Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry. Aircraft includes fixed-wing and rotary-wing types, morphable wings, wing-less lifting bodies, as well as lighter-than-air craft such as balloons and airships. Aviation began in the 18th century with the development of the hot air balloon, an apparatus capable of atmospheric displacement through buoyancy; some of the most significant advancements in aviation technology came with the controlled gliding flying of Otto Lilienthal in 1896. Since that time, aviation has been technologically revolutionized by the introduction of the jet which permitted a major form of transport throughout the world; the word aviation was coined by the French writer and former naval officer Gabriel La Landelle in 1863. He derived the term from the verb avier, itself derived from the Latin word avis and the suffix -ation. There are early legends of human flight such as the stories of Icarus in Greek myth and Jamshid and Shah Kay Kāvus in Persian myth.
Somewhat more credible claims of short-distance human flights appear, such as the flying automaton of Archytas of Tarentum, the winged flights of Abbas ibn Firnas, Eilmer of Malmesbury, the hot-air Passarola of Bartholomeu Lourenço de Gusmão. The modern age of aviation began with the first untethered human lighter-than-air flight on November 21, 1783, of a hot air balloon designed by the Montgolfier brothers; the practicality of balloons was limited. It was recognized that a steerable, or dirigible, balloon was required. Jean-Pierre Blanchard flew the first human-powered dirigible in 1784 and crossed the English Channel in one in 1785. Rigid airships became the first aircraft to transport passengers and cargo over great distances; the best known aircraft of this type were manufactured by the German Zeppelin company. The most successful Zeppelin was the Graf Zeppelin, it flew over one million miles, including an around-the-world flight in August 1929. However, the dominance of the Zeppelins over the airplanes of that period, which had a range of only a few hundred miles, was diminishing as airplane design advanced.
The "Golden Age" of the airships ended on May 6, 1937 when the Hindenburg caught fire, killing 36 people. The cause of the Hindenburg accident was blamed on the use of hydrogen instead of helium as the lift gas. An internal investigation by the manufacturer revealed that the coating used in the material covering the frame was flammable and allowed static electricity to build up in the airship. Changes to the coating formulation reduced the risk of further Hindenburg type accidents. Although there have been periodic initiatives to revive their use, airships have seen only niche application since that time. In 1799, Sir George Cayley set forth the concept of the modern airplane as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate systems for lift and control. Early dirigible developments included machine-powered propulsion, rigid frames and improved speed and maneuverability There are many competing claims for the earliest powered, heavier-than-air flight; the first recorded powered flight was carried out by Clément Ader on October 9, 1890 in his bat-winged self-propelled fixed-wing aircraft, the Ader Éole.
It was the first manned, heavier-than-air flight of a significant distance but insignificant altitude from level ground. Seven years on 14 October 1897, Ader's Avion III was tested without success in front of two officials from the French War ministry; the report on the trials was not publicized until 1910. In November 1906 Ader claimed to have made a successful flight on 14 October 1897, achieving an "uninterrupted flight" of around 300 metres. Although believed at the time, these claims were discredited; the Wright brothers made the first successful powered and sustained airplane flight on December 17, 1903, a feat made possible by their invention of three-axis control. Only a decade at the start of World War I, heavier-than-air powered aircraft had become practical for reconnaissance, artillery spotting, attacks against ground positions. Aircraft began to transport people and cargo as designs grew more reliable; the Wright brothers took aloft the first passenger, Charles Furnas, one of their mechanics, on May 14, 1908.
During the 1920s and 1930s great progress was made in the field of aviation, including the first transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown in 1919, Charles Lindbergh's solo transatlantic flight in 1927, Charles Kingsford Smith's transpacific flight the following year. One of the most successful designs of this period was the Douglas DC-3, which became the first airliner to be profitable carrying passengers starting the modern era of passenger airline service. By the beginning of World War II, many towns and cities had built airports, there were numerous qualified pilots available; the war brought many innovations to aviation, including the first jet aircraft and the first liquid-fueled rockets. After World War II in North America, there was a boom in general aviation, both private and commercial, as thousands of pilots were released from military service and many inexpensive war-surplus transport and training aircraft became available. Manufacturers such as Cessna and Beechcraft expanded production to provide light aircraft for the new middle-class market.
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, to fly forward and laterally; these attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft and many forms of VTOL aircraft cannot perform. The English word helicopter is adapted from the French word hélicoptère, coined by Gustave Ponton d'Amécourt in 1861, which originates from the Greek helix "helix, whirl, convolution" and pteron "wing". English language nicknames for helicopter include "chopper", "copter", "helo", "heli", "whirlybird". Helicopters were developed and built during the first half-century of flight, with the Focke-Wulf Fw 61 being the first operational helicopter in 1936; some helicopters reached limited production, but it was not until 1942 that a helicopter designed by Igor Sikorsky reached full-scale production, with 131 aircraft built. Though most earlier designs used more than one main rotor, it is the single main rotor with anti-torque tail rotor configuration that has become the most common helicopter configuration.
Tandem rotor helicopters are in widespread use due to their greater payload capacity. Coaxial helicopters, tiltrotor aircraft, compound helicopters are all flying today. Quadcopter helicopters pioneered as early as 1907 in France, other types of multicopter have been developed for specialized applications such as unmanned drones; the earliest references for vertical flight came from China. Since around 400 BC, Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys; this bamboo-copter is spun by rolling a stick attached to a rotor. The spinning creates lift, the toy flies when released; the 4th-century AD Daoist book Baopuzi by Ge Hong describes some of the ideas inherent to rotary wing aircraft. Designs similar to the Chinese helicopter toy appeared in some Renaissance paintings and other works. In the 18th and early 19th centuries Western scientists developed flying machines based on the Chinese toy, it was not until the early 1480s, when Italian polymath Leonardo da Vinci created a design for a machine that could be described as an "aerial screw", that any recorded advancement was made towards vertical flight.
His notes suggested that he built small flying models, but there were no indications for any provision to stop the rotor from making the craft rotate. As scientific knowledge increased and became more accepted, people continued to pursue the idea of vertical flight. In July 1754, Russian Mikhail Lomonosov had developed a small coaxial modeled after the Chinese top but powered by a wound-up spring device and demonstrated it to the Russian Academy of Sciences, it was powered by a spring, was suggested as a method to lift meteorological instruments. In 1783, Christian de Launoy, his mechanic, used a coaxial version of the Chinese top in a model consisting of contrarotating turkey flight feathers as rotor blades, in 1784, demonstrated it to the French Academy of Sciences. Sir George Cayley, influenced by a childhood fascination with the Chinese flying top, developed a model of feathers, similar to that of Launoy and Bienvenu, but powered by rubber bands. By the end of the century, he had progressed to using sheets of tin for rotor blades and springs for power.
His writings on his experiments and models would become influential on future aviation pioneers. Alphonse Pénaud would develop coaxial rotor model helicopter toys in 1870 powered by rubber bands. One of these toys, given as a gift by their father, would inspire the Wright brothers to pursue the dream of flight. In 1861, the word "helicopter" was coined by Gustave de Ponton d'Amécourt, a French inventor who demonstrated a small steam-powered model. While celebrated as an innovative use of a new metal, the model never lifted off the ground. D'Amecourt's linguistic contribution would survive to describe the vertical flight he had envisioned. Steam power was popular with other inventors as well. In 1878 the Italian Enrico Forlanini's unmanned vehicle powered by a steam engine, rose to a height of 12 meters, where it hovered for some 20 seconds after a vertical take-off. Emmanuel Dieuaide's steam-powered design featured counter-rotating rotors powered through a hose from a boiler on the ground. In 1887 Parisian inventor, Gustave built and flew a tethered electric model helicopter.
In July 1901, the maiden flight of Hermann Ganswindt's helicopter took place in Berlin-Schöneberg. A movie covering the event was taken by Max Skladanowsky. In 1885, Thomas Edison was given US$1,000 by James Gordon Bennett, Jr. to conduct experiments towards developing flight. Edison built a helicopter and used the paper for a stock ticker to create guncotton, with which he attempted to power an internal combustion engine; the helicopter was damaged by explosions and one of his workers was badly burned. Edison reported that it would take a motor with a ratio of three to four pounds per horsepower produced to be successful, based on his experiments. Ján Bahýľ, a Slovak inventor, adapted the internal combustion engine to power his helicopter model that reached a height of 0.5 meters in 1901. On 5 May 1905, his helicopter flew for over 1,500 meters. In 1908, Edison patented his own design for a helicopter powered by a gasoline engine with box kites attached to a mast by cables for a rotor, but it never flew.
In 1906, two French brothers and Louis Breguet, began experimenting with airfoils for helicopters. In
Solent Sky is an aviation museum in Southampton, Hampshire known as Southampton Hall of Aviation. It depicts the history of aviation in the Solent area and Hampshire. There is special focus on the Supermarine aircraft company, based in Southampton, its most famous products, the Supermarine S.6 seaplane and the Supermarine Spitfire, designed by R. J. Mitchell. There is coverage of the Schneider Trophy seaplane races, twice held at Calshot Spit, the flying boat services which operated from the Solent. Aircraft on display at the museum include: Avro 504J - Replica Britten-Norman BN-1 de Havilland Sea Vixen FAW Mk.1 - XJ476 de Havilland Tiger Moth de Havilland Vampire Folland Gnat Hawker Siddeley Harrier GR.3 - Cockpit section. Modified to resemble Harrier FRS.1 Mignet HM.14 Pou-du-Ciel Saro Skeeter Saunders-Roe SR. A/1 - TG263 Short Sandringham S.25/V - VH-BRC, Beachcomber Slingsby Grasshopper Slingsby Tandem Tutor SUMPAC Supermarine S.6A - N248, competed in the 1929 Schneider Trophy Supermarine Seagull - Nose section only Supermarine Spitfire F.24 - PK683 Supermarine Swift - Cockpit section Wight Quadruplane - Replica Alvis Leonides Alvis Leonides Major Bristol Siddeley Orpheus Bristol Proteus de Havilland Gipsy Major Gnome Monosoupape Metrovick Beryl Napier Gazelle Napier Lion Napier Naiad Napier Sabre Napier Scorpion Rolls-Royce/Continental 0-300 Rolls-Royce Derwent Rolls-Royce Merlin The work of Solent Sky is supported by a registered charity, the R. J. Mitchell Memorial Museum Limited, whose objects are "to advance the education of the public in matters relating to aviation by establishing and maintaining a museum as a permanent memorial to R. J. Mitchell, the designer of the Schneider Trophy S6B seaplane and the Spitfire."
List of aerospace museums Official website R. J. Mitchell website Profile at Aviation Museums of the World Museum guide at Aeroflight
Gatwick Aviation Museum
The Gatwick Aviation Museum is an aviation museum located in the village of Charlwood, in Surrey, on the boundary of Gatwick Airport. Some of the aircraft are capable of running their engines on event days; this is thanks to the team of museum staff and volunteers who are helping to restore and maintain these unique aircraft. The Avro Shackleton MR3, Blackburn Buccaneer S1 and English Electric Lightning F.53 are now performing public engine runs on event days. Started in 1987 as a private collection by local businessman Peter Vallance, the museum became a registered charity in 1999 with the objective of providing awareness of local aviation history and as an educational centre for the general public for local students and schoolchildren. A close relationship exists between the museum and the Central Sussex College which uses the museum's facilities to provide practical training for the students taking aerospace courses; the museum has a varied collection of aircraft engines and over 500 aircraft models.
The museum has displays and artifacts related to local aviation history Gatwick Airport. Aircraft may run their engines during museum open days; the museum has been in dispute since July 2011 with Mole Valley District Council concerning planning permission, as despite its co-location with Gatwick Airport, the council has refused permission for a permanent museum site due to a concern over the height of the proposed new building and the location within the Metropolitan Green Belt. Vallance lodged a planning appeal against the decision in January 2012, dismissed in June of that year. On 14 January 2013, Vallance died whilst undergoing an operation on his heart. Since that time the museum has been run by a charitable trust set up by Peter to cover this eventuality; the museum, as of 2015, has planning permission approved. In 2016, the new museum building opened to the public, it houses many of the aircraft kept outdoors. A shop, refreshment area, flight simulator and information on the history of Gatwick Airport can be found in the building.
The museum is now open to the public every Friday and Sunday. List of aerospace museums Registered Charity No. 1075858 Ellis, Ken. Wrecks & Relics. Hinckley: Midland Publishing. P. 211. ISBN 1857802357. Gatwick Aviation Museum - Official Guide Gatwick Aviation Museum
A gyrodyne is a type of VTOL aircraft with a helicopter rotor-like system, driven by its engine for takeoff and landing and includes one or more conventional propellers to provide forward thrust during cruising flight. Lift during forward flight is provided by a combination of the rotor, like an autogyro, conventional wings. Due to a number of issues, there is some confusion over the term "gyrodyne", the terms compound helicopter and compound gyroplane are used to describe the same design; the gyrodyne is one of a number of similar concepts which attempt to provide helicopter-like low-speed performance and conventional fixed-wing high-speeds, including tiltrotors and tiltwings. In response to a Royal Navy request for a helicopter, Dr. James Allan Jamieson Bennett designed the gyrodyne whilst serving as the chief engineer of the Cierva Autogiro Company; the gyrodyne was envisioned as an intermediate type of rotorcraft, its rotor operating parallel to the flightpath to minimize axial flow with one or more propellers providing propulsion.
Bennett's patent covered a variety of designs, which has led to some of the terminology confusion – other issues including the trademarked Gyrodyne Company of America and the Federal Aviation Administration classification of rotorcraft. In recent years, a related concept has been promoted under the name heliplane. Used to market gyroplanes built by two different companies, the term has been adopted to describe a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency program to develop advances in rotorcraft technology with the goal of overcoming the current limitations of helicopters in both speed and payload. In Britain, Dr. James Allan Jamieson Bennett, Chief Engineer of the Cierva Autogiro Company, conceived an intermediate type of rotorcraft in 1936, which he named "gyrodyne" and, tendered to the British Government in response to an Air Ministry specification. In 1939, Bennett was issued a patent from the UK Patent Office, assigned to the Cierva Autogiro Company. On 23 August 1940 the Autogiro Company of America, licensees of the Cierva Autogiro Company, Ltd. filed a corresponding patent application in the United States.
On 27 April 1943, US patent #2,317,340 was issued to the Autogiro Company of America. The patents describe a gyrodyne as:a rotary wing aircraft intermediate in type, hereinafter referred to as "gyrodyne", between a rotaplane, on the one hand, a pure helicopter, on the other hand, with a mean axial flow through the rotor disc zero at high forward speed. Bennett's concept described a shaft-driven rotor, with anti-torque and propulsion for translational flight provided by one or more propellers mounted on stub wings. With thrust being provided by the propellers at cruise speeds, power would be provided to the rotor only to overcome the profile drag of the rotor, operating in a more efficient manner than the freewheeling rotor of an autogyro in autorotation. Bennett described this flight regime of the gyrodyne as an "intermediate state", requiring power to be supplied to both the rotor and the propulsion system; the Cierva Autogiro Company, Ltd's, C.41 gyrodyne pre-WW2 design study was updated and built by Fairey Aviation as the FB-1 Gyrodyne commencing in 1945.
Fairey's development efforts were led by Bennett, followed by his successor Dr. George S. Hislop. George B. L. Ellis and Frederick L. Hodgess, engineers from the pre-WW2 Cierva Autogiro Company, Ltd. joined Bennett at Fairey Aviation. The first Fairey Gyrodyne prototype crashed during a test flight; the second Gyrodyne prototype was rebuilt as the Jet Gyrodyne and used to develop a pressure-jet rotor drive system for the Rotodyne transport compound gyroplane. At the tip of each stub wing were rearward-facing propellers which provided both yaw control and propulsion in forward flight; the Jet Gyrodyne flew in 1954, made a true transition from vertical to horizontal flight in March 1955. This led to the prototype Fairey Rotodyne, developed to combine the efficiency of a fixed-wing aircraft at cruise with the VTOL capability of a helicopter to provide short haul airliner service from city centres to airports, it had short wings that carried two Napier Eland turboprop engines for forward propulsion and up to 40% of the aircraft's weight in forward flight.
The rotor was driven by translational flight up to 80 mph. Despite considerable commercial and military interest worldwide in the prototype Type Y Rotodyne for air transport, British orders were not forthcoming and British Government financial support was terminated in 1962; the division's new parent Westland Helicopters did not see good cause for further investment and the project was stopped. With the end of the Fairey Aviation programs, gyrodyne development came to a halt, although several similar concepts continued to be developed. In 1954, the McDonnell XV-1 was developed as a rotorcraft with tip jets to provide vertical takeoff capability; the aircraft had wings and a propeller mounted on the rear of the fuselage between twin tailbooms with two small rotors mounted at the end for yaw control. The second prototype of XV-1 became the world's first rotorcraft to exceed 200 mph in level flight on 10 October 1956. No more were built and the XV-1 project was terminated in 1957. In 1998, Carter Aviation Technologies flew its technology demonstrator aircraft.
The aircraft is a compound autogyro with a high-inertia rotor and wings optimized for high-speed flight. In 2005, the aircraft demonstrated flight at mu-1, with the rotor tip having airspeed equal to the aircraft's forward airspeed
An autogyro known as a gyroplane or gyrocopter, is a type of rotorcraft that uses an unpowered rotor in free autorotation to develop lift. Forward thrust is provided independently by an engine-driven propeller. While similar to a helicopter rotor in appearance, the autogyro's rotor must have air flowing across the rotor disc to generate rotation, the air flows upwards through the rotor disc rather than down; the autogyro was invented by Spanish engineer Juan de la Cierva in an attempt to create an aircraft that could fly safely at low speeds. He first flew one on 9 January 1923, at Cuatro Vientos Airfield in Madrid. Cierva's aircraft resembled the fixed-wing aircraft of the day, with a front-mounted engine and propeller. Under license from Cierva in the 1920s and 1930s, the Pitcairn & Kellett companies made further innovations. Late-model autogyros patterned after Etienne Dormoy's Buhl A-1 Autogyro and Igor Bensen's designs feature a rear-mounted engine and propeller in a pusher configuration.
The term Autogiro was a trademark of the Cierva Autogiro Company, the term Gyrocopter was used by E. Burke Wilford who developed the Reiseler Kreiser feathering rotor equipped gyroplane in the first half of the twentieth century; the latter term was adopted as a trademark by Bensen Aircraft. An autogyro is characterized by a free-spinning rotor that turns because of the passage of air through the rotor from below; the downward component of the total aerodynamic reaction of the rotor gives lift to the vehicle, sustaining it in the air. A separate propeller provides forward thrust, can be placed in a puller configuration, with the engine and propeller at the front of the fuselage, or in a pusher configuration, with the engine and propeller at the rear of the fuselage. Whereas a helicopter works by forcing the rotor blades through the air, drawing air from above, the autogyro rotor blade generates lift in the same way as a glider's wing, by changing the angle of the air as the air moves upwards and backwards relative to the rotor blade.
The free-spinning blades turn by autorotation. Because the craft must be moving forward with respect to the surrounding air in order to force air through the overhead rotor, autogyros are not capable of vertical takeoff. A few types have shown short landing. Pitch control is achieved by tilting the rotor fore and aft, roll control by tilting the rotor laterally; the tilt of the rotor can be affected by means of a swashplate, or servo-flaps. A rudder provides yaw control. On pusher configuration autogyros, the rudder is placed in the propeller slipstream to maximize yaw control at low airspeed. There are three primary flight controls: control stick, rudder pedals, throttle; the control stick is termed the cyclic and tilts the rotor in the desired direction to provide pitch and roll control. The rudder pedals provide yaw control, the throttle controls engine power. Secondary flight controls include the rotor transmission clutch known as a pre-rotator, which when engaged drives the rotor to start it spinning before takeoff, collective pitch to reduce blade pitch before driving the rotor.
Collective pitch controls are not fitted to autogyros, but can be found on the Air & Space 18A, McCulloch J-2 and the Westermayer Tragschrauber. Unlike a helicopter, autogyros without collective pitch or another jump start facility need a runway to take off. Like helicopters, each autogyro has a specific height–velocity diagram for safest operation, although the dangerous area is smaller than for helicopters. Modern autogyros follow one of two basic configurations; the most common design is the pusher configuration, where the engine and propeller are located behind the pilot and rotor mast, such as in the Bensen "Gyrocopter". It was developed by Igor Bensen in the decades following World War II, came into widespread use shortly afterward. Less common today is the tractor configuration. In this version, the engine and propeller are located at the front of the aircraft, ahead of the pilot and rotor mast; this was the primary configuration in early autogyros, but became less common after the advent of the helicopter.
It has enjoyed a revival since the mid-1970s. Juan de la Cierva was aeronautical enthusiast. In 1921, he participated in a design competition to develop a bomber for the Spanish military. De la Cierva designed a three-engined aircraft, but during an early test flight, the bomber stalled and crashed. De la Cierva was troubled by the stall phenomenon and vowed to develop an aircraft that could fly safely at low airspeeds; the result was the first successful rotorcraft, which he named Autogiro in 1923. De la Cierva's autogyro used an airplane fuselage with a forward-mounted propeller and engine, a rotor mounted on a mast, a horizontal and vertical stabilizer. Juan de la Cierva invented the modern autogyro in the early 1920s, his first three designs were unstable because of aerodynamic and structural deficiencies in their rotors. His fourth design, the C.4, made t