs with four-piston calipers in the rear. Patented Revocromico roof incorporates carbon fibre structure that is hinged on the axis with a luggage compartment lid. With the roof open the window, apart for holding the third stop light.
This roof design was used on 2001-designed Vola by Leonardo Fioravanti. The Superamerica used the tune of the V-12 engine, F133 G, rated at 533 hp and Ferrari marketed it as the worlds fastest convertible. The GTC handling package was optional, a total of 559 Superamericas were built, this number followed Enzo Ferraris philosophy that there should always be one fewer car available than what the market demanded. A special 575M was built by Zagato for Japanese Ferrari collector Yoshiyuki Hayashi, in 2003, Ferrari announced the sale of several 575M-based racing cars, known as the 575 GTC. Following the success of Prodrive in running the Ferrari 550, Ferrari wished to offer their own racing car to customers, used primarily in the FIA GT Championship, the 575 GTCs managed to take a single win in their first season, followed by another lone win in 2004. Unfortunately the 575 GTCs were not as capable as the Prodrive-built 550 GTSs, and would fall from use by the end of 2005
The Ferrari 250 is a sports car built by Ferrari from 1953 to 1964. The companys most successful line, the 250 series included several variants. It was replaced by the 275 and the 330, most 250 road cars share the same two wheelbases,2,400 mm for short wheelbase and 2,600 mm for long wheelbase. Most convertibles used the SWB type, nearly all 250s share the same Colombo Tipo 125 V12 engine. At 2,953 cc, it was notable for its weight and impressive output of up to 300 PS in the Testa Rossa. The V12 weighed hundreds of less than its chief competitors — for example. Ferrari uses the displacement of a cylinder as the model designation. The light V12 propelled the small Ferrari 250 racing cars to numerous victories, typical of Ferrari, the Colombo V12 made its debut on the race track, with the racing 250s preceding the street cars by three years. The first 250 was the experimental 250 S berlinetta prototype entered in the 1952 Mille Miglia for Giovanni Bracco, the car was entered at Le Mans and in the Carrera Panamericana.
The 250 S used a 2,250 mm wheelbase with a Tuboscocca tubular trellis frame, suspension was by double wishbones at the front, with double longitudinal semi-elliptic springs locating the live axle at the rear. The car had the drum brakes and worm-and-sector steering typical of the period, the dry-sump 3.0 L engine used three Weber 36DCF carburettors and was mated directly to a five-speed manual transmission. Following the success of the 250 S in the Mille Miglia, Pinin Farina created coupé bodywork which had a small grille, compact tail and panoramic rear window, and the new car was launched as the 250 MM at the 1953 Geneva Motor Show. Carrozzeria Vignales open barchetta version was a design whose recessed headlights. The 250 MMs wheelbase was longer than the 250 S at 2,400 mm, the V12 engines dry sump was omitted from the production car, and the transmission was reduced by one gear. Power was increased to 240 PS, the four-cylinder 625 TF and 735 S replaced the V12-powered 250 MM in 1953. The 250 MMs race debut was at the 1953 Giro di Sicilia with privateer Paulo Marzotto, a Carrozzeria Morelli-bodied 250 MM barchetta driven by Clemente Biondetti came fourth in the 1954 Mille Miglia.
The 1954250 Monza was and unusual hybrid of the light four-cylinder 750 Monza, the model used the 250 engine in the short-wheelbase chassis from the 750 Monza. The first two used the Pininfarina barchetta shape of the 750 Monza and a one-off 500 Mondial, two more 250 Monzas were built by Carrozzeria Scaglietti, an early use of the now-familiar coachbuilder
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
The Ferrari F12berlinetta is a front mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive grand tourer produced by Italian sports car manufacturer Ferrari. The F12berlinetta, debuted at the 2012 Geneva Motor Show, replaces the 599 series grand tourers. The naturally aspirated 6.3 litre Ferrari V12 engine in the F12berlinetta has won the International Engine of the Year Awards 2013 in the Best Performance category, the F12berlinetta was named The Supercar of the Year 2012 by car magazine Top Gear. In 2014 it was awarded the XXIII Premio Compasso doro ADI, accepting the award was Ferrari’s Senior Vice President of Design, Flavio Manzoni. The F12berlinetta uses a 6,262 cc, naturally aspirated 65° V12 engine of the Ferrari F140 engine family. This allows the F12berlinetta to accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h in an officially reported 3.1 seconds,0 to 200 km/h in 8.5 seconds and a top speed of 211 mph. The engine of the F12berlinetta has been designed to be more efficient than that of the 599, the engine management system is fitted with Ferraris HELE start-stop system to reduce fuel consumption when idling.
Ferrari reports that the F12berlinetta can achieve 18 mpg‑imp – a 30% improvement over the 599 –, compared to similar models, the F12berlinetta uses shortened gear ratios to match the power of the engine. The F12berlinetta is built around a space frame chassis co-developed with Scaglietti. The chassis is made up of 12 different aluminium alloys and improves structural rigidity by 20% over the 599, the centre of gravity has been lowered by around 25 mm. The F12berlinettas weight distribution is 48% front, 52% rear, the cars stability and traction control and other settings are controlled by the Manettino dial mounted on the steering wheel. The F12berlinetta is fitted with Michelin Pilot Super Sport tyres, with the tyre codes 255/35 ZR20 at the front, the F12berlinetta makes use of aerodynamic techniques based on Ferraris 599XX and Formula One programmes, developed with wind tunnel and CFD testing. A notable feature is the Aero Bridge, an air channel running from the bonnet, through the flanks and along the sides of the vehicle, creating an effect that increases downforce.
Another feature is Active Brake Cooling ducts, which open to cooling air only when the brakes are hot. The F12berlinetta produces 123 kg of downforce at 200 km/h – an increase of 76% over the 599 GTB – and has a coefficient of 0.299. Ferrari F12berlinetta has a power to weight ratio of 2.06 kg per horsepower, the body of the F12berlinetta is designed by the Ferrari Styling Centre and Pininfarina, and shares some styling elements with other recent Ferrari models. This includes a front grille similar to the FF and headlights shared with the FF and 458 Italia, the interior, based on the FF, features new Frau leather upholstery with aluminium and carbon fibre trim, and has increased luggage space compared to the 599. The body computer system is developed by Magneti Marelli Automotive Lighting, Ferrari revealed a lightweight, track-focused version of the F12berlinetta in October 2015
Ferrari 612 Scaglietti
The Ferrari 612 Scaglietti is a 2+2 coupé grand tourer produced by Ferrari between 2004 and 2010. The 612 Scaglietti was designed to replace the smaller 456 M, the design, especially the large side scallops and the headlights, pays homage to the custom 1954 Ferrari 375 MM that director Roberto Rossellini had commissioned for his wife, Ingrid Bergman. The 612 is Ferraris second all-aluminium vehicle, the first being the 360 Modena and its space frame, developed with Alcoa, is made from extrusions and castings of the material, and the aluminium body is welded on. The chassis of the 612 forms the basis of the 599 GTB, the 612 Scaglietti shares its engine with the Ferrari 575 Superamerica. The engine has compression ratio of 11,1 and it has a top speed of 320 km/h and has a 0–100 km/h acceleration time of 4.2 seconds. The 612 comes with 6-speed manual or the 6-speed F1A semi-automatic paddle shift system, the 612 was produced at Ferraris Carrozzeria Scaglietti plant, the former home of the cars namesake coachbuilder in Modena, Italy.
It was taken down the road to the Maranello factory, the Ferrari 612 was replaced by the Ferrari FF in 2011. This may render the vehicle inoperable and possibly result in a crash, the 612 Sessanta is a limited version commemorating 60th anniversary of the company. It includes HGTC package, Blu Cornes coloured body, a carbon fiber filler cap and it has a MSRP of 33,980,000 Yen. The 612 Kappa is a built for Peter S. Kalikow. The GG50 was a car developed by Italdesign-Giugiaro S. P. A design studio. The vehicle was unveiled in 2006 NAIAS and it has a MSRP of £200,411 including a four-year warranty. The vehicle began its relay at the UK on 18 May 2007,612 OTO F1- Mid 2008 to 2010 demonstrated a revised second generation 612 similar to revisions Ferrari typically makes during their product life cycles. The HGT2 package option gave the 612 a sport and suspension package similar to the HGTE package offered on 599s and its said that less than 50 are circulating within the U. S. market. Total production,3025 Ferrari 612 Scaglietti in police livery for Ferraris 60th Anniversary relay Special 30th Anniversary edition for Japan Ferrari 60th Anniversary Version
Ferrari 250 GT Lusso
The Ferrari 250 GT Berlinetta Lusso is a GT car which was manufactured by Italian automaker Ferrari from 1963 to 1964. Sometimes known as the GTL, GT/L or just Lusso, it is larger, the 250 GT Lusso, which was not intended to compete in sports car racing, is considered to be one of the most elegant Ferraris. Keeping in line with the Ferrari tradition of that time, the 250 GT Lusso was designed by the Turinese coachbuilder Pininfarina, although the interior was more spacious than that of the 250 GT, the 250 GT Lusso remained a two-seat GT coupe, unlike the 250 GTE. The car was manufactured for only eighteen months, from early 1963 to mid 1964, auto shows often provide an opportunity for manufacturers to introduce new designs publicly. Ferrari did so at the 1962 Paris Motor Show to unveil, as a prototype, the prototype was almost identical to the production version, and only minor details changed thereafter. The new model was a way for Ferrari to fill a void left between the sporty 250 GT SWB and the luxurious 250 GTE 2+2, the Lusso met the new demands of the 1960s.
Indeed, fans of sporting driving of the time became as fond of civilized designs, Ferrari did not skimp on details in the GTL, which shows on the scales, weight ranged from 1,020 to 1,310 kg, depending on equipment. Unusually brief for a Ferrari model, GTLs production began January 1963, according to a longstanding American expert on Ferrari, Peter Coltrin, the construction of the 250 GT Lusso must have begun soon after the presentation of the prototype of the Paris Motor Show. Although it was not intended to compete, the 250 GT Lusso made a few appearances in several sporting events in 1964 and 1965, such as the Targa Florio and the Tour de France. The final iteration of the 250 GT series,351 copies of GT Lusso were produced before being replaced by the Ferrari 275 GTB, as usual, the company Carrozzeria Scaglietti was responsible for the manufacturing of the body. The body was made of steel with the exception of the doors, boot lid, and bonnet, the stern of the body featured a small integrated spoiler, the 250 GTL became the first Ferrari to incorporate such aerodynamic appendages, concluding with an abrupt Kammback rear.
The short rear is characterized by a bezel that slopes down to the tail of the car, the glazed surfaces, including the rear window and triangular quarter windows, provided good visibility. As the car was only a two-seater, there was a fairly capacious boot space with a parcel shelf, while 250 GT Lusso was a civilized sport car, it was nevertheless recommended in preference to young and flexible passengers due to the fixed-position seatbacks. Despite this, the pedals were adjustable to 5 cm, as in the racing versions, five additional gauges were positioned in front of the driver, behind the three-spoke Nardi steering wheel made of wood and aluminum, placed almost vertically. Contrary to the 250 GTE 2+2 which had a wheelbase of 2.6 m, the chassis was adopted from the tubular structure of the 250 GTO, but with narrower tubes. The chassis could, according to Brian Laban, author of Ferrarissime, braking was provided by four-wheel disc brakes with hydraulic control, placed behind the polished aluminum Borrani wire wheels with single knockoffs.
Hosted by the V12 engine Colombo, it had a displacement of 2,953.21 cc, the 250 GT Lusso developed an output of 240 hp at 7,500 rpm and 242 N·m torque at 5,500 rpm. It was able attain a speed of 240 km/h, thus becoming the fastest passenger car of that period
Michael Schumacher is a German retired racing driver. He is a seven-time Formula One World Champion and is regarded as one of the greatest Formula One drivers of all time. He was named Laureus World Sportsman of the Year twice and he won two titles with Benetton in 1994 and 1995 before moving to Ferrari where he drove for eleven years. His time with Ferrari yielded five consecutive titles between 2000 and 2004, Schumacher holds many of Formula Ones driver records, including most championships, race victories, fastest laps, pole positions and races won in a single season –13 in 2004. In 2002, he became the driver in Formula One history to finish in the top three in every race of a season and also broke the record for most consecutive podium finishes. According to the official Formula One website, he is statistically the greatest driver the sport has ever seen, after beginning in karting, Schumacher won the German drivers championships in Formula König and Formula Three before joining Mercedes in the World Sportscar Championship.
In 1991, his Mercedes-funded race debut for the Jordan Formula One team resulted in Schumacher being signed by Benetton Formula One team as their driver for the rest of that season. Establishing himself as a top driver, finishing third in 1992 and fourth in 1993, in 1995 he repeated the success, this time with a greater margin. Schumacher moved to Ferrari in 1996, Schumacher came close to winning the 1997 and 1998 titles, before breaking his leg at the 1999 British Grand Prix, ending another title run. Things came good for Schumacher who won five consecutive drivers titles from 2000 to 2004. Schumacher retired from Formula One driving in 2006 staying with Ferrari as an advisor and he came close to an eighth title that year, but due to technical problems in the final two races he fell short to Fernando Alonso. Schumacher agreed to return for Ferrari part-way through 2009, as cover for the badly injured Felipe Massa, Schumacher returned to Formula One on a permanent basis from 2010 with the Mercedes team before retiring for a second time at the conclusion of the 2012 season.
Off the track, Schumacher is an ambassador for UNESCO and a spokesman for driver safety and he has been involved in numerous humanitarian efforts throughout his life and donated tens of millions of dollars to charity. In December 2013, Schumacher suffered a head injury while skiing. He was airlifted to a hospital and placed in an induced coma. He was in the coma for six months from 29 December 2013 until 16 June 2014 and he left the hospital in Grenoble for further rehabilitation at the University Hospital in Lausanne. On 9 September 2014, Schumacher was relocated to his home where he continues to receive medical treatment, Schumacher was born in Hürth, North Rhine-Westphalia, to Rolf Schumacher, a bricklayer, and his wife Elisabeth. When Schumacher was four, his father modified his pedal kart by adding a small motorcycle engine, when Schumacher crashed it into a lamp post in Kerpen, his parents took him to the karting track at Kerpen-Horrem, where he became the youngest member of the karting club
The Ferrari 360 is a two-seater sports car built by Ferrari from 1999 to 2005. It succeeded the Ferrari F355 and was replaced by the Ferrari F430 and it is a mid-engined, rear wheel drive V8-powered coupe. Ferrari partnered with Alcoa to produce a new all aluminium space-frame chassis that was 40% stiffer than the F355 which had utilized steel. The design was 28% lighter despite a 10% increase in overall dimensions, along with a lightweight frame the new Pininfarina body styling deviated from traditions of the previous decades sharp angles and flip-up headlights. The new V8 engine, common to all versions, utilizes a 3.6 litre capacity, flat plane crankshaft, titanium connecting rods and generates 395 bhp. Despite what looks like on paper modest gains in reality the power to weight ratio was improved on over the F355. According to Ferrari weight was reduced by 60 kg and the 0 to 100 km/h acceleration performance improved from 4.7 to 4.5 seconds, the 360 Modena press car was ludicrously quick and sounded more like Schumachers weekend wheels than a street car.
But the other cars were different, when Car and Driver tested a F360 it proved heavier and slower than its predecessor five years before. There were 8,800 Modenas and 7,565 Spiders produced worldwide, there were 4,199 built for the US market,1,810 Modenas and 2,389 Spiders. Of those numbers there were only 469 Modenas and 670 Spiders that were produced with a gated 6 speed manual transmission as opposed to the automated F1 single clutch transmission. In addition to there were the low volume factory race cars. The first up was the 360 Modena Challenge, used in a one make series, the N-GT was a 360 Challenge car evolved even further to compete more seriously in the FIA N-GT racing classes alongside other marques such as Porsche. A single 360 Barchetta was produced as a wedding present from Ferrari to former Ferrari president Luca di Montezemolo. The first model of the 360 to be shipped was the Modena, named after the town of Modena and its six-speed gearbox is available as a manual, or an F1 electrohydraulic manual.
The 360 Modena went into production in 1999 and remained in production until 2005 when it was replaced by the F430, the Modena was followed two years by the 360 Spider, Ferraris 20th road-going convertible which at launch overtook sales of the Modena. Other than weight, the Spiders specifications matched those of the Modena almost exactly, the Challenge Stradale was a addition to the line-up, the finale model before replacement. It was essentially a lightened, factory tuned version of the Modena with many of the Modenas optional extras becoming standard, carbon seats, racing exhaust, carbon engine bay, and so on. Famously at the time Ferrari claimed it dropped up to 110 kg over the stock Modena helping to improve its handling
Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2, 400 and 412
The Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2, Ferrari 400 and Ferrari 412 are front-engined V12 2+2 grand tourers made by Italian manufacturer Ferrari between 1972 and 1989. The three cars are related, using the same body and engine evolved over time. Following Ferrari practice, their numeric designations refer to their engines single-cylinder displacement expressed in cubic centimetres, the 365 GT4 2+2 was introduced in 1972 to replace the 365 GTC/4. It evolved into the 400, the first Ferrari available with an automatic transmission, in 1979 the 400 was replaced by the fuel injected 400 i. The improved 412 ran from 1985 to 1989, bringing to an end Ferraris longest-ever production series, however, entered as grey imports. Ferrari turned to frequent styling partner Leonardo Fioravanti at Pininfarina, whose design for the 365 GT4 2+2 was a clear departure from its fastback predecessor. It followed Fioravantis Ferrari 365 GTB/4 Daytona as the second Ferrari to feature the characteristic swage line dividing the body into upper and lower halves, various coachbuilders, such as Carrozzeria Pavesi and Straman, offered convertible conversions of the 400 series.
Switzerlands Felber showed a shooting brake version on 400 GT basis called the Felber Croisette at the 1981 Geneva Salon de lAuto, the tubular steel chassis was based on that of the GTC/4, but the wheelbase was lengthened 200 mm to 2,700 mm. The bodies were steel, with a floor, they were manufactured by Pininfarina at its Turin plant. Suspension consisted of double wishbones, coil springs coaxial with the shock absorbers, and anti-roll bars all around, under the bonnet there was a Tipo F101 Colombo V12 that underwent many changes through the years. It was a head and block, four overhead cams. The transmission was conventionally coupled directly to the engine, as on the GTC/4, brakes were discs on all four wheels. In 1972, just a year after the launch of the GTC/4, a new 2+2 debuted at the Paris Motor Show, the name refers to the single cylinder displacement, four overhead camshafts and seat configuration. Most of the mechanicals, including the 4,390.35 cc engine, were carried over from its predecessor, the V12 used six side-draft Weber 38 DCOE 59/60 carburetors and produced 340 PS at 6200 rpm.
The gearbox was a five-speed, all-synchromesh manual with a single-plate clutch, five-spoke alloy wheels were mounted on Rudge knock-off hubs, Borrani wire wheels were still offered at extra cost. Fittingly for a grand tourer, standard equipment included leather upholstery, electric windows. The GT4 was replaced in 1976 by the identical looking Ferrari 400. At the 1976 Paris Motor Show Ferrari unveiled the replacement for the 365 GT4 2+2, the new 400 was offered in two models,400 Automatic, using a GM THM400 3-speed automatic transmission, and 400 GT, using a five-speed transmission
He was widely known as il Commendatore or il Drake. In his final years he was referred to as lIngegnere or il Grande Vecchio. Ferrari was born on 18 February 1898 in Modena and his birth certificate had recorded his birth date on 20 February because a heavy snowstorm had prevented his father from reporting the birth at the local registry office. He was the younger of two children to Alfredo and Adalgisa Ferrari, after his elder sibling Alfredo Junior, Alfredo Senior was the son of a grocer from Carpi and started a workshop fabricating metal parts at the family home. Enzo grew up with formal education. At the age of 10 he witnessed Felice Nazzaros win at the 1908 Circuit di Bologna, during World War I he served in the 3rd Mountain Artillery Regiment of the Italian Army. His father Alfredo, and his brother, Alfredo Jr. died in 1916 as a result of a widespread Italian flu outbreak. Ferrari became severely sick himself in the 1918 flu pandemic and was discharged from Italian service. Following the familys carpentry business collapse, Ferrari started searching for a job in the car industry and he unsuccessfully volunteered his services to FIAT in Turin, eventually settling for a job as test-driver for C. M. N.
A car manufacturer in Milan, which rebuilt used truck bodies into small passenger cars, on November 23 of the same year, he took part in the Targa Florio but had to retire after his cars fuel tank developed a leak. The prancing horse emblem was created when Italian fighter pilot Francesco Baracca was shot down during World War I, Baracca gave Enzo Ferrari a necklace with the prancing horse on it prior to takeoff. Baracca was tragically shot down and killed, in memory of his death, Enzo Ferrari used the prancing horse to create the emblem that would become the world famous Ferrari shield. However the world first saw this emblem on an Alfa Romeo as Ferrari was still tied up with Alfa Romeo and it was not until 1947 that the shield was first seen on a Ferrari. This was the birth of Ferrari, in 1924 Ferrari won the Coppa Acerbo at Pescara, a success that encouraged Alfa Romeo to offer him a chance to race in much more prestigious competitions. Ferrari himself continued racing until 1932, before he left Alfa Romeo to found Scuderia Ferrari, despite the quality of the Scuderia drivers, the team struggled to compete with Auto Union and Mercedes.
In 1937 Alfa Romeo decided to regain control of its racing division. Unhappy with the arrangement, Ferrari left and founded Auto-Avio Costruzioni, with the outbreak of World War II in 1943, Ferraris factory was forced to undertake war production for Mussolinis fascist government. Following Allied bombing of the factory, Ferrari relocated from Modena to Maranello, at the end of the conflict, Ferrari decided to start making cars bearing his name, and founded Ferrari S. p. A. in 1947