Art Nouveau is an international style of art and applied art the decorative arts, most popular between 1890 and 1910. A reaction to the academic art of the 19th century, it was inspired by natural forms and structures the curved lines of plants and flowers. English uses the French name Art Nouveau; the style is related to, but not identical with, styles that emerged in many countries in Europe at about the same time: in Austria it is known as Secessionsstil after Wiener Secession. Art Nouveau is a total art style: It embraces a wide range of fine and decorative arts, including architecture, graphic art, interior design, furniture, ceramics, glass art, metal work. By 1910, Art Nouveau was out of style, it was replaced as the dominant European architectural and decorative style first by Art Deco and by Modernism. Art Nouveau took its name from the Maison de l'Art Nouveau, an art gallery opened in 1895 by the Franco-German art dealer Siegfried Bing that featured the new style. In France, Art Nouveau was sometimes called by the British term "Modern Style" due to its roots in the Arts and Crafts movement, Style moderne, or Style 1900.
It was sometimes called Style Jules Verne, Le Style Métro, Art Belle Époque, Art fin de siècle. In Belgium, where the architectural movement began, it was sometimes termed Style nouille or Style coup de fouet. In Britain, it was known as the Modern Style, or, because of the Arts and Crafts movement led by Charles Rennie Mackintosh in Glasgow, as the "Glasgow" style. In Italy, because of the popularity of designs from London's Liberty & Co department store, it was called Stile Liberty, Stile floreale, or Arte nuova. In the United States, due to its association with Louis Comfort Tiffany, it was called the "Tiffany style". In Germany and Scandinavia, a related style emerged at about the same time. In Austria and the neighboring countries part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a similar style emerged, called Secessionsstil in German, or Wiener Jugendstil, after the artists of the Vienna Secession; the style was called Modern in Nieuwe Kunst in the Netherlands. In Spain the related style was known as Modernismo, Arte joven.
Some names refer to the organic forms that were popular with the Art Nouveau artists: Stile Floreal in France. The new art movement had its roots in Britain, in the floral designs of William Morris, in the Arts and Crafts movement founded by the pupils of Morris. Early prototypes of the style include the Red House of Morris, the lavish Peacock Room by James Abbott McNeill Whistler; the new movement was strongly influenced by the Pre-Raphaelite painters, including Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Edward Burne-Jones, by British graphic artists of the 1880s, including Selwyn Image, Heywood Sumner, Walter Crane, Alfred Gilbert, Aubrey Beardsley. In France, the style combined several different tendencies. In architecture, it was influenced by the architectural theorist and historian Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, a declared enemy of the historical Beaux-Arts architectural style. In his 1872 book Entretiens sur l'architecture, he wrote, "use the means and knowledge given to us by our times, without the intervening traditions which are no longer viable today, in that way we can inaugurate a new architecture.
For each function its material. This book influenced a generation of architects, including Louis Sullivan, Victor Horta, Hector Guimard, Antoni Gaudí; the French painters Maurice Denis, Pierre Bonnard and Édouard Vuillard played an important part in integrating fine arts painting with decoration. "I believe that before everything a painting must decorate", Denis wrote in 1891. "The choice of subjects or scenes is nothing. It is by the value of tones, the colored surface and the harmony of lines that I can reach the spirit and wake up the emotions." These painters all did both traditional painting and decorative painting on screens, in glass, in other media. Another important influence on the new style was Japonism: the wave of enthusiasm for Japanese woodblock printing the works of Hiroshige and Utagawa Kunisada which were imported into Europe beginning in the 1870s; the enterprising Siegfried Bing founded a monthly journal, Le Japon artistique in 1888, published thirty-six issues before it ended in 1891.
It influenced both artists, including Gustav Klimt. The stylized features of Japanese prints appeared in Art Nouveau graphics, porcelain and furniture. New technologies in printing and publishing allowed Art Nouveau to reach a global audience. Art magazines, illustrated with photographs and color lithographs, played an essential role in popularizing the new style; the Studio in England, Arts et
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, the tenth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits. The city had an estimated population of 1,752,704 in 2016 distributed over a land area of about 525 square kilometres. Budapest is both a city and county, forms the centre of the Budapest metropolitan area, which has an area of 7,626 square kilometres and a population of 3,303,786, comprising 33 percent of the population of Hungary; the history of Budapest began when an early Celtic settlement transformed into the Roman town of Aquincum, the capital of Lower Pannonia. The Hungarians arrived in the territory in the late 9th century; the area was pillaged by the Mongols in 1241. Buda, the settlements on the west bank of the river, became one of the centres of Renaissance humanist culture by the 15th century; the Battle of Mohács in 1526 was followed by nearly 150 years of Ottoman rule. After the reconquest of Buda in 1686, the region entered a new age of prosperity.
Pest-Buda became a global city with the unification of Buda, Óbuda, Pest on 17 November 1873, with the name'Budapest' given to the new capital. Budapest became the co-capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a great power that dissolved in 1918, following World War I; the city was the focal point of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the Battle of Budapest in 1945, the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. Budapest is an Alpha − global city with strengths in commerce, media, fashion, technology and entertainment, it is Hungary's financial centre and the highest ranked Central and Eastern European city on Innovation Cities Top 100 index, as well ranked as the second fastest-developing urban economy in Europe. Budapest is the headquarters of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology, the European Police College and the first foreign office of the China Investment Promotion Agency. Over 40 colleges and universities are located in Budapest, including the Eötvös Loránd University, the Semmelweis University and the Budapest University of Technology and Economics.
Opened in 1896, the city's subway system, the Budapest Metro, serves 1.27 million, while the Budapest Tram Network serves 1.08 million passengers daily. Budapest is cited as one of the most beautiful cities in Europe, ranked as "the world's second best city" by Condé Nast Traveler, "Europe's 7th most idyllic place to live" by Forbes. Among Budapest's important museums and cultural institutions is the Museum of Fine Arts. Further famous cultural institutions are the Hungarian National Museum, House of Terror, Franz Liszt Academy of Music, Hungarian State Opera House and National Széchényi Library; the central area of the city along the Danube River is classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and has many notable monuments, including the Hungarian Parliament, Buda Castle, Fisherman's Bastion, Gresham Palace, Széchenyi Chain Bridge, Matthias Church and the Liberty Statue. Other famous landmarks include Andrássy Avenue, St. Stephen's Basilica, Heroes' Square, the Great Market Hall, the Nyugati Railway Station built by the Eiffel Company of Paris in 1877 and the second-oldest metro line in the world, the Millennium Underground Railway.
The city has around 80 geothermal springs, the largest thermal water cave system, second largest synagogue, third largest Parliament building in the world. Budapest attracts 4.4 million international tourists per year, making it a popular destination in Europe. The separate towns of Buda, Óbuda, Pest were in 1873 unified and given the new name Budapest. Before this, the towns together had sometimes been referred to colloquially as "Pest-Buda". Pest has been sometimes used colloquially as a shortened name for Budapest. All varieties of English pronounce the -s- as in the English word pest; the -u in Buda- is pronounced either /u/ like food or /ju/ like cue. In Hungarian, the -s- is pronounced /ʃ/ as in wash; the origins of the names "Buda" and "Pest" are obscure. The first name comes from: Buda was the name of the first constable of the fortress built on the Castle Hill in the 11th century or a derivative of Bod or Bud, a personal name of Turkic origin, meaning'twig'. or a Slavic personal name, the short form of Budimír, Budivoj.
Linguistically, however, a German origin through the Slavic derivative вода is not possible, there is no certainty that a Turkic word comes from the word buta ~ buda'branch, twig'. According to a legend recorded in chronicles from the Middle Ages, "Buda" comes from the name of its founder, brother of Hunnic ruler Attila. There are several theories about Pest. One states that the name derives from Roman times, since there was a local fortress called by Ptolemaios "Pession". Another has it that Pest originates in the Slavic word for пещера, or peštera. A third cites pešt, referencing a cave where fires burned or a limekiln; the first settlement on the territory of Budapest was built by Celts before 1 AD. It was occupied by the Romans; the Roman settlement – Aquincum – became the main city of Pannonia Inferior in 106 AD. At first it was a military settlement, the city rose around it, making it the focal point of the city's commercial life. Today this area corresponds to the Óbuda district within Budapest.
The Romans constructed roads, amphitheaters and houses with heated floors in this fortified military camp. The Roman city of Aquincum is the best-conserved of the Roman sites in Hungary; the archaeological site was turned into a museum with open-air sections. The Magyar tribes led by Árpád, forc
Grand Boulevard (Budapest)
Nagykörút or Grand Boulevard is one of the most central and busiest parts of Budapest, a major thoroughfare built by 1896, Hungary's Millennium. It forms a semicircle connecting two bridges of the Danube, Margaret Bridge on the north and Petőfi Bridge on the south; the part inside and around this semicircle is counted as the city centre of Budapest. Nagykörút is a colloquial name of its five parts which connect to each other: Szent István körút, Teréz körút, Erzsébet körút, József körút and Ferenc körút. Nagykörút is meant to include its Pest part, but it might be applied to its extension on the Buda side as well, it consists of a 35 - about 4.5-kilometre-long road with a tram line in the middle. It crosses a few major squares such as Nyugati tér, Oktogon and Blaha Lujza tér, basic points of reference for the locals; the four major roads which cross it are Andrássy Avenue, Rákóczi út and Üllői út. On the Nagykörút one can find the Comedy Theatre, Western Railway Station, Radisson Blu Béke Hotel, Corinthia Hotel Budapest, the New York Café, today Boscolo Budapest Hotel, the Art Nouveau palace of the Museum of Applied Arts.
Among the modern landmarks are the Skála Metró shopping centre and the WestEnd City Center, a shopping mall. Beside them, there are lots of small and bigger shops, stores on its either side, turn-of-the-century residential buildings above them; the four metro lines have five stations on Nagykörút, at the junctions of the above four roads: Nyugati pályaudvar, Blaha Lujza tér, Rákóczi tér and Corvin-negyed. A characteristic vehicle of the Grand Boulevard is the tram no. 4 and 6, reaching Buda both in north and south. The line dates back to 1887 and it has since extended to 8.5 km in length and 21 stations to become the busiest tram line of Europe, carrying 200,000 travellers a day. Its trams, a unique type in Budapest, have been replaced by low-floor Siemens Combino Supra vehicles, the longest ones in Europe, after July 1, 2006. Tram stations were elevated and in places widened and modernized, ramps added, the electric cables renovated and some rail sections replaced during the reconstruction, which cost altogether 3.4 billion forints.
There are three further ring roads in Budapest: the Small Boulevard, with the length of about 1.5 km, inside the semicircle of Nagykörút, the Hungária körgyűrű, an bigger ring road outside Nagykörút, not always thought of as a single entity. The M0 motorway, which encircles the three-quarters of the metropolitan area, connecting motorways M1, M7, M6, M5, M4 and M3; the Budapest Tourism Office on the Grand Boulevard Szent István körút Photos of the introduction of the new tram carriage
Rákóczi Bridge is a bridge in Budapest, connecting the settlements of Buda and Pest across the Danube. The construction of the steel girder bridge was started in 1992 to the plans of Tibor Sigrai, it is named after the Rákóczi family, but is still more referred to as Lágymányosi híd. This bridge is the southernmost, the second newest, public bridge in the capital, its Pest end is a station of Csepel HÉV, the venue of the new Hungarian National Theatre and the Palace of Arts. The bridge has been designed to the transfer of trams; the place left to the tram track in the middle of the bridge. The Reconstruction of the tram 1 and the bridge passage line section were built together; the bridge is planned to deliver by Jan. 2015, but the opening was delayed, because the National Transport Authority. They required one more load test with 1000t and after. Erzsébet Bridge Liberty Bridge Margaret Bridge Petőfi Bridge Széchenyi Chain Bridge Bridges of Budapest List of crossings of the Danube River DBridges - Lágymányosi bridge Photos of Budapest bridges National Theatre Palace of Arts Bridges of Budapest - Lagymanyosi Bridge
The Megyeri Bridge known as the Northern M0 Danube bridge, is a cable-stayed bridge that spans the River Danube between Buda and Pest the west and east sides of Budapest, the capital of Hungary. It is an important section of the M0 ringroad around Budapest; the bridge cost 63 billion forints to build and was opened on September 30, 2008. An online naming poll to determine the new name of the built bridge caused controversy and received media attention when American comedians Stephen Colbert and Jon Stewart won; the total length of the bridge is 1862m. Structurally it is composed of five parts: Left quayside inundation area bridge: 148m Main Danube-branch bridge: 590m with a span of 300m Szentendre Island inundation area bridge: 559m Szentendre Danube-branch bridge: 332m Right quayside inundation area bridge: 218m The Ministry of Economic Affairs and Transport of Hungary organized a public vote online to solicit possible names for the new bridge; the three names with the most votes, as well as suggestions from local governments, cartographers and other experts, were to be reviewed by a government committee before a final name for the bridge was chosen.
New nominations were accepted until August 21, 2006, the voting ended on September 8, 2006. On August 1, 2006, Reuters reported that the top candidate according to the online poll was the "Chuck Norris híd", named for American action star Chuck Norris. On August 9, 2006, American satirist Stephen Colbert discussed the story on his comedy program The Colbert Report, instructing his viewers to visit the polling website and vote for him instead of Norris; the next day the number of votes for him had grown 230 times, he now asked his viewers to follow a link from his own "Colbert Nation" website, to avoid "all that illegible Hungarian". Colbert's site indirectly offered techniques for "stuffing the ballot box", as users of their forums created several automated scripts to cast multiple votes for Colbert. On August 15, 2006, he repeated his call to be voted top of the Hungarian poll, by August 22, 2006, the "Stephen Colbert híd" was in first with 17 million votes, about 14 million votes ahead of the second-placed Zrínyi híd, named after the Croatian-Hungarian national hero, Miklós Zrínyi, about 7 million more than the entire population of Hungary.
The same day, the site announced a new round of voting, which would require registration to participate, Colbert asked his viewers to "call off the dogs", requesting on his website that fans stop using scripts to vote. Despite this, the "Stephen Colbert híd" remained in the top position on the website in the second round. On September 14, 2006, András Simonyi—the ambassador of Hungary to the United States—announced on The Colbert Report that Stephen Colbert had won the vote. For Colbert, Ambassador Simonyi declared that under Hungarian law, Colbert would have to be fluent in Hungarian, would have to be deceased in order to have the bridge named for him. However, after saying the rules could most be bent, he invited Colbert to visit Hungary and view the construction in person and gave him a Hungarian passport and a 10,000 HUF Bill, with an approximate value of, as the ambassador put it,'fifty dollars, fifty good US dollars'. Colbert promptly tried to bribe him with said money. On September 28, 2006, it was announced that the bridge will be named "Megyeri Bridge" though that name did not make it to the second round.
The Hungarian Geographical Name Committee justified the final name by explaining that the bridge connects Káposztásmegyer and Békásmegyer. List of crossings of the Danube River Google Earth 3D model of the bridge Megyeri híd - pictures and articles Photos of Budapest bridges Bloomberg article Computer generated video of the Northern M0 Danube bridge Index.hu article Public transport map of Budapest and Bridges of Budapest - Megyeri Bridge Aerial photographs of the bridge
Árpád Bridge or Árpád híd is a bridge in Budapest, connecting northern Buda and Pest across the Danube. Until the inauguration of Megyeri Bridge in 2008, it was the longest bridge in Hungary, spanning about 2 km with the sections leading up to the bridge, 928 m without them, it is 35.3 m wide with a tramline. At its Óbuda end is Flórián tér, Szentlélek tér. Margaret Island is connected to Árpád Bridge through an embranchment in the middle of the bridge, crosses the Southern tip of Óbuda Island as well, although there is no road, pedestrian or any other connection whatsoever between the two. At the Pest end, the adjoining Line 3 metro station is called "Árpád híd". In earlier times there was a bridge in the same area established by the Romans, it was connecting a fort and the old Roman settlement of Aquincum. There was a plan at the beginning of the 19th century, to create a new bridge named Árpád, however the tender was announced only in 1929. Construction began in 1939 by the plans of János Kossalka.
It was planned to be named "Árpád Bridge" after Grand Prince Árpád, the second Grand Prince of the Magyars. Due to World War II, the bridge was finished only after the war in 1950; because of the communist regime ruling Hungary, the bridge was opened as Stalin Bridge. The final construction works were directed by Pál Sávoly. Although the pillars were built in their current dimensions, the original bridge contained only a 2x1 lane road, railroad tracks with pedestrian paths; this bridge was 13 m wide, 11 meters of this was the road and the tracks, an additional 1 m wide pedestrian path were on each sides. Today the tram tracks are; the name was changed back to Árpád Bridge in 1958. Between 1980 and 1984, by extensive reconstruction and expansion works, two more lanes were added for cars, the pedestrian pathways were widened, the tram track was modernized and overpasses were built for the intersections at both Eastern and Western ends of Árpád Bridge; this was planned and executed in connection with the expansion of the adjacent Róbert Károly körút to 2x3 lanes and double tramway tracks.
The project was called Hungária körgyűrű, although the last third of the belt was finished only around the millennium, years after the completion of Lágymányosi Bridge at the other end of the planned beltway. Bridges of Budapest List of crossings of the Danube River Page about transportation in Hungary Hungarian electronic library's page on Hungarian Bridges DBridges - Árpád híd Photos of Budapest bridges Bridges of Budapest - Arpad Bridge Coordinates: 47°32′16″N 19°03′12″E
The Budapest Metro is the rapid transit system in the Hungarian capital Budapest. It is the oldest electrified underground railway system on the European continent, the third-oldest electrically operated underground railway in the world, predated by the 1890 City & South London Railway and the Liverpool Overhead Railway in 1893-96, its iconic Line 1 was completed in 1896. The first metro line was conceived as a means of carrying passengers from the city centre to the City Park without the need for surface transport on Andrássy Avenue; the Diet of Hungary approved the metro project in 1870. Construction began in 1894 and was carried out by the German firm Siemens & Halske AG; this original metro line followed a northeast-southwest route along Andrássy Avenue from Vörösmarty Square, in the centre of the city, to the City Park and Zoo, a distance of 3.7 kilometres. There were a total of eleven stations on the line, with two above-ground. With trains running every two minutes, the line was capable of carrying up to 35,000 passengers per day.
One of the original Budapest Metro cars has been preserved at the Seashore Trolley Museum in the United States. Original carriages can be seen in the Underground Railway Museum at Deák Ferenc tér stationThe second line was scheduled for completion in 1955, but construction was put on hold for financial and political reasons from 1954 to 1963. Line 2 was built with help of Soviet specialists and opened with seven stations on April 4, 1970, it follows an east-west route, connecting the major Déli railway stations. It has a joint station with the original line at Deák Ferenc Square; the first line underwent a thorough refurbishment between 1970 and 1973, which included replacement of its rolling stock and a switch from left-hand drive to right-hand drive for the sake of consistency. In 1973, both lines were extended -- the second with four; the lines reached their current lengths of 10.3 kilometres, respectively. The Budapest Transport Company took over operation of the metro that same year. Planning for Line 3 began in 1963 and construction started in 1970 with help of Soviet specialists.
The first section, consisting of six stations, opened in 1976. It was extended to the south in 1980 with five additional stations, to the north in 1981, 1984, 1990, with nine additional stations. With a length of 16 kilometres and a total of 20 stations, it is the longest line in Budapest. Concurrently with the opening of Line 3, the metro adopted a colour-coding scheme for easier identification; the first line was given the colour yellow, the second line red, the third, blue. Additionally, green is used to mark the suburban railways around Budapest. In the 1980s and 1990s, Line 1 underwent major reconstruction. Of its 11 stations, eight are original and three were added during reconstruction; the original appearance of the old stations has been preserved, each station feature displays of historical photographs and information. There is a Millennium Underground Museum in the Deák Ferenc Square concourse; the metro consists of four lines, each denoted by a different colour. M1 Földalatti runs from Mexikói út south-west towards the river.
The M2 line travels east-west through the city. The M3 runs in a broadly north-south alignment, interchanging with the three other lines; the M4 line commences at Keleti pályaudvar and travels south-west, crossing the river, to terminate at Kelenföld vasútállomás. Line 1 runs northeast from the city center on the Pest side under Andrássy út to the Városliget, or City Park. Like Metro 3, it does not serve Buda. Line 1, the oldest of the metro lines operating in Budapest, has been in constant operation since 1896. There are plans for the future for a resurrection with more stations. Line 2 runs east-west from Déli pályaudvar in Buda's Krisztinaváros, through the city center, to Örs vezér tere in eastern Pest, it offers connections to Hungarian State Railways at Déli and Keleti pályaudvars, to metro Lines 1 and 3 at Deák Ferenc tér, to line 4 at Keleti pályaudvar, to suburban railway lines 8 and 9 at Örs vezér tere. Prior to line 4's opening, it was the only metro line. Line 2 underwent major reconstruction in the late oughts, with all of the track and stations completed in 2008.
Line 3 runs in a north-south direction on the Pest side of the river and connects several populous microraion with the Inner City. It has a transfer station with Line 1 and Line 2 at Deák Ferenc tér, a transfer station for Line 4 at Kálvin tér, it is the longest line in the Budapest Metro, its daily ridership is estimated at 610,000. From November 2017, BKK begins a resurrection on the line for 3 years, first between Újpest-központ and Lehel tér, second between Nagyvárad tér and Kőbánya-Kispest Lehel tér and Nagyvárad tér. There are plans for connecting Ferenc Liszt Airport. Line 4 runs southwest-northeast from Kelenföldi pályaudvar in Buda's Kelenföld neighborhood to Keleti Railway Station in Józsefváros. With a length of 7.4 kilometres, it connects to Hungarian State Railways at its termini, to the metro's Line 3 at Kálvin tér, to Line 2 at Keleti. Line 4 comprises ten stations; the Purple Line 5 is a proposed north-south railway tunnel to connect the separated elements of the suburban rail network, namely th