Futurism was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century. It emphasized speed, technology and violence, and objects such as the car, the aeroplane, although it was largely an Italian phenomenon, there were parallel movements in Russia, England and elsewhere. It glorified modernity and aimed to liberate Italy from the weight of its past, Cubism contributed to the formation of Italian Futurisms artistic style. Important Futurist works included Marinettis Manifesto of Futurism, Boccionis sculpture Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, to some extent Futurism influenced the art movements Art Deco, Surrealism, and to a greater degree Precisionism and Vorticism. Futurism is a movement founded in Milan in 1909 by the Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. He was soon joined by the painters Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carrà, Giacomo Balla, Gino Severini, Marinetti expressed a passionate loathing of everything old, especially political and artistic tradition. We want no part of it, the past, he wrote, publishing manifestos was a feature of Futurism, and the Futurists wrote them on many topics, including painting, religion and cooking.
The founding manifesto did not contain an artistic programme, which the Futurists attempted to create in their subsequent Technical Manifesto of Futurist Painting. This committed them to a universal dynamism, which was to be represented in painting. The motor bus rushes into the houses which it passes, the Futurist painters were slow to develop a distinctive style and subject matter. In 1910 and 1911 they used the techniques of Divisionism, breaking light and color down into a field of stippled dots and stripes, which had been originally created by Giovanni Segantini and others. Later, who lived in Paris, attributed their backwardness in style and method at this time to their distance from Paris, the centre of avant-garde art. Severini was the first to come into contact with Cubism and following a visit to Paris in 1911 the Futurist painters adopted the methods of the Cubists, Cubism offered them a means of analysing energy in paintings and expressing dynamism. They often painted modern urban scenes, carràs Funeral of the Anarchist Galli is a large canvas representing events that the artist had himself been involved in, in 1904.
The action of an attack and riot is rendered energetically with diagonals. His Leaving the Theatre uses a Divisionist technique to render isolated, Boccionis The City Rises represents scenes of construction and manual labour with a huge, rearing red horse in the centre foreground, which workmen struggle to control. The Futurists aimed through their art thus to enable the viewer to apprehend the inner being of what they depicted, Boccioni developed these ideas at length in his book, Pittura scultura Futuriste, Dinamismo plastico. Ballas Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash exemplifies the Futurists insistence that the world is in constant movement
Milan is a city in Italy, capital of the Lombardy region, and the most populous metropolitan area and the second most populous comune in Italy. The population of the city proper is 1,351,000, Milan has a population of about 8,500,000 people. It is the industrial and financial centre of Italy and one of global significance. In terms of GDP, it has the largest economy among European non-capital cities, Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and lies at the heart of one of the Four Motors for Europe. Milan is an Alpha leading global city, with strengths in the arts, design, entertainment, finance, media, services and tourism. Its business district hosts Italys Stock Exchange and the headquarters of the largest national and international banks, the city is a major world fashion and design capital, well known for several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair. The city hosts numerous cultural institutions and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students, Milans museums and landmarks attract over 9 million visitors annually.
Milan – after Naples – is the second Italian city with the highest number of accredited stars from the Michelin Guide, the city hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015. Milan is home to two of Europes major football teams, A. C. Milan and F. C. Internazionale, the etymology of Milan is uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin name Mediolanum comes from the Latin words medio, some scholars believe lanum comes from the Celtic root lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory in which Celtic communities used to build shrines. Hence, Mediolanum could signify the central town or sanctuary of a Celtic tribe, the name Mediolanum is borne by about sixty Gallo-Roman sites in France, e. g. Saintes and Évreux. Alciato credits Ambrose for his account, around 400 BC, the Celtic Insubres settled Milan and the surrounding region. In 222 BC, the Romans conquered the settlement, renaming it Mediolanum, Milan was eventually declared the capital of the Western Roman Empire by Emperor Diocletian in 286 AD.
Diocletian chose to stay in the Eastern Roman Empire and his colleague Maximianus ruled the Western one, immediately Maximian built several monuments, such as a large circus 470 m ×85 m, the Thermae Herculeae, a large complex of imperial palaces and several other buildings. With the Edict of Milan of 313, Emperor Constantine I guaranteed freedom of religion for Christians, after the city was besieged by the Visigoths in 402, the imperial residence was moved to Ravenna. In 452, the Huns overran the city, in 539, the Ostrogoths conquered and destroyed Milan during the Gothic War against Byzantine Emperor Justinian I. In the summer of 569, a Teutonic tribe, the Lombards, conquered Milan, some Roman structures remained in use in Milan under Lombard rule. Milan surrendered to the Franks in 774 when Charlemagne took the title of King of the Lombards, the Iron Crown of Lombardy dates from this period
20th-century art—and what it became as modern art—began with modernism in the late 19th century. Nineteenth-century movements of Post-Impressionism, Art Nouveau and Symbolism led to the first twentieth-century art movements of Fauvism in France, Fauvism in Paris introduced heightened non-representational colour into figurative painting. Die Brücke strove for emotional Expressionism, another German group was Der Blaue Reiter, led by Kandinsky in Munich, who associated the blue rider image with a spiritual non-figurative mystical art of the future. Kandinsky, Kupka, R. Delaunay and Picabia were pioneers of abstract art, generated by Picasso, Metzinger and others rejected the plastic norms of the Renaissance by introducing multiple perspectives into a two-dimensional image. Futurism incorporated the depiction of movement and machine age imagery, parallel movements in Russia were Suprematism, where Kasimir Malevich created non-representational work, notably a black canvas. The Jack of Diamonds group with Mikhail Larionov was expressionist in nature, dadaism preceded Surrealism, where the theories of Freudian psychology led to the depiction of the dream and the unconscious in art in work by Salvador Dalí.
Detachment from the world of imagery was reversed in the 1960s by the Pop Art movement, notably Andy Warhol, Warhol minimised the role of the artist, often employing assistants to make his work and using mechanical means of production, such as silkscreen printing. This marked a change from Modernism to Post-Modernism, photorealism evolved from Pop Art and as a counter to Abstract Expressionists. Media related to Modern art at Wikimedia Commons
Giorgio Morandi was an Italian painter and printmaker who specialized in still life. His paintings are noted for their subtlety in depicting apparently simple subjects. Giorgio Morandi was born in Bologna to Andrea Morandi and Maria Maccaferri and he lived first on Via Lame where his brother Giuseppe and his sister Anna were born. The family moved to via Avesella where his two sisters were born, Dina in 1900 and Maria Teresa in 1906. From 1907 to 1913 he studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Bologna, after the death of his father in 1909, the family moved to via Fondazza and Morandi became the head of the family. At the Accademia, which based its traditions on 14th-century painting and he was excellent at his studies, although his professors disapproved of the changes in his style during his final two years at the Accademia. Morandi, even though he lived his life in Bologna, was influenced by the works of Cézanne, Derain. In 1910 he visited Florence, where the works of such as Giotto, Piero Della Francesca.
He had a brief digression into a Futurist style in 1914, in that same year, Morandi was appointed instructor of drawing for elementary schools in Bologna—a post he held until 1929. In 1915, he joined the army but suffered a breakdown and was indefinitely discharged, during the war, Morandis still lifes became more reduced in their compositional elements and purer in form, revealing his admiration for both Cézanne and the Douanier Rousseau. The Metaphysical painting phase in Morandis work lasted from 1918 to 1922 and he was sympathetic to the Fascist party in the 1920s, although his friendships with anti-Fascist figures led authorities to arrest him briefly in 1943. From 1928 Morandi participated in some of the Venice Biennale exhibitions, in the Quadriennale in Rome and exhibited in different Italian, in 1929 Giorgio Morandi illustrated the work Il sole a picco by Vincenzo Cardarelli, winner of the Premio Bagutta. From 1930 to 1956, Morandi was a professor of etching at Accademia di Belle Arti, the 1948 Venice Biennale awarded him first prize for painting.
He visited Paris for the first time in 1956, and in 1957 he won the prize in São Paulos Biennial. Quiet and polite, both in his private and public life, Morandi was much talked about in Bologna for his enigmatic yet very optimistic personality, Morandi lived on Via Fondazza, in Bologna, with his three sisters Anna and Maria Teresa. Morandi died of cancer on June 18,1964. Morandi is buried at Certosa cemetery in Bologna in the family together with his three sisters. On his tomb there is a portrait of him donated by his friend the sculptor Giacomo Manzù, throughout his career, Morandi concentrated almost exclusively on still lifes and landscapes, except for a few self-portraits
The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
Mario Sironi was an Italian modernist artist who was active as a painter, sculptor and designer. His typically somber paintings are characterized by massive, immobile forms and he was born in Sassari on the island of Sardinia. His father was an engineer, his grandfather was the architect. Sironi spent his childhood in Rome and he embarked on the study of engineering at the University of Rome but quit after a nervous breakdown in 1903, one of many severe depressions that would recur throughout his life. Thereafter he decided to study painting, and began attending the Scuola Libera del Nudo of the Accademia di Belle Arti di Roma, there he met Giacomo Balla, who became his first real teacher. Sironi returned to Milan in 1905 before traveling to Paris in 1906, like his friends Gino Severini and Umberto Boccioni, he began painting in a Divisionist style under the guidance of Balla. Sironis works from this period include self-portraits and portraits of his family and he saw Expressionist works during visits to Germany between 1908 and 1911, but mainly stayed in Rome from 1909 to 1914.
In 1914 he exhibited with the Futurists at the Galleria Sprovieri in Rome, Sironi served in World War I as a member of the Lombard Volunteer Cyclists and Drivers. After the war, he abandoned Futurism and developed a style that emphasized massive, in paintings such as La Lampada of 1919, mannequins substitute for figures, as in the metaphysical paintings of Giorgio de Chirico and Carlo Carrà. In 1922, Sironi was one of the founders of the Novecento Italiano movement, paintings such as Venere of 1921–1923 and Solitudine, with their contained, geometric forms, bear some kinship to the neoclassicism evident in works produced at the same time by Picasso. In the late 1920s, Sironi painted monumental figures of nudes, peasants, in these works—described by Fabio Benzi as marked by a sense of humanity burdened with history. An almost Romanesque spirit of a solemn expressionism—the pure forms of Sironis earlier work were replaced by a primitivist form of classicism, in paintings of fishermen at work or drinkers in cafés, he adopted a deliberately ungainly style similar to that of Georges Rouault.
A supporter of Mussolini, Sironi contributed a number of cartoons—over 1700 in all—to Il Popolo dItalia and La Rivista Illustrata del Popola dItalia. Rejecting the art market and the concept of the painting, he became committed to the ideal of a fusion of decoration and architecture. He felt that the mural was the basis of a popular national art. Although his esthetic of brutal monumentality represented the dominant style of Italian Fascism, as an artist closely identified with Fascism, Sironis reputation declined dramatically in the post-World War II period. Embittered by the course of events, he had returned to painting in 1943. His withdrawal from society increased after the death of his daughter Rossana by suicide in 1948, the paintings of his years sometimes approach abstraction, resembling assemblages of archaeological fragments, or juxtaposed sketches
Post-Impressionism is a predominantly French art movement that developed roughly between 1886 and 1905, from the last Impressionist exhibition to the birth of Fauvism. Post-Impressionism emerged as a reaction against Impressionists concern for the depiction of light. The movement was led by Paul Cézanne, Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh, the term Post-Impressionism was first used by art critic Roger Fry in 1906. Three weeks later, Roger Fry used the term again when he organized the 1910 exhibition, the Post-Impressionists were dissatisfied with what they felt was the triviality of subject matter and the loss of structure in Impressionist paintings, though they did not agree on the way forward. Georges Seurat and his followers concerned themselves with Pointillism, the use of tiny dots of colour. Paul Cézanne set out to restore a sense of order and structure to painting, to make of Impressionism something solid and durable and he achieved this by reducing objects to their basic shapes while retaining the saturated colours of Impressionism.
The Impressionist Camille Pissarro experimented with Neo-Impressionist ideas between the mid-1880s and the early 1890s, Vincent van Gogh used colour and vibrant swirling brush strokes to convey his feelings and his state of mind. Although they often exhibited together, Post-Impressionist artists were not in agreement concerning a cohesive movement, the abstract concerns of harmony and structural arrangement, in the work of all these artists, took precedence over naturalism. Artists such as Seurat adopted a scientific approach to colour. Younger painters during the early 20th century worked in geographically disparate regions and in various categories, such as Fauvism and Cubism. Most of the artists in Frys exhibition were younger than the Impressionists, Fry explained, For purposes of convenience, it was necessary to give these artists a name, and I chose, as being the vaguest and most non-committal, the name of Post-Impressionism. This merely stated their position in time relatively to the Impressionist movement, john Rewald limited the scope to the years between 1886 and 1892 in his pioneering publication on Post-Impressionism, From Van Gogh to Gauguin.
This volume would extend the period covered to other artistic movements derived from Impressionism, though confined to the late 19th, Rewald focused on such outstanding early Post-Impressionists active in France as van Gogh, Gauguin and Redon. Pont-Aven School, implying more than that the artists involved had been working for a while in Pont-Aven or elsewhere in Brittany. Symbolism, a highly welcomed by vanguard critics in 1891. Rewald wrote that the term Post-Impressionism is not a precise one. Convenient, when the term is by definition limited to French visual arts derived from Impressionism since 1886, rewalds approach to historical data was narrative rather than analytic, and beyond this point he believed it would be sufficient to let the sources speak for themselves. Rival terms like Modernism or Symbolism were never as easy to handle, for they covered literature and other arts as well, however, is considered to be a concept which emerged a century in France, and implied an individual approach
Daniel Buren is a French conceptual artist. Among his chief concerns is the scene of production as a way of presenting art, the work is site-specific installation, having a relation to its setting in contrast to prevailing ideas of an autonomous work of art. He graduated from the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Métiers dArt in Paris and he began painting in the early 1960s. Denoting the trademark stripes as an instrument or seeing tool. In June 1970 he put stripes on the front and back of Los Angeles bus benches without permission, in another controversial gesture he blocked the entrance of the gallery with stripes of his first solo exhibition. Expanding on this idea, in 1971 he created a banner, Peinture-Sculpture. In the late 1960s he connected to the ideas of space, often referred to as the stripe guy, Buren expresses his theme in paint, laser cut fabric, light boxes, transparent fabrics and ceramic cup sets. His stripes are displayed in homes, public places. Since the 1950s he has amassed some 400,000 of what he calls photos-souvenirs, documenting his work, from 1960 on, Buren designed a number of permanent site-specific installations in the United States, Belgium and Germany.
In 1986 he created a 3, 000-square-meter sculpture in the courtyard of the Palais Royal, in Paris, Les Deux Plateaux. This provoked a debate over the integration of contemporary art. In 1993, Buren was commissioned to design the work in situ, Poser/Déposer/Exposer, since the 1990s, Burens work has become more architectural. He creates new spaces within existing environments such as city centers, public parks, entire museums, and even beaches. In 2004, for the occasion of the opening of the French cultural year in China, a Rainbow in the Sky consisted of thousands of colorful pennant flags hovering over a busy pedestrian square in Pasadena, California for two months. Buren collaborated with Hermès on a number of occasions, in 2010, he created Photo souvenirs au carrè, a 365 limited-edition line of scarves decorated with silk-printed photographs. In 2009 Buren collaborated with the collective Ensemble La Ligne created by RCP Design Global agency, among others, Louis Dandrel and Roger Tallon to create Curseur.
It is a work in situ – for Tours Tram – three black and white stripes vertically, which join the same horizontal marking on the ground. Trainsets shaped cursor with mirror effect identified in black and white stripes, in 2014, the rooftop of Modernist architect Le Corbusiers Cité Radieuse building in Marseilles hosted an installation of mirrors and coloured glass by Buren
Giorgio de Chirico
Giorgio de Chirico was an Italian artist and writer. In the years before World War I, he founded the scuola metafisica art movement, after 1919, he became interested in traditional painting techniques, and worked in a neoclassical or neo-Baroque style, while frequently revisiting the metaphysical themes of his earlier work. De Chirico was born in Volos, Greece, to a Genoan mother and he entered the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich, where he studied under Max Klinger and read the writings of the philosophers Nietzsche, Arthur Schopenhauer and Otto Weininger. There, he studied the works of Arnold Böcklin. He returned to Italy in the summer of 1909 and spent six months in Milan and he painted The Enigma of the Oracle while in Florence. In July 1911 he spent a few days in Turin on his way to Paris, De Chirico was profoundly moved by what he called the metaphysical aspect of Turin, especially the architecture of its archways and piazzas. De Chirico moved to Paris in July 1911, where he joined his brother Andrea.
Through his brother he met Pierre Laprade, a member of the jury at the Salon dAutomne, where he exhibited three of his works, Enigma of the Oracle, Enigma of an Afternoon and Self-Portrait. During 1913 he exhibited paintings at the Salon des Indépendants and Salon d’Automne, his work was noticed by Pablo Picasso and Guillaume Apollinaire, in 1914, through Apollinaire, he met the art dealer Paul Guillaume, with whom he signed a contract for his artistic output. At the outbreak of World War I, he returned to Italy, upon his arrival in May 1915, he enlisted in the army, but he was considered unfit for work and assigned to the hospital at Ferrara. Here he met with Carlo Carrà and together founded the pittura metafisica movement. He continued to paint, and in 1918, he transferred to Rome, starting from 1918, his work was exhibited extensively in Europe. De Chirico is best known for the paintings he produced between 1909 and 1919, his period, which are characterized by haunted, brooding moods evoked by their images.
In autumn,1919, De Chirico published an article in Valori Plastici entitled The Return of Craftsmanship, in which he advocated a return to traditional methods and iconography. In the early 1920s, the Surrealist writer André Breton discovered one of De Chiricos metaphysical paintings on display in Guillaumes Paris gallery, numerous young artists who were similarly affected by De Chiricos imagery became the core of the Paris Surrealist group centered around Breton. In 1924 De Chirico visited Paris and was accepted into the group, De Chirico met and married his first wife, the Russian ballerina Raissa Gurievich in 1925, and together they moved to Paris. His relationship with the Surrealists grew increasingly contentious, as they publicly disparaged his new work, by 1926 he had come to them as cretinous. They soon parted ways in acrimony, in 1928 he held his first exhibition in New York City and shortly afterwards, London
Gino Severini was an Italian painter and a leading member of the Futurist movement. For much of his life he divided his time between Paris and Rome and he was associated with neo-classicism and the return to order in the decade after the First World War. During his career he worked in a variety of media, including mosaic and he showed his work at major exhibitions, including the Rome Quadrennial, and won art prizes from major institutions. Severini was born into a family in Cortona, Italy. His father was a court official and his mother a dressmaker. He studied at the Scuola Tecnica in Cortona until the age of fifteen, for a while he worked with his father, in 1899 he moved to Rome with his mother. It was there that he first showed a serious interest in art, with the help of a patron of Cortonese origins he attended art classes, enrolling in the free school for nude studies and a private academy. His formal art education ended after two years when his patron stopped his allowance, declaring, I absolutely do not understand your lack of order, in 1900 he met the painter Umberto Boccioni.
The ideas of Divisionism had a influence on Severinis early work. Severini settled in Paris in November 1906, the move was momentous for him. He said later, The cities to which I feel most strongly bound are Cortona and Paris, I was born physically in the first and he lived in Montmartre and dedicated himself to painting. There he met most of the artists of the period, befriending Amedeo Modigliani and occupying a studio next to those of Raoul Dufy, Georges Braque. The sale of his work did not provide enough to live on and he was an important link between artists in France and Italy and came into contact with Cubism before his Futurist colleagues. Following a visit to Paris in 1911, the Italian Futurists adopted a sort of Cubism, in 1913, he had solo exhibitions at the Marlborough Gallery and Der Sturm, Berlin. Severini came to agree with Apollinaire, Severini was less attracted to the subject of the machine than his fellow Futurists and frequently chose the form of the dancer to express Futurist theories of dynamism in art.
He was particularly adept at rendering lively urban scenes, for example in Dynamic Hieroglyph of the Bal Tabarin, during the First World War he produced some of the finest Futurist war art, notably his Italian Lancers at a Gallop and Armoured Train. In 1916 Severini departed from Futurism and painted works in a naturalistic style inspired by his interest in early Renaissance art. After the First World War, Severini gradually abandoned the Futurist style, by 1920 he was applying theories of classical balance based on the Golden Section to still lifes and figurative subjects from the traditional commedia dellarte
Luigi Russolo was an Italian Futurist painter, builder of experimental musical instruments, and the author of the manifesto The Art of Noises. He is often regarded as one of the first noise music experimental composers with his performances of music concerts in 1913–14 and again after World War I. He designed and constructed a number of noise-generating devices called Intonarumori, Luigi Russolo was perhaps the first noise artist. His 1913 manifesto, LArte dei Rumori, translated as The Art of Noises, Russolo found traditional melodic music confining, and he envisioned noise music as its future replacement. Russolo designed and constructed a number of noise-generating devices called Intonarumori, a performance of his Gran Concerto Futuristico was met with strong disapproval and violence from the audience, as Russolo himself had predicted. None of his intoning devices have survived, though some have been reconstructed and used in performances. Although Russolos works bear little resemblance to modern music, his pioneering creations cannot be overlooked as an essential stage in the evolution of the several genres in this category.
Many artists are now familiar with Russolos manifesto, at first the art of music sought purity and sweetness of sound. Then different sounds were amalgamated, care being taken, today music, as it becomes continually more complicated, strives to amalgamate the most dissonant and harsh sounds. In this way we come ever closer to noise-sound, antonio Russolo, another Italian Futurist composer and Luigis brother, produced a recording of two works featuring the original Intonarumori. The phonograph recording, made in 1921, included works entitled Corale and Serenata and it is the only surviving contemporaneous sound recording of Luigi Russolos noise music. Russolo and Filippo Tommaso Marinetti gave the first concert of Futurist music, complete with intonarumori, in April 1914, causing a riot. The program comprised four networks of noises with the titles, Awakening of a City Meeting of cars. Some of Russolos instruments were destroyed in World War II, others have been lost, replicas of the instruments have since been built.
A Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art and New York, Oxford University Press. Noise, Visual Arts, and the Occult, Video Video of Carnegie Mellon Universitys 2013 Wats, ON. NOISE Festival, Intonarumori-100 performance featuring 11 reconstructed Intonarumori Instruments