Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina. The city is located on the shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata. The city of Buenos Aires is neither part of Buenos Aires Province nor the Provinces capital, rather, in 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province. The city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Belgrano and Flores, the 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996, Buenos Aires is considered an alpha city by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires quality of life was ranked 81st in the world and one of the best in Latin America in 2012 and it is the most visited city in South America, and the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, and is known for its preserved Spanish/European-style architecture, Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup.
Buenos Aires will host the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics and the 2018 G20 summit, Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple ethnic and religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture, the hill was known to them as Buen Ayre, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, which is adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Aragonese built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill, in 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea, the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors, especially Andalusians, venerated this image and frequently invoked the Fair Winds to aid them in their navigation, a sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
Pedro de Mendoza called the city Holy Mary of the Fair Winds, mendoza’s settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, and was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, a second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción. Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form Buenos Aires became the common usage during the 17th century, the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As. It is common as well to refer to it as B. A. or BA /ˌbiːˈeɪ/ bee-AY), while BA is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more often use the abbreviation Baires, in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516 and his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay
Avenida del Libertador
Inspired by Parisian urbanist Baron Haussmanns renowned modernization of the City of Lights, Mayor Torcuato de Alvear took office with a similar mandate in 1880. Bella Vista Street was widened and lengthened, reaching 7 km northwest into Palermo and, upon its inaugural in 1885, was renamed in honor the Mayors father, Carlos María de Alvear. A15 km thoroughfare connecting Buenos Aires to San Fernando was built in the late 1930s and was renamed in 1950. The extension was facilitated by a tunnel and by the widening of Blandengues Street, Avenida Leandro Alem at its northern end becomes Libertador Avenue at the southeast corner of San Martín Plaza. Continuing northwards along the Retiro district, it passes by the important Retiro railway terminal, past the Railway Museum, it travels under the Illia Freeway overpass and through the intersection with the massive Ninth of July Avenue. Entering the Recoleta district, the avenue affords a view of Alvear Plaza and the Recoleta Cultural Center before a fork leads to Figueroa Alcorta Avenue, the National Museum of Fine Arts is located at this junction.
Its route along both these neighborhoods is surrounded by some of the most valuable real estate in Buenos Aires. A tunnel opened in 1971 takes the avenue past the Municipal Golf Course, in Núñez, it passes by the infamous Navy Mechanics School, which housed the most important of the 340 detention centers operated by Argentinas last dictatorship in the late 1970s. The ESMA is today the National Museum of Remembrance, an underpass leads into the northern suburb of Vicente López, beginning the avenues 15 km stretch in Buenos Aires Province. The scenery of high rises and shopping areas there and in neighboring Olivos gradually blends into leafy San Isidro, Avenida del Libertador in Buenos Aires City San Fernando El túnel del tiempo Vialidad Nacional
Exposition Universelle (1889)
The Exposition Universelle of 1889 was a worlds fair held in Paris, from 6 May to 31 October 1889. It was held during the year of the 100th anniversary of the storming of the Bastille, an event considered symbolic of the beginning of the French Revolution. The 1889 Exposition covered an area of 0.96 km2, including the Champ de Mars, the Trocadéro, the quai dOrsay, a part of the Seine. Transport around the Exposition was partly provided by a 3 kilometre 600 millimetre gauge railway by Decauville and it was claimed that the railway carried 6,342,446 visitors in just six months of operation. Some of the used on this line saw service on the Chemins de Fer du Calvados. The main symbol of the Fair was the Eiffel Tower, which served as the arch to the Fair. The 1889 fair was held on the Champ de Mars in Paris, which had been the site of the earlier Paris Universal Exhibition of 1867, since the lifts had not been completed when the Exposition opened, the first visitors had to walk up to the second floor platform.
Workers had worked through the night the day before the exhibition opened to complete the construction needed to safely allow patrons to set foot upon the structure. No one other than construction personnel were allowed higher than the second floor platform, an equally significant building constructed for the fair was the Galerie des machines, designed by architect Ferdinand Dutert and engineer Victor Contamin. It was reused at the exposition of 1900 and destroyed in 1910, at 111 meters, the Galerie spanned the longest interior space in the world at the time, using a system of hinged arches made of steel or iron. Although often described as being constructed of steel, it was made of iron. There is a description, with illustrations, of the Expositions two famous buildings in the British journal Engineering. A follow-up report appears a late issue with this summation, the exhibition will be famous for four distinctive features, the 28 June issue of Engineering mentions a remarkable Great Model of the Earth created by Theodore Villard and Charles Cotard.
There were unseasonal thunderstorms in Paris during that summer of 1889, causing distress to the canopies and decoration of the exposition. The Exhibition included a building by the Paris architect Pierre-Henri Picq and this was an elaborate iron and glass structure decorated with ceramic tiles in a Byzantine-Egyptian-Romanesque style. After the Exposition the building was shipped to Fort de France and reassembled there, known as the Schoelcher Library, initially it contained the 10,000 books that Victor Schoelcher had donated to the island. Today it houses over 250,000 books and an ethnographic museum, a Negro village where 400 people were displayed constituted the major attraction. At the Exposition, the French composer Claude Debussy first heard Javanese gamelan music and this influenced some of his compositions
Academic art, or Academicism, is a style of painting and sculpture produced under the influence of European academies of art. In this context it is often called academism, Lart pompier, and eclecticism, in this medicean institution students learned the arti del disegno and heard lectures on anatomy and geometry. Another academy, the Accademia di San Luca, was founded about a in Rome. The Accademia di San Luca served a function and was more concerned with art theory than the Florentine one. Accademia di San Luca served as the model for the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture founded in France in 1648, and which became the Académie des beaux-arts. The Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture was founded in an effort to distinguish artists who were practicing a liberal art from craftsmen. This emphasis on the component of artmaking had a considerable impact on the subjects. This battle of styles was a conflict over whether Peter Paul Rubens or Nicolas Poussin was a model to follow. Debates occurred over whether it was better to learn art by looking at nature, academies using the French model formed throughout Europe, and imitated the teachings and styles of the French Académie.
In England, this was the Royal Academy, one effect of the move to academies was to make training more difficult for women artists, who were excluded from most academies until the last half of the 19th century. This was partly because of concerns over the propriety of life classes with nude models, special arrangements were often made for female students until the 20th century. Since the onset of the debate, many artists worked between the two styles. In the 19th century, in the form of the debate, the attention. One artist after another was claimed by critics to have achieved the synthesis, among them Théodore Chassériau, Ary Scheffer, Francesco Hayez, Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps, and Thomas Couture. William-Adolphe Bouguereau, an academic artist, commented that the trick to being a good painter is seeing color. Another development during this period included adopting historical styles in order to show the era in history that the painting depicted, called historicism and this is best seen in the work of Baron Jan August Hendrik Leys, a influence on James Tissot.
Its seen in the development of the Neo-Grec style, historicism is meant to refer to the belief and practice associated with academic art that one should incorporate and conciliate the innovations of different traditions of art from the past. The art world grew to give increasing focus on allegory in art, as artists attempted to synthesize these theories in practice, the attention on the artwork as an allegorical or figurative vehicle was emphasized
Baroque painting is the painting associated with the Baroque cultural movement. Baroque art was meant to evoke emotion and passion instead of the rationality that had been prized during the Renaissance. Among the greatest painters of the Baroque period are Velázquez, Rembrandt, Poussin, Caravaggio is an heir of the humanist painting of the High Renaissance. Baroque painting often dramatizes scenes using light effects, this can be seen in works by Rembrandt, Vermeer, Le Nain. The Flemish painter Anthony van Dyck developed a graceful but imposing portrait style that was very influential, technical standards were very high, and Dutch Golden Age painting established a new repertoire of subjects that was very influential until the arrival of Modernism. The term Baroque was initially used with a meaning, to underline the excesses of its emphasis. Others derive it from the mnemonic term Baroco denoting, in logical Scholastica, in particular, the term was used to describe its eccentric redundancy and noisy abundance of details, which sharply contrasted the clear and sober rationality of the Renaissance.
He did not make the distinctions between Mannerism and Baroque that modern writers do, and he ignored the phase, the academic Baroque that lasted into the 18th century. Writers in French and English did not begin to treat Baroque as a respectable study until Wölfflins influence had made German scholarship pre-eminent. Led by Italy, Mediterranean countries, slowly followed by most of the Holy Roman Empire in Germany and Central Europe, while the Baroque nature of Rembrandts art is clear, the label is less use for Vermeer and many other Dutch artists. In France a dignified and graceful classicism gave a distinctive flavour to Baroque painting and Presence, A History of the Image before the Era of Art. Mark Getlein, Living With Art, 8th edition, the Story of Art, Phaidon,1995. ISBN 0-7148-3355-X Christine Buci-Glucksmann, Baroque Reason, The Aesthetics of Modernity, the Age of Baroque Heinrich Wölfflin,1964. Renaissance and Baroque The classic study
Delesio Antonio Berni was an Argentine figurative artist. He is associated with the movement known as Nuevo Realismo, a Latin American extension of social realism and his work, including a series of Juanito Laguna collages depicting poverty and the effects of industrialization in Buenos Aires, has been exhibited around the world. Berni was born in the city of Rosario on May 14,1905 and his mother Margarita Picco was the Argentine daughter of Italians. His father Napoleón, an immigrant tailor from Italy, died in the first World War, in 1914 Berni became the apprentice of Catalan craftsman N. Bruxadera at the Buxadera and Co. stained glass company. He studied painting at the Rosario Catalá Center where he was described as a child prodigy, in 1920 seventeen of his oil paintings were exhibited at the Salon Mari. On November 4,1923 his impressionist landscapes were praised by critics in the daily newspapers La Nación, the Jockey Club of Rosario awarded Berni a scholarship to study in Europe in 1925.
He chose to visit Spain, as Spanish painting was in vogue, particularly the art of Joaquín Sorolla, Ignacio Zuloaga, Camarasa Anglada and he attended City of Lights workshops given by André Lhote and Othon Friesz at Académie de la Grande Chaumière. Berni painted two landscapes of Arcueil, Paisaje de París, Mantel amarillo, La casa del crimen, Desnudo and he went back to Rosario for a few months but returned to Paris in 1927 with a grant from the Province of Santa Fe. A dynamic and truly representative movement and his late 1920s and early 1930s surrealist works include La Torre Eiffel en la Pampa, La siesta y su sueño, and La muerte acecha en cada esquina. He began studying revolutionary politics including the Marxist theory of Henri Lefebvre, several groups of Asian minorities lived in Paris and Berni helped distribute Asian newspapers and magazines, to which he contributed illustrations. In 1931 Berni returned to Rosario where he lived on a farm and was hired as a municipal employee. The Argentina of the 1930s was very different from the Paris of the 1920s and he witnessed labor demonstrations and the miserable effects of unemployment and was shocked by the news of a military coup détat in Buenos Aires.
Surrealism didnt convey the frustration or hopelessness of the Argentine people, Berni organized Mutualidad de Estudiantes y Artistas and became a member of the local Communist party. Instead he began painting realistic images that depicted the struggles and tensions of the Argentine people and his popular Nuevo Realismo paintings include Desocupados and Manifestación. Both were based on photographs Berni had gathered to document, as graphically as possible, as one critic noted, the quality of his work resides in the precise balance that he attained between narrative painting with strong social content and aesthetic originality. In 1941, at the request of the Comisión Nacional de Cultura, Berni traveled to Bolivia, Ecuador and his painting Mercado indígena is based on the photos he took during this trip. The artists decorated the dome of the Galerías Pacifico, the 1940s saw various revolutions and coups détat in Latin America including the ousting of Argentine President Ramón Castillo in 1943.
Berni responded with more political paintings including Masacre and El Obrero Muerto, from 1951 to 1953 Berni lived in Santiago del Estero, a province in northwestern Argentina
Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile. The region comprises the section of the Andes mountains as well as the deserts, steppes. Patagonia has two coasts, a western one towards the Pacific Ocean and an eastern one towards the Atlantic Ocean, the Colorado and Barrancas rivers, which run from the Andes to the Atlantic, are commonly considered the northern limit of Argentine Patagonia. The archipelago of Tierra del Fuego is sometimes included as part of Patagonia, most geographers and historians locate the northern limit of Chilean Patagonia at Reloncaví Estuary. The name Patagonia comes from the word used by Magellan in 1520 to describe the native people that his expedition thought to be giants. It is now believed that the people he called the Patagons were Tehuelches, the hypothesis was accepted and published in the New Review of Spanish Philology in the 2011 article. In the hollows of the plains are ponds or lakes of fresh and brackish water, towards the Andes, the shingle gives place to porphyry and basalt lavas, animal life becomes more abundant and vegetation more luxuriant.
It is characteristic of the flora of the western coast, and consist principally of southern beech and conifers. Among the depressions by which the plateau is intersected transversely, the ones are the Gualichu, south of the Río Negro, the Maquinchao and Valcheta, the Senguerr. There, erosion which is caused principally by the sudden melting, best in evidence where in contact with folded Cretaceous rocks which are uplifted by the Cenozoic granite. It generally separates the plateau from the first lofty hills, the ridges generally called the pre-Cordillera, to the west of these, a similar longitudinal depression extends all along the foot of the snowy Andean Cordillera. This latter depression contains the richest and most fertile land of Patagonia, Lake basins along the Cordillera were excavated by ice-streams, including Lake Argentino and Lake Fagnano, as well as coastal bays such as Bahía Inútil. There have been discrepancies among geologists on the origin of the Patagonian landmass, víctor Ramos has proposed that the Patagonian landmass originated as an allochtonous terrane that separated from Antarctica and docked in South America 250 to 270 Ma in the Permian era.
A2014 study by Robert John Pankhurst and coworkers reject any idea of a far-travelled Patagonia claiming it is likely of parautochtonous origin, the Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposits have revealed a most interesting vertebrate fauna. The Patagonian Myolania belongs to the Upper Chalk, having been associated with remains of Dinosauria. In the Cenozoic marine formation, a number of cetaceans has been discovered. At a state level, Patagonia lies inside two countries and Argentina, both countries have organised their Patagonian territories into non-equivalent administrative subdivisions and departments in Argentina, and regions and communes in Chile. Being a unitary state Chiles first level administrative divisions—the regions—enjoy far less autonomy than Argentine provinces, Argentine provinces have elected governors and parliaments, while Chilean regions have government-appointed intendants
Alfredo Guttero was an Argentine Modernist painter and art promoter. He displayed creative talent at an age, starting with music. Following his familys wishes, he began a career, but left it to become a painter, under the encouragement of Ernesto de la Cárcova. In 1904, he received a grant from the Argentinian government to study in Europe and lived in Paris until 1916, where he studied with Maurice Denis and participated in the Salon. Following that, he lived in Segovia and Madrid, with stays in Germany and Italy and visits to virtually every other part of Western Europe. After more than two decades away from home, he returned in 1927, where he remained active during the five years remaining until his death. Together with Raquel Forner, Alfredo Bigatti and Pedro Domínguez Neira, in 1931, he exhibited at the First Baltimore Pan-American Exhibition of Contemporary Paintings. Much of his time and energy was spent promoting Modern Art in opposition to the reactionary forces prevalent at that period, a large part of his work involves figures in unusual, kinetic poses, but he painted landscapes with industrial buildings.
His interest in music led him to provide decorations for the Teatro Colón and he devised a painting technique he called yeso cocido, consisting of plaster and pigments bound with glue and usually applied to wood. Julio E. Payró, Alfredo Guttero, Editorial Poseidón,1943 An appreciation of Guttero @ ArtExperts, brief biography and appreciation @ the Argentine Ministry of Education Exhibition of Gutteros works in 2006 at MALBA, from Pandorama
Jacob Cornelisz van Oostsanen
Jacob Cornelisz van Oostsanen was a Northern Netherlandish designer of woodcuts and painter. He was one of the first important artists working in Amsterdam, little is known about Jacob Cornelisz van Oostsanens life. His name indicates he was from Oostzaan, North Holland, east of the river Zaan and his family managed land in that area. A good impression of there in those times can be had by a visit to the Zaanse Schans. Cornelis Buys I, known as Master of Alkmaar, was his brother and his sons Cornelis Jacobz and Dirk Jacobsz became portrait painters, as did his grandsons Cornelis Anthonisz and Jacob Dirksz. As birth or baptism dates have been lost, all of their birth dates have been approximated from other evidence such as death dates of other family members. Similar to the evidence surrounding Frans Hals, the first known commissions for Jacob Cornelisz were from when he was at least 35 years of age. It is assumed that he worked in a workshop before that, and judging from his close copies of Haarlem painting techniques.
He bought his first house in Amsterdam in 1500, in the Kalverstraat, twenty years he bought the neighboring house. For this reason he is sometimes called Jacob Cornelisz van Amsterdam and his wife is called a widow in archives for the first time in 1533. The last payments made to him according to the Egmond Abbey archives were in 1526–1528 for a retable, in his earlier years Jacob Cornelisz was under the influence of Haarlem painter Geertgen tot Sint Jans. The colors and techniques suggest that he learned his craft in Haarlem and his influence became painter Albrecht Dürer. He may have gone to him in Antwerp in the 1520s. The painting patterns of his earlier works suggest he was trained as a woodcut designer or goldsmith. One of his first works was Christ as a gardener, there are about 200 known woodcuts and 27 paintings by Cornelisz. His prints are traditional north Netherlandish small-scale book illustrations, writings are used to present the narrative with actions placed in the foreground.
Throughout his artistic career Corneliszs painting style changed, at first he started as a late Gothic craftsman under the influence of the Haarlem school and ended with a style presented by the painting Saul and the Witch of Endor. In this particular painting the details are simple, elongated proportions, though he excelled as a technical painter, he was not a good leader. He progressed at presenting contemporary trends in subject-matter and style, Corneliszs symbolism was conservative as well
Recoleta, Buenos Aires
It is an important tourist destination and cultural center of the city. It is one of the most affluent neighborhoods and it is one of the priciest real estate in the city, the Recoleta is accessible by the “D Line” of the Buenos Aires Subway, which passes through the neighborhood. Neighboring communities are Retiro to the southeast, San Nicolás, Balvanera and Almagro to the south, and Palermo to the northwest, and the River Plate to the northeast. The name of the neighborhood comes from the Monastery of the Recollect Fathers, members of the Franciscan Order which was established in the area at the beginning of the 18th century and they founded a monastery and a church dedicated to Nuestra Señora del Pilar with a cemetery attached. The historical center of the neighborhood is the Church of Nuestra Señora del Pilar, for that reason, the neighborhood was occasionally called El Pilar. The church was situated at the edge of the banks that sloped down to the Río de la Plata. The creek, known as Tercero del Norte, currently flows through an underground pipe and it formed a type of small delta, with channels along the current Austria and Tagle Streets, which flowed into the Río de la Plata.
When Buenos Aires suffered terrible cholera and yellow fever epidemics in the 1870s and these families, built mansions and other notable buildings in several European architectural styles of the period. Consequently, Buenos Aires has often referred to as the Paris of South America. Nowadays, what is left of traditional buildings coexist with elegant modern constructions. The Recoleta neighborhood is distinguished by its great cultural spaces, the Recoleta Cemetery is one of the main tourist attractions in the neighborhood. It was designed by the French architect Prosper Catelin, at the request of President Bernardino Rivadavia, next to the cemetery is the former General Juan José Viamonte Shelter, administered in the past by the Recollect Fathers. To the east, along Posadas Street, is the Palais de Glace, which was, at the beginning of the twentieth century and it has since been turned into a multimedia exhibition center. Behind Carlos Thays Park is located the Centro Municipal de Exposiciones, several of the oldest and most prestigious schools in the capital are located in the Recoleta neighborhood.
Many university schools are found in Recoleta, Medicina, Odontología. A construction in the brutalist style, located on Agüero Street between Libertador Avenue and Las Heras, is home to the new National Library of Argentina, the building was completed in 1992, after 20 years of construction work. It contains more than four volumes, including twenty priceless editions. Several cabarets in the served as locales for tango music