Granada is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. Granada is located at the foot of the Sierra Nevada mountains, at the confluence of four rivers, the Darro, the Genil, the Monachil and the Beiro, it sits at an average elevation of 738 m above sea level, yet is only one hour by car from the Mediterranean coast, the Costa Tropical. Nearby is the Sierra Nevada Ski Station, where the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships 1996 were held. In the 2005 national census, the population of the city of Granada proper was 236,982, the population of the entire urban area was estimated to be 472,638, ranking as the 13th-largest urban area of Spain. About 3.3% of the population did not hold Spanish citizenship, the largest number of these people coming from South America. Its nearest airport is Federico García Lorca Granada-Jaén Airport; the Alhambra, an Arab citadel and palace, is located in Granada. It is the most renowned building of the Islamic historical legacy with its many cultural attractions that make Granada a popular destination among the tourist cities of Spain.
The Almohad influence on architecture is preserved in the Granada neighborhood called the Albaicín with its fine examples of Moorish and Morisco construction. Granada is well-known within Spain for the University of Granada which has an estimated 82,000 students spread over five different campuses in the city; the pomegranate is the heraldic device of Granada. The region surrounding what today is Granada has been populated since at least 5500 BC and experienced Roman and Visigothic influences; the most ancient ruins found in the city belong to an Iberian oppidum called Ilturir, in the region known as Bastetania. This oppidum changed its name to Iliberri, after the Roman conquest of Iberia, to Municipium Florentinum Iliberitanum; the Umayyad conquest of Hispania, starting in AD 711, brought large parts of the Iberian Peninsula under Moorish control and established al-Andalus. Granada's historical name in the Arabic language was غرناطة; the word Gárnata means "hill of strangers". Because the city was situated on a low plain and, as a result, difficult to protect from attacks, the ruler decided to transfer his residence to the higher situated area of Gárnata.
In a short time this town was transformed into one of the most important cities of al-Andalus. In the early 11th century, after the collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate, the Berber Zawi ben Ziri established an independent kingdom for himself, the Taifa of Granada, his surviving memoirs — the only ones for the Spanish "Middle Ages" — provide considerable detail for this brief period. The Zirid Taifa of Granada was a Jewish state in all but name, it is the only time between Biblical times and the twentieth century that a Jewish ruler commanded an army. It was the center of Jewish culture and scholarship. Early Arabic writers called it "Garnata al-Yahud".... Granada was in the eleventh century the center of Sephardic civilization at its peak, from 1027 until 1066 Granada was a powerful Jewish state. Jews did not hold the foreigner status typical of Islamic rule. Samuel ibn Nagrilla, recognized by Sephardic Jews everywhere as the quasi-political ha-Nagid, was king in all but name; as vizier he made policy and—much more unusual—led the army....
It is said that Samuel’s strengthening and fortification of Granada was what permitted it to survive as the last Islamic state in the Iberian peninsula. All of the greatest figures of eleventh-century Hispano-Jewish culture are associated with Granada. Moses Ibn Ezra was from Granada. Ibn Gabirol’s patrons and hosts were the Jewish viziers of Granada, Samuel ha-Nagid and his son Joseph; when Joseph took over after his father's death, he proved to lack his father's diplomacy, bringing on the 1066 Granada massacre, which ended the Golden Age of Jewish Culture in Spain. By the end of the 11th century, the city had spread across the Darro to reach the hill of the future Alhambra, included the Albaicín neighborhood; the Almoravids ruled Granada from 1090 and the Almohad dynasty from 1166. In 1228, with the departure of the Almohad prince Idris al-Ma'mun, who left Iberia to take the Almohad leadership, the ambitious Ibn al-Ahmar established the last and longest reigning Muslim dynasty in the Iberian peninsula, the Nasrids.
With the Reconquista in full swing after the conquest of Córdoba in 1236, the Nasrids aligned themselves with Fernando III of Castile becoming the Emirate of Granada in 1238. According to some historians, Granada was a tributary state to the Kingdom of Castile since that year, it provided connections with Muslim and Arab trade centers for gold from sub-Saharan Africa and the Maghreb, exported silk and dried fruits produced in the area. The Nasrids supplied troops from the Emirate and mercenaries from North Africa for service to Castile. Ibn Battuta, a famous traveller and an authentic historian, visited the Kingdom of Granada in 1350, he described it as a powerful and self-sufficient kingdom in its own right, although embroiled in skirmishes with the Kingdom of Castile. In his journal, Ibn Battuta called Granada the “metropolis of Andalusia and the bride of its cities.”During the Moor rule, Granada was a city with adherents to many religions and ethnicities who lived in separate quarters. During this Nasrid period there were 137 Muslim mosques in the Medina of Granada.
On January 2, 1492, the last Muslim ruler in Iberia
An amphora is a type of container of a characteristic shape and size, descending from at least as early as the Neolithic Period. Amphorae were used in vast numbers for the transport and storage of various products, both liquid and dry, but for wine, they are most ceramic, but examples in metals and other materials have been found. Versions of the amphorae were one of many shapes used in Ancient Greek vase painting; the amphora complements the large storage container, the pithos, which makes available capacities between one-half and two and one-half tons. In contrast, the amphora holds under a half-ton less than 50 kilograms; the bodies of the two types have similar shapes. Where the pithos may have multiple small loops or lugs for fastening a rope harness, the amphora has two expansive handles joining the shoulder of the body and a long neck; the necks of pithoi are wide for bucket access. The necks of amphorae are narrow for pouring by a person holding it by a handle; some variants exist. The handles might not be present.
The size may require three handlers to lift. For the most part, however, an amphora was tableware, or sat close to the table, was intended to be seen, was finely decorated as such by master painters. Stoppers of perishable materials, which have survived, were used to seal the contents. Two principal types of amphorae existed: the neck amphora, in which the neck and body meet at a sharp angle. Neck amphorae were used in the early history of ancient Greece, but were replaced by the one-piece type from around the 7th century BC onward. Most were produced with a pointed base to allow upright storage by embedding in soft ground, such as sand; the base facilitated transport by ship, where the amphorae were packed upright or on their sides in as many as five staggered layers. If upright, the bases were held by some sort of rack, ropes passed through their handles to prevent shifting or toppling during rough seas. Heather and reeds might be used as packing around the vases. Racks could be used in shops.
The base concentrated deposits from liquids with suspended solid particles, such as olive oil and wines. Amphorae are of great use to maritime archaeologists, as they indicate the age of a shipwreck and the geographic origin of the cargo, they are so well preserved that the original content is still present, providing information on foodstuffs and mercantile systems. Amphorae were too cheap and plentiful to return to their origin-point and so, when empty, they were broken up at their destination. At a breakage site in Rome, close to the Tiber, the fragments wetted with Calcium hydroxide, remained to create a hill now named Monte Testaccio, 45 m high and more than 1 kilometre in circumference. Amphora is a Greco-Roman word developed in ancient Greek during the Bronze Age; the Romans acquired it during the Hellenization. Cato is the first known literary person to use it; the Romans turned the Greek form into a standard -a declension noun, amphora, pl. amphorae. Undoubtedly, the word and the vase were introduced to Italy through the Greek settlements there, which traded extensively in Greek pottery.
It is remarkable that though the Etruscans imported and exported amphorae extensively in their wine industry, other Greek vase names were Etruscanized, no Etruscan form of the word exists. There was an as yet unidentified native Etruscan word for the vase that pre-empted the adoption of amphora; the Latin word derived from the Greek amphoreus, a shortened form of amphiphoreus, a compound word combining amphi- and phoreus, from pherein, referring to the vessel's two carrying handles on opposite sides. The amphora appears as, a-pi-po-re-we, in the Linear B Bronze Age records of Knossos, a-po-re-we, at Mycenae, the fragmentary ]-re-we at Pylos, designated by Ideogram 209, Bennett's AMPHORA, which has a number of scribal variants; the two spellings are transcriptions of amphiphorēwes and amphorēwe in Mycenaean Greek from which it may be seen that the short form prevailed on the mainland. Homer uses the long form for metrical reasons, Herodotus has the short form. Ventris and Chadwick's translation is "carried on both sides."
Amphorae varied in height. The largest stands as tall as 1.5 metres high, while some were less than 30 centimetres high - the smallest were called amphoriskoi. Most were around 45 centimetres high. There was a significant degree of standardisation in some variants. In all 66 distinct types of amphora have been identified. Further, the term stands for an ancient Roman unit of measurement for liquids; the volume of a Roman amphora was one cubic foot, c. 26.026 L. Roman amphorae were wheel-thrown terracotta containers. During the production process the body was made first and left to dry partially. Coils of clay were added to form the neck, the rim, the handles. Once the amphora was complete, the maker treated the interior with resin that would prevent permeation of stored liquids; the reconstruction of these stages of production is based on the study of modern amphora production in some areas of the eastern Mediterranean. Amphorae were marked with a variety of stamps and inscript
Guanche mummies of Necochea
The Guanche mummies of Necochea are two mummies of Guanche individuals, who were the ancient Berber autochthones of the Canary Islands. The specimens are on display at the Museo de la Naturaleza y el Hombre in Santa Cruz de Tenerife; the Necochea mummies are so-called because they were first exhibited in 2003 at the Museo Civil de Ciencias Naturales in Necochea, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. These two individuals and female the woman would have between 20 and 24 years and is wrapped in a bundle of pigskin; the other mummy is a man between 25 and 29 years and has a special feature, its position with legs bent with your heels against the buttocks. According to experts, the mummies date back to the ninth century; the exact place on the island where they come from is not known mummies. It is believed that one of the mummies may come from a burial cave in the Barranco de Guayonje in Tacoronte and the other mummy of La Orotava, but according to others could come from Barranco de Herques in Güímar.
They were part of the collection of a private museum in Tacoronte. In the nineteenth century it was sold to the La Plata Museum in Argentina, reaching the hands of an unidentified collector, they were transferred to the city of Necochea, until, in 2003, were returned to Tenerife. This was the first return of mummified human remains from America to Europe in the history of archeology. Gender: male and female. Age: 20 and 24 years female mummy and 25 and 29 years male mummy. Culture: Guanche. Type of mummification: mummies ceremonial. Type of burial: burial cave. Location: It is not known but were found in the present municipalities of Tacoronte, La Orotava or in Güímar. Shown at: The Museum of Nature and Man, along with other Guanche mummies preserved. Interesting facts: The woman is wrapped in a shroud pigskin and man has legs bent with your heels against the buttocks. Guanche mummy of Madrid Mummy of San Andrés Museo de la Naturaleza y el Hombre
The Tenerife giant tortoise is an extinct species of cryptodire turtle in the family Testudinidae endemic to the island of Tenerife, in the Canary Islands. It was a large tortoise, similar to those found in some oceanic islands like the Galapagos Islands in the Pacific Ocean and Aldabra and the Seychelles in the Indian Ocean; the earliest remains of G. burchardi found on Tenerife date from the Miocene epoch. This tortoise is thought to have inhabited the island until the Upper Pleistocene, when volcanic activity at that time exterminated them long before humans arrived during the Holocene. Most fossils are of bones and shells, as well as a nest of fossilized eggs found in volcanic soil in the south of Tenerife, in the present municipality of Adeje; this species of giant tortoise was described in 1926 by Ernst Ahl, the first time a giant tortoise endemic to the Canary Islands described. Another extinct tortoise species, G. vulcanica, is known from the island of Gran Canaria. G. burchardi had a larger shell, with a length of 65 to 94 cm, while G. vulcanica shell had a 61 cm.
Both have links to various North African species of Geochelone. Therefore, it is believed that the ancestors of these tortoises could reach the eastern islands of the Canary Islands from the continent and progressively moved to westward through that archipelago as their size increased and its appearance evolved to adapt to the conditions of the archipelago. Fossilized tortoise eggs have been found in the islands of Fuerteventura; the species of Fuerteventura has been linked to G. burchardi, but this identification is uncertain, has been challenged. List of extinct animals List of African animals extinct in the Holocene List of extinct animals of Europe Island gigantism
Guanches were the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canary Islands. In 2017, the first genome-wide data from the Guanches confirmed a North African origin and that they were genetically most similar to modern North African Berber peoples of the nearby North African mainland, it is believed that they migrated to the archipelago around 1000 BCE or earlier. The Guanches were the only native people known to have lived in the Macaronesian region before the arrival of Europeans, as there is no evidence that the other Macaronesian archipelagos were inhabited before Europeans arrived. After the Spanish conquest of the Canaries they were ethnically and culturally absorbed by Spanish settlers, although elements of their culture survive to this day, intermixed within Canarian customs and traditions such as Silbo; the native term guanchinet translated means "person of Tenerife". It was modified, according to Juan Núñez de la Peña, by the Castilians into "Guanchos". Though etymologically being an ancient, Tenerife-specific, the word Guanche is now used to refer to the pre-Hispanic aboriginal inhabitants of the entire archipelago.
Roman author and military officer Pliny the Elder, drawing upon the accounts of Juba II, king of Mauretania, stated that a Mauretanian expedition to the islands around 50 BCE found the ruins of great buildings, but otherwise no population to speak of. If this account is accurate, it may suggest that the Guanches were not the only inhabitants, or the first ones. Tenerife the archaeological site of the Cave of the Guanches in Icod de los Vinos, has provided habitation dates dating back to the 6th century BCE, according to analysis carried out on ceramics that were found inside the cave. Speaking, the Guanches were the indigenous peoples of Tenerife; the population seems to have lived in relative isolation up to the time of the Castilian conquest, around the 14th century. The name came to be applied to the indigenous populations of all the seven Canary Islands, those of Tenerife being the most important or powerful. What remains of their language, Guanche – a few expressions, vocabulary words and the proper names of ancient chieftains still borne by certain families – exhibits positive similarities with the Berber languages.
The first reliable account of the Guanche language was provided by the Genoese explorer Nicoloso da Recco in 1341, with a translation of numbers used by the islanders. According to European chroniclers, the Guanches did not possess a system of writing at the time of conquest. Inscriptions and rock paintings and carvings are quite abundant throughout the islands. Petroglyphs attributed to various Mediterranean civilizations have been found on some of the islands. In 1752, Domingo Vandewalle, a military governor of Las Palmas, attempted to investigate them, Aquilino Padron, a priest at Las Palmas, catalogued inscriptions at El Julan, La Candía and La Caleta on El Hierro. In 1878 Dr. René Verneau discovered rock carvings in the ravines of Las Balos that resemble Libyan or Numidian writing dating from the time of Roman occupation or earlier. In other locations, Libyco-Berber script has been identified; the geographic accounts of Pliny the Elder and of Strabo mention the Fortunate Isles but do not report anything about their populations.
An account of the Guanche population may have been made around AD 1150 by the Arab geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi in the Nuzhatul Mushtaq, a book he wrote for King Roger II of Sicily, in which al-Idrisi reports a journey in the Atlantic Ocean made by the Mugharrarin, a family of Andalusian seafarers from Lisbon. The only surviving version of this book, kept at the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, first translated by Pierre Amédée Jaubert, reports that, after having reached an area of "sticky and stinking waters", the Mugharrarin moved back and first reached an uninhabited Island, where they found "a huge quantity of sheep, which its meat was bitter and inedible" and "continued southward" and reached another island where they were soon surrounded by barks and brought to "a village whose inhabitants were fair haired with long and flaxen hair and the women of a rare beauty". Among the villagers, one asked them where they came from; the king of the village ordered them to bring them back to the continent where they were surprised to be welcomed by Berbers.
Apart from the marvelous and fanciful content of this history, this account would suggest that Guanches had sporadic contacts with populations from the mainland. Al-Idrisi described the Guanche men as tall and of a reddish-brown complexion. During the 14th century, the Guanches are presumed to have had other contacts with Balearic seafarers from Spain, suggested by the presence of Balearic artifacts found on several of the Canary Islands; the Castilian conquest of the Canary Islands began in 1402, with the expedition of Jean de Béthencourt and Gadifer de la Salle to the island of Lanzarote. Gadifer would invade Lanzarote and Fuerteventura with ease since many of the aboriginals, faced with issues of starvation and poor agriculture, would surrender to Spanish rule; the other five islands fought back. El Hierro and the Bimbache population were the next to fall La Gomera, Gran Canaria, La Palma and in 1496, Tenerife. In the First Battle of Acentejo, called La Matanza, Guanches ambushed the Castilians
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools c. 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems. The earliest writing systems appeared c. 5,300 years ago, but it took thousands of years for writing to be adopted, it was not used in some human cultures until the 19th century or until the present. The end of prehistory therefore came at different dates in different places, the term is less used in discussing societies where prehistory ended recently. Sumer in Mesopotamia, the Indus valley civilization, ancient Egypt were the first civilizations to develop their own scripts and to keep historical records. Neighboring civilizations were the first to follow. Most other civilizations reached the end of prehistory during the Iron Age; the three-age system of division of prehistory into the Stone Age, followed by the Bronze Age and Iron Age, remains in use for much of Eurasia and North Africa, but is not used in those parts of the world where the working of hard metals arrived abruptly with contact with Eurasian cultures, such as the Americas, Oceania and much of Sub-Saharan Africa.
These areas with some exceptions in Pre-Columbian civilizations in the Americas, did not develop complex writing systems before the arrival of Eurasians, their prehistory reaches into recent periods. The period when a culture is written about by others, but has not developed its own writing is known as the protohistory of the culture. By definition, there are no written records from human prehistory, so dating of prehistoric materials is crucial. Clear techniques for dating were not well-developed until the 19th century; this article is concerned with human prehistory, the time since behaviorally and anatomically modern humans first appeared until the beginning of recorded history. Earlier periods are called "prehistoric". Beginning The term "prehistory" can refer to the vast span of time since the beginning of the Universe or the Earth, but more it refers to the period since life appeared on Earth, or more to the time since human-like beings appeared. End The date marking the end of prehistory is defined as the advent of the contemporary written historical record.
The date varies from region to region depending on the date when relevant records become a useful academic resource. For example, in Egypt it is accepted that prehistory ended around 3200 BCE, whereas in New Guinea the end of the prehistoric era is set much more at around 1900 common era. In Europe the well-documented classical cultures of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome had neighbouring cultures, including the Celts and to a lesser extent the Etruscans, with little or no writing, historians must decide how much weight to give to the highly prejudiced accounts of these "prehistoric" cultures in Greek and Roman literature. Time periods In dividing up human prehistory in Eurasia, historians use the three-age system, whereas scholars of pre-human time periods use the well-defined geologic record and its internationally defined stratum base within the geologic time scale; the three-age system is the periodization of human prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies: Stone Age Bronze Age Iron Age The notion of "prehistory" began to surface during the Enlightenment in the work of antiquarians who used the word'primitive' to describe societies that existed before written records.
The first use of the word prehistory in English, occurred in the Foreign Quarterly Review in 1836. The use of the geologic time scale for pre-human time periods, of the three-age system for human prehistory, is a system that emerged during the late nineteenth century in the work of British and Scandinavian archeologists and anthropologists; the main source for prehistory is archaeology, but some scholars are beginning to make more use of evidence from the natural and social sciences. This view has been articulated by advocates of deep history; the primary researchers into human prehistory are archaeologists and physical anthropologists who use excavation and geographic surveys, other scientific analysis to reveal and interpret the nature and behavior of pre-literate and non-literate peoples. Human population geneticists and historical linguists are providing valuable insight for these questions. Cultural anthropologists help provide context for societal interactions, by which objects of human origin pass among people, allowing an analysis of any article that arises in a human prehistoric context.
Therefore, data about prehistory is provided by a wide variety of natural and social sciences, such as paleontology, archaeology, geology, comparative linguistics, molecular genetics and many others. Human prehistory differs from history not only in terms of its chronology but in the way it deals with the activities of archaeological cultures rather than named nations or individuals. Restricted to material processes and artifacts rather than written records, prehistory is anonymous; because of this, reference terms that prehistorians use, such as Neanderthal or Iron Age are modern labels with definitions sometimes subject to debate. The concept of a "Stone Age" is found useful in the archaeology of most of the world, though in the archaeology of the Americas it is called by different names and begins with a Lithic sta
Tifinagh is an abjad script used to write the Tamazight languages. A modern alphabetical derivative of the traditional script, known as Neo-Tifinagh, was reintroduced in the 20th century. A modified version of the traditional script, called Tifinagh Ircam, is used in a number of Moroccan elementary schools in teaching the Berber language to children as well as a number of publications; the word tifinagh is thought to be a Tuareg pun meaning itif nnegh i.e. our discovery. Tifinagh or Libyc was used in antiquity by speakers of Libyc languages throughout North Africa and on the Canary Islands, it is attested from the 2nd millennium BC to the 3rd century AD. The script's origin is considered by most scholars as being of local origin, although some scholars however suggest it is related to the Phoenician alphabet. There are four known variants: Western Libyc, Bu Njem Libyc and Saharan Libyc; the eastern variant covers the North-West of Tunisia as well as Eastern Algeria, the Western limit of its use is placed at the East of Sétif although inscriptions of the Eastern type can exceptionally be in Kabylia, it shows a clear Phoenician influence.
It is the best-deciphered variant, due to the discovery of several Numidian bilingual inscriptions in Libyan and Punic. 22 letters out of the 24 were deciphered. The western variant covers the western half of Algeria, as well as the Canary Islands, it shows no Phoenician influence. Its inscriptions are fewer and shorter and rougher; the characteristic of this alphabet is that it includes additional signs 13, that the Eastern one is unaware of, whose value could not be given. Some of these characters are identical to the Touareg letters of the alphabet. There are graffiti discovered at Bou Njem, the antique Gholaia in Libya, on the wall of an old monument which dated from the 3rd century; the writing is horizontal, made up of nine inscriptions. This variant was influenced by Latin to the point of constituting a special alphabet; this variant was widespread in pre-saharan and saharan Libya, territory of the Gaetuli and Garamantes, where it was used by the inhabitants to engrave their messages. It is unknown and badly located.
The ancient Tifinagh script was a pure abjad. Gemination was not marked; the writing was from the bottom to the top, although right-to-left, other orders, were found. The letters would take different forms when written vertically than when they were written horizontally; the Libyco-Berber script is used today in the form of Tifinagh to write the Tuareg languages, which belong to the Berber branch of the Afroasiatic family. Early uses of the script have been found in various sepulchres. Among these are the 1,500 year old monumental tomb of the Tuareg queen Tin Hinan, where vestiges of a Tifinagh inscription have been found on one of its walls. According to M. C. A. MacDonald, the Tuareg are "an oral society in which memory and oral communication perform all the functions which reading and writing have in a literate society… The Tifinagh are used for games and puzzles, short graffiti and brief messages."Occasionally, the script has been used to write other neighbouring languages such as Tagdal, which belongs to a separate Songhay family.
Common forms of the letters are illustrated at left, including various ligatures of t and n. Gemination, though phonemic, is not indicated in Tifinagh; the letter t, +, is combined with a preceding letter to form a ligature. Most of the letters have more than one common form, including mirror-images of the forms shown here; when the letters l and n are adjacent to themselves or to each other, the second is offset, either by inclining, raising, or shortening it. For example, since the letter l is a double line, ||, n a single line, |, the sequence nn may be written || to differentiate it from l. Ln is |||, nl |||, ll ||||, nnn |||, etc. Traditionally, the Tifinagh script does not indicate vowels except word-finally, where a single dot stands for any vowel. In some areas, Arabic vowel diacritics are combined with Tifinagh letters to transcribe vowels, or y, w may be used for long ī and ū. Neo-Tifinagh is the modern alphabetic script developed from earlier forms of Tifinagh, it is written left to right.
Until virtually no books or websites were published in this alphabet, with activists favouring the Latin scripts for serious use. In Morocco, use of Neo-Tifinagh was suppressed until recently; the Moroccan state imprisoned people using this script during the 1980s and 1990s. In 2003, the king took a "neutral" position between the claims of Latin script and Arabic script by adopting Neo-Tifinagh. However, many independent Berber-language publications are still published using the Berber Latin alphabet. Outside Morocco, it has no official status. In Algeria all Berber publications use the Berber Latin Alphabet; the Algerian Black Spring was caused by the repression of Berber languages. In Libya, the government of Muammar Gaddafi banned Tifinagh from being used in public contexts such as store displays and banners. After the Libyan Civil War, the National Transitional Council has shown an openness towards the Berber language