Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, and features a string of volcanoes and lakes, the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands. Spain conquered and colonized Chile in the century, replacing Inca rule in northern and central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a relatively stable authoritarian republic, in the 1960s and 1970s the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil.
The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010. Chile is today one of South Americas most stable and prosperous nations and it leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, income per capita, state of peace, economic freedom, and low perception of corruption. It ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile, another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a locally known as trile. The Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such.
The older spelling Chili was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching over to Chile, stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating Native Americans settled in fertile valleys, settlement sites from very early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodon and the Pali Aike Craters lava tube. They fought against the Sapa Inca Tupac Yupanqui and his army, the result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. The next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, the Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting. The conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarros lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541.
Although the Spanish did not find the gold and silver they sought, they recognized the agricultural potential of Chiles central valley
Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego is an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan. The archipelago consists of the island, Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, with an area of 48,100 km2. Tierra del Fuego is divided between Chile and Argentina, with the controlling the eastern half of the main island. The southernmost extent of the archipelago is at about latitude 55 S, the earliest known human settlement in Tierra del Fuego dates to around 8,000 B. C. Europeans first explored the islands during Ferdinand Magellans expedition of 1520, Tierra del Fuego, petroleum extraction dominates economic activity in the north of Tierra del Fuego, while tourism and Antarctic logistics are important in the south. The earliest human settlement occurred around 8,000 B. C, the Yaghan were some of the earliest known humans to settle in Tierra del Fuego. Archeological sites with characteristics of their culture have found at locations such as Navarino Island. The name Tierra del Fuego derives from the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, sailing for the Spanish Crown and he believed he was seeing the many fires of the Yaghan, which were visible from the sea, and that the Indians were waiting in the forests to ambush his armada.
In 1525 Francisco de Hoces was the first to speculate that Tierra del Fuego was one or more islands rather than part of what was called Terra Australis, francis Drake in 1578 and a Dutch VOC expedition in 1616 learned more about the geography. The latter expedition named Cape Horn, on his first voyage with the HMS Beagle in 1830, Robert FitzRoy picked up four native Fuegians, including Jemmy Button and brought them to England. The surviving three were taken to London to meet the King and Queen and were, for a time and they returned to Tierra del Fuego in the Beagle with FitzRoy and Charles Darwin, who made extensive notes about his visit to the islands. During the second half of the 19th century, the archipelago began to come under Chilean, both countries sought to claim the whole archipelago based on de jure Spanish colonial titles. Salesian Catholic missions were established in Río Grande and Dawson Island, anglican missions were established by British colonists at Keppel Island in the Falklands in 1855 and in 1870 at Ushuaia on the main island, which continued to operate through the 19th century.
Thomas Bridges learned the language and compiled a 30, 000-word Yaghan grammar and it was published in the 20th century and considered an important ethnological work. An 1879 Chilean expedition led by Ramón Serrano Montaner reported large amounts of gold in the streams. This prompted massive immigration to the island between 1883 and 1909. Numerous Argentines and Croatians settled in the main island, julius Popper, a Romanian explorer, was one of the most successful entrepreneurs in the region. Granted rights by the Argentine government to exploit any gold deposits he found in Tierra del Fuego, despite the missionaries efforts, many natives died
Voyage of the James Caird
The voyage of the James Caird was a small-boat journey from Elephant Island in the South Shetland Islands to South Georgia in the southern Atlantic Ocean, a distance of 800 nautical miles. Polar historians regard the voyage as one of the greatest small-boat journeys ever undertaken, in October 1915 pack ice in the Weddell Sea had sunk Endurance, leaving Shackleton and his companions adrift on a precarious ice surface. Throughout the duration of their survival, the group drifted northward until April 1916 and they made their way in the ships lifeboats to Elephant Island, where Shackleton decided that the most effective means of obtaining rescue would be to sail one of the lifeboats to South Georgia. Of the three lifeboats, the James Caird was deemed the strongest and most likely to survive the journey, Shackleton had named it after Sir James Key Caird, a Dundee jute-manufacturer and philanthropist, whose sponsorship had helped finance the expedition. Before its voyage ships carpenter Harry McNish strengthened and adapted the boat to withstand the mighty seas of the Southern Ocean, surviving a series of dangers, including a near capsizing, the boat reached the southern coast of South Georgia after a voyage lasting 16 days.
Shackleton and two crossed the islands mountainous interior to reach a whaling station on the northern side. Here he organised the relief of the Elephant Island party, after the end of the First World War in 1918, the James Caird was brought back from South Georgia to England in 1919 and put on permanent display at Shackletons old school, Dulwich College from 1922. On 5 December 1914, Shackletons expedition ship Endurance left South Georgia for the Weddell Sea, on the first stage of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition. It was making for Vahsel Bay, the southernmost explored point of the Weddell Sea at 77°49 S, before it could reach its destination the ship was trapped in pack ice, and by 14 February 1915 was held fast, despite prolonged efforts to free her. During the following eight months she drifted northward until, on 27 October, she was crushed by the packs pressure, as his 27-man crew set up camp on the slowly moving ice, Shackletons focus shifted to how best to save his party. His first plan was to march across the ice to the nearest land, the march began, but progress was hampered by the nature of the ices surface, described by Shackleton as soft, much broken up, open leads intersecting the floes at all angles.
They had managed to three lifeboats, which Shackleton had named after the principal backers of the expedition, Stancomb Wills, Dudley Docker. The party waited until 8 April 1916, when they took to the boats as the ice started to break up. Over a perilous period of seven days they sailed and rowed through stormy seas and dangerous loose ice, Elephant Island, on the eastern limits of the South Shetland Islands, was remote from anywhere that the expedition had planned to go, and far beyond normal shipping routes. No relief ship would search for them there, and the likelihood of rescue from any other outside agency was equally negligible, the pressures and hardships of the previous months were beginning to tell on the men, many of whom were in a run-down state both mentally and physically. In these conditions, Shackleton decided to try to reach help, the nearest port was Stanley in the Falkland Islands,540 nautical miles away, but made unreachable by the prevailing westerly winds. A better option was to head for Deception Island, at the end of the South Shetland chain.
Although it was uninhabited, Admiralty records indicated that this island held stores for shipwrecked mariners, reaching it would involve a journey against the prevailing winds—though in less open seas—with ultimately no certainty when or if rescue would arrive
Vice-Admiral Robert FitzRoy RN was an English officer of the Royal Navy and a scientist. He achieved lasting fame as the captain of HMS Beagle during Charles Darwins famous voyage, FitzRoys second expedition to Tierra del Fuego, FitzRoy was a pioneering meteorologist who made accurate daily weather predictions, which he called by a new name of his own invention, forecasts. In 1854 he established what would be called the Met Office and he was an able surveyor and hydrographer. As Governor of New Zealand, serving from 1843 to 1845, Robert FitzRoy was born at Ampton Hall, Suffolk, into the upper echelons of the British aristocracy and a tradition of public service. Through his father, General Lord Charles FitzRoy, Robert was a fourth great-grandson of Charles II of England, his grandfather was Augustus Henry FitzRoy. His mother, Lady Frances Stewart, was the daughter of the first Marquess of Londonderry and the half-sister of Viscount Castlereagh, from the age of four, Robert FitzRoy lived with his family at Wakefield Lodge, their Palladian mansion in Northamptonshire.
Roberts half-brother Sir Charles FitzRoy served as Governor of New South Wales, Governor of Prince Edward Island, in February 1818 at the age of 12, FitzRoy entered the Royal Naval College, and in the following year he entered the Royal Navy. At the age of 14, he embarked as a voluntary student aboard the frigate HMS Owen Glendower, which sailed to South America in the middle of 1820 and he was promoted to midshipman while on the vessel. FitzRoy served on HMS Hind as a midshipman and he completed his course with distinction and was promoted lieutenant on 7 September 1824, having passed the examination with full numbers, the first to achieve this result. After serving on HMS Thetis, in 1828 he was appointed lieutenant to Rear-Admiral Sir Robert Waller Otway, commander-in-chief of the South American station. At that time Beagle, under Captain Pringle Stokes, was carrying out a survey of Tierra del Fuego. Pringle Stokes became severely depressed and fatally shot himself, under Lieutenant Skyring, the ship sailed to Rio de Janeiro, where Otway appointed FitzRoy as captain of the Beagle on 15 December 1828.
By the ships return to England on 14 October 1830, FitzRoy had established his reputation as a surveyor, during the survey, some of his men were camping onshore when a group of Fuegian natives made off with their boat. His ship gave chase and, after a scuffle, the families were brought on board as hostages. Eventually FitzRoy held two boys, a girl and two men As it was not possible to put them ashore conveniently, he decided to civilise the savages, and the use of common tools before returning them as missionaries. The sailors gave them names, the girl was called Fuegia Basket, the boy Jemmy Button, the second boy was called Boat Memory. FitzRoy brought the four back with the ship to England, Boat Memory died following a smallpox vaccination. In early May 1831 FitzRoy stood as Tory candidate for Ipswich in the General Election and his hopes of obtaining a new posting and organising a missionary project to Tierra del Fuego appeared to be failing
Dulwich College is a boarding and day independent school for boys in Dulwich in southeast London, England. It was founded in 1619 by Edward Alleyn, an Elizabethan actor and it currently has about 1,500 boys, of whom 120 are boarders. Admission by examination is mainly into years 3,7,9 and it is a member of both the Headmasters and Headmistresses Conference and the Eton Group. The term Dulwich College was used colloquially from that date, such as in 1675 when John Evelyn described his visit to Dulwich College in his Diary, for at least 263 years this colloquialism was incorrect as the school was part of the overall charitable Foundation. There is no evidence for the legend that he owned brothels. He was Chief Maister and Overseer of games of Beares, Mastiff Dogs, rumours that Alleyn turned his attention towards charitable pursuits out of fear for his moral well-being have been traced to the journalist George Sala and questioned. The building on Dulwich Green of a chapel, a schoolhouse and twelve almshouses, on 1 September 1616 the chapel was consecrated by the Archbishop of Canterbury who became the official Visitor.
However, Edward Alleyn faced objections from Francis Bacon, the Lord Chancellor and it was Alleyns persistence that led to the foundation being endowed by James Is signing of the letters patent. The poor brothers and sisters and scholars were to be drawn from the four parishes that were most closely tied to Alleyn, the business of the charity was conducted in the name of these thirty members by the Master and four Fellows. Alleyn drew upon the experience of similar establishments in order to formulate the statutes and ordinances of the college. Among the many statutes and ordinances signed by Alleyn that pertained to the scheme were provisions that the scholars were entitled to stay until they were eighteen. And to be taught in good and sound learning’…’that they might be prepared for university or for good and sweet trades and occupations. Another stipulation was that the Master and Warden should always be unmarried and of Alleyns blood, and surname, and if the former was impossible at least of Alleyns surname.
Alleyn made provision that the people of Dulwich should be able to have their men children instructed at the school for a fee as well as children from outside Dulwich for a separate fee. The next two centuries were beset by both external difficulties such as diminishing financial fortunes and failing buildings as well as internal strife between the various Members of the College. The Official Visitor, the Archbishop of Canterbury, whose function was to ensure that the statutes were obeyed, was called in many times, dr John Allen of Holland House was a most learned and influential man, but neglected the education of the Poor Scholars. Immediately after this criticism, the Dulwich College Grammar School was established in 1842 for the education of boys from Dulwich. To this school were transferred the boys of the James Allen Foundation, the Old Grammar School, as it became known, was erected in 1841 opposite the Old College, designed by Sir Charles Barry, the architect of the Palace of Westminster
The bombard is a cannon or mortar used in medieval times. This weapon was a caliber, muzzle-loading artillery piece mainly used during sieges to throw stone balls at opponents’ walls. The primary use was to break down the walls of the enemy so the army could get to them, most bombards were made of iron and used gunpowder to launch the projectile through the air. There are many examples of bombards, including Mons Meg, the Dardanelles Gun, larger bombards are sometimes included in the family of superguns. They were used throughout the Middle Ages and the modern period. The weapon provided the name to the Royal Artillery rank of Bombardier, the oldest representation of a bombard can be found in the Chinese town of Ta-tsu. In 1985, Robin Yates was visiting Buddhist cave temples when he saw a sculpture on the wall depicting a demon holding a hand-held bombard, the muzzle seems to have a blast and flames coming from it which some believe is proof of some type of super gun. Yates examined the cave and believed the drawings dated back to the late 12th century, the Vaso shown by Walter de Milamete is usually dated to 1327 and shows a mailed knight firing a brass fire pot.
However the armour shown appears anachronistic for 1327 and the image may actually be a copy of a lost 12th century image, England certainly began using cannons in the early 14th century. Inverted keyhole gun loops at Bodiam Castle, Cooling Castle and Westgate Canterbury have all identified as for firing heavy handguns. Initially used as defensive weapons primitive bombards began to be used as weapons in the 14th century. Henry IV, Henry V, and James II won battles with the use of bombards, Henry V captured Harfleur with bombards in 1415. King Henrys army came under fire at the Battle of Agincourt. James II destroyed many castles with his one and a half ton cannon named The Lion, the French re-conquest of their kingdom from English control saw the use of considerable French artillery in the siege role. The French in this period preferred to avoid attacking English longbowmen in open battle and relied on siege, the French camp had been laid out by ordnance officer Jean Bureau to maximise the French artillery arm.
The Anglo-Gascons were shot to pieces and Talbot was eventually killed, most bombards started with the construction of a wooden core surrounded by iron bars. Then, iron hoops were driven over these bars in order to surround, the whole structure was welded with a hammer while it was still hot at about 1300 °C. The rings subsequently cooled and formed over the bars to secure them, the last step was to incinerate the wooden core and to attach a one-piece cast
A cannon is any piece of artillery that uses gunpowder or other usually explosive-based propellants to launch a projectile, which may or may not be explosive. The word cannon is derived from languages, in which the original definition can usually be translated as tube, cane. The Greeks invented the first type—a steam cannon—designed by Archimedes during the Siege of Syracuse, ctesibius built a steam cannon in Alexandria and in the fifteenth century Leonardo da Vinci designed another, the Architonnerre, based on Archimedes work. The earliest form of artillery was developed in Song China, over time replacing siege engines. In the Middle East, the first use of the cannon is argued to be during the 1260 Battle of Ain Jalut between the Mamluk Sultanate and Mongol Empire. The first cannon in Europe were in use in the Iberian Peninsula by the mid-13th century and it was during this period, the Middle Ages, that cannon became standardised, and more effective in both the anti-infantry and siege roles.
After the Middle Ages most large cannon were abandoned in favour of greater numbers of lighter, Cannon transformed naval warfare in the early modern period, as European navies took advantage of their firepower. In World War I, the majority of fatalities were caused by artillery. Most modern cannon are similar to those used in the Second World War, Cannon was widely known as the earliest form of a gun and artillery, before early firearms were invented. The word has been used to refer to a gun since 1326 in Italy, both Cannons and Cannon are correct and in common usage, with one or the other having preference in different parts of the English-speaking world. Cannons is more common in North America and Australia, while cannon as plural is more common in the United Kingdom, Cannon in general have the form of a truncated cone with an internal cylindrical bore for holding an explosive charge and a projectile. The thickest and closed part of the cone is located near the explosive charge, as any explosive charge will dissipate in all directions equally, the thickest portion of the cannon is useful for containing and directing this force.
Field artillery cannon in Europe and the Americas were initially made most often of bronze, though forms were constructed of cast iron and eventually steel. However, cast iron cannon have a tendency to burst without having any previous weakness or wear. The following terms refer to the components or aspects of a classical western cannon as illustrated here. In what follows, the words near and behind will refer to those parts towards the thick, closed end of the piece, and far, front, in front of, and before to the thinner, open end. Bore, The hollow cylinder bored down the centre of the cannon, including the base of the bore or bottom of the bore, the diameter of the bore represents the cannons calibre. Chamber, The cylindrical, conical, or spherical recess at the nearest end of the bottom of the bore into which the gunpowder is packed
In the 18th century and most of the 19th, a sloop-of-war in the Royal Navy was a warship with a single gun deck that carried up to eighteen guns. The rating system covered all vessels with 20 guns and above, thus, in the first half of the 18th century, most naval sloops were two-masted vessels, usually carrying a ketch or a snow rig. A ketch had main and mizzen masts but no foremast, while a snow had a foremast, the first three-masted sloops appeared during the 1740s, and from the mid-1750s most new sloops were built with a three-masted rig. The third sail afforded the sloop greater mobility and the ability to back sail, in the 1770s, the two-masted sloop re-appeared in a new guise as the brig sloop, the successor to the former snow sloops. Brig sloops had two masts, while ship sloops continued to have three, in the Napoleonic period, Britain built huge numbers of brig sloops of the Cruizer class and the Cherokee class. The brig rig was economical of manpower and, when armed with carronades, the carronades used much less manpower than the long guns normally used to arm frigates.
Consequently, the Cruizer class were used as cheaper and more economical substitutes for frigates. A carronade-armed brig, would be at the mercy of an armed with long guns. The other limitation of brig sloops as opposed to post ships and frigates was their relatively restricted stowage for water and provisions, their shallower draught made them excellent raiders against coastal shipping and shore installations. Bermuda sloops were found with gaff rig, mixtures of gaff and square rig and they were built with up to three masts. The single masted ships, with their sails, and the tremendous wind energy they harnessed, were demanding to sail. The longer decks of the vessels had the advantage of allowing more guns to be carried. Originally a sloop-of-war was smaller than a frigate and was outside the rating system. A ship sloop was generally the equivalent of the corvette of the French Navy. The name corvette was applied to British vessels. American usage, while similar to British terminology into the beginning of the 19th century, the Americans occasionally used the French term corvette.
In the Royal Navy, the sloop evolved into a vessel with a single gun deck. During the War of 1812 sloops of war in the service of the United States Navy performed well against their Royal Navy equivalents, the American ships had the advantage of being ship-rigged rather that brig-rigged, a distinction that increased their maneuverability
President of Chile
The President of the Republic of Chile is the head of state and the head of government of the Republic of Chile. The President is responsible for government and state administration. It is considered as one of the institutions that make up the Historic Constitution of Chile, under the current Constitution, the President is elected to serve for a period of four years, with immediate re-election being prohibited. The shorter period allows for parliamentary and presidential elections to be synchronized, the official seat of the President of Chile is the La Moneda Palace in the capital Santiago. The Constitution of 1980 and its amendments, establishes the requirements for becoming President. Originally the President must be a citizen of the country. The President must be at least 35 years old, in addition, all the requirements for becoming a Senator apply. The president must meet all the requirements to qualify as a fully Chilean citizen with the right to vote and those are who have reached the age of eighteen years and who have never been sentenced to afflicting punishment.
The loss of the right to vote is the main disqualification for the applicant, in the 2005 constitutional reform, some of these requirements were changed, The President now must have the Chilean nationality. The President must be at least 35 years old, article 26 detail the electoral requirements. The President shall be elected by ballot, with an absolute majority of the votes validly cast. In order to win the election in the first round, the candidates party must receive more than 50 percent of the valid votes leaving out of the count blank. The election shall be held the third Sunday of November of the year immediately before the end of the administration of the President holding office. Should there be more than two candidates in the election, none of them obtaining more than half of the votes validly cast. The second election, in the manner determined by law, shall be held the fourth Sunday after the first election, the candidate with the majority of valid votes in that round is elected president.
Under the 1828 constitution, the President served for four years, in 1833, the presidential period was changed to five years, with a possibility of immediate reelection for one more term, limited to two consecutive terms. Then by a reform in 1878, possibility for reelection became disallowed. Under the 1925 constitution, the President served for a six-year term, in the original text of the 1980 constitution, the President served for an eight-year term without the possibility of immediate reelection
South Georgia Island
South Georgia is an island in the South Atlantic that is part of the British Overseas territory of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. South Georgia is 167.4 kilometres long and 1.4 to 37 km wide. The Island of South Georgia is said to have been first sighted in 1675 by Anthony de la Roché, a London merchant and it was sighted by a commercial Spanish ship named León operating out of Saint-Malo on 28 June or 29 June 1756
Cape Virgenes is the southeastern tip of continental Argentina. Ferdinand Magellan reached it on 21 October 1520 and discovered a strait, as 21 October was the feast day of Saint Ursula and the Eleven Thousand Virgins, he named the cape in their honor. The Cape is located in Santa Cruz Province, Argentina, the Cape Virgenes Argentine Lighthouse has been operating since 1904. In 1884, gold was found there sparking the Tierra del Fuego Gold Rush, rises in the number of southern right whales visiting the area have been confirmed
Victoria was a Spanish carrack and the first ship to successfully circumnavigate the world. Victoria was part of a Spanish expedition commanded by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, the expedition began on August 10,1519 with five ships but Victoria was the only ship to complete the voyage, returning on September 6,1522. Magellan was killed in the Philippines, the ship was built at a shipyard in Gipuzkoa, with the Basques being reputed shipbuilders at the time, and along with the four other ships, she was given to Magellan by King Charles I of Spain. Victoria was named after the church of Santa Maria de la Victoria de Triana, Victoria was an 85 ton ship with a crew of 42. The four other ships were Trinidad, San Antonio, Victoria was rated a carrack or nao, as were all the others except Santiago, which was a caravel. The voyage started with a crew of about 265 men aboard five ships, of all these, only 18 men returned alive on Victoria. Many of the men died of malnutrition, beginning the voyage, Luis De Mendoza was her captain.
On April 2,1520, after establishing a settlement they called Puerto San Julian, Antonio Pigafettas and other reports state that Luis de Mendoza and Gaspar Quesada, captain of Concepcion were executed and the remains hung on gallows on the shore. Juan de Cartagena, captain of San Antonio was marooned on the coast, Duarte Barbosa, a Portuguese who had sided with Magellan in facing the mutiny, became the captain of Victoria. According to Pigafetta, after Magellans death on April 27,1521, at the Battle of Mactan, Duarte Barbosa and João Serrão were elected leaders of the expedition. On May 1,1521 they were invited by rajah Humabon of Cebu, there most were killed or poisoned, including Duarte Barbosa and João Serrão, who was brought by natives who wanted to exchange him for weapons, but was left behind. Pilot João Carvalho, who had survived the trap, became the captain of Victoria, in August, near Borneo he was deposed and Juan Sebastián Elcano became captain for the remainder of the expedition.
Out of an expedition of 260 people, only 18 returned to Seville with the expedition. They were, Out of all survivors, Antonio Pigafetta was the most significant because his journals supply most of the information known about the first expedition around the world. On December 21,1521, Victoria sailed on from Tidore alone because the ships left the convoy due to lack of food/water rations. The ship was in shape, with her sails torn. Victoria managed to pull through and return to Spain with a shipload of costly spices, Victoria was repaired, bought by a merchant shipper and sailed for almost another fifty years before being lost with all hands on a trip from the Antilles to Seville in about 1570. A replica was built in 1992 and is operated by the Fundación Nao Victoria, the search for the original plans of Nao Victoria took longer than expected and the project was delayed by almost three years, from 2006 to 2009