Carnival of Cádiz
Los Carnavales de Cádiz is one of the best-known carnivals in Spain. Its main characteristic is humor. Through sarcasm and irony, the main groups and the people of the street "purge" the most pressing problems of today; the whole city participates in the carnival for more than two weeks each year, the presence of this fiesta is constant in the city because of the recitals and contests held throughout the year. The main characteristics of the carnival in Cádiz are the acerbic criticisms, the droll plays on words, stinging sarcasm, the irreverence of parody. While some carnivals elsewhere in the world stress the spectacular, the glamorous, or the scandalous in costumes, Cádiz distinguishes itself with how clever and imaginative its carnival attire is, it is traditional to paint the face as a humble substitute for a mask. On Saturday, everyone wears a costume, many times, is related to the most polemical aspects of the news. However, the Carnival of Cádiz is most famous for the satirical groups of performers called chirigotas.
Their music and their lyrics are in the center of the carnival. Carnival of Cádiz is a sociological phenomenon of special singularity, its historical evolution, from its most remote origins until today, has endowed it with a marked rebellious character. In addition, the development of their groups differentiates them from other carnivals in the world and identifies them as a communicational phenomenon, it is a vehicle that generates information and entertainment, but in its subversive nature, in its condition of counter-power. The first references to the carnivals of Cádiz that are known come from the sixteenth century. In the process of its own organisation, the Cadiz Carnival takes on peculiarities of Italian, explicable by the fundamentally Genoese influence that Cádiz knew since the fifteenth century. After the Turks' displacement to the Mediterranean, Italian merchants moved to the West, finding Cádiz a place of settlement communicated with the commercial objectives that the Genoese were looking for: the north and center of Africa.
The masks, the serpentines, the confetti are assimilated from the Italian carnival. The first documentary references to the celebration of the carnival are from historian Agustín de Horozco. At the end of the 16th century, during carnival time, the inhabitants of Cadiz plucked the flowers from the pots to throw them at each other as a joke. Other documents that record the celebration of the carnivals are the Synod Constitutions of 1591 and the Statutes of the Seminary of Cádiz in 1596, both contain indications so that the religious did not participate in the festivities in a way that the seculars did; these references, about the Carnival, confirm that at the end of the 16th century, the festivities should have deep roots among the people of Cadiz. There are references from the seventeenth century. A document of 1636 recognizes the impotence of the civil power against the popular celebration. A letter from General Mencos dated in Cádiz on February 7, 1652, complains that the Cadiz workers refused to repair their boat because they were in Carnestolendas.
There is evidence of the events that took place in 1678, the year in which the cleric Nicolás Aznar was accused of having adulterous relations with Antonia Gil Morena, whom he had met during the carnival. Beginning the 18th century, the orders are repeated trying to banish the Carnival. In 1716 masked dances were prohibited by the Crown, prohibitions that were repeated throughout this century. In spite of everything, there are testimonies that confirm the disrespect of the orders was quite remarkable. In the carnival of 1776 excesses were committed in the convent of Santa María and in that of Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria, which caused scandals in the city; this same year, the British traveler Henry Swinburne visited the city, who left testimony about the Carnival celebrations of the people of Cadiz. These festivities were celebrated during the French invasion. However, there was a time during which the celebration was suspended: on February 5, 1937, during the Civil War and the Ebro Battle, the prohibition to celebrate any type of carnival in Spain was published in the “Boletín Oficial del Estado”.
It was not until 1947 when the tradition was recovered, a fact that occurred as a result, paradoxically, of a disgrace: the explosion of the San Severiano storage depot, who caused some 200 victims in the city. The civil governor, Carlos María Rodríguez de Valcárcel, decided that it was necessary to raise the spirits and was recovered the festive spirit In the organisation of the Carnival; the most famous groups are the chirigotas, the choirs, the comparsas. The comparsas are well-known witty and satiric groups that train for the whole year to sing about politics, topics in the news, everyday circumstances, while all of the members wear identical costumes. There is an official competition in Teatro Falla, their songs are full of satire and wit. Each comparsa – whether a professional group or one made up of family members, friends or colleagues – has a wide repertoire of songs, they sing in the streets and squares, at improvised venues like outdoor staircases or portals, in established open-air tablaos organized by the carnival clubs.
The chirigotas are the groups of people that sharing a costume and singing together, performed a full repertoire of songs about current topics but with in a humoristic way, unlike the comparsas. The chirigotas´ tunes are happier as well as their lyrics though they can address the same subjects as the comparsas, they compete in the Teatro Falla for the awards. The choirs (c
Cádiz is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the Province of Cádiz, one of eight which make up the autonomous community of Andalusia. Cádiz, one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Western Europe, with archaeological remains dating to 3100 years, was founded by the Phoenicians, it has been a principal home port of the Spanish Navy since the accession of the Spanish Bourbons in the 18th century. The city is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network, it is the site of the University of Cádiz. Situated on a narrow slice of land surrounded by the sea‚ Cádiz is, in most respects, a Andalusian city with a wealth of attractive vistas and well-preserved historical landmarks; the older part of Cádiz within the remnants of the city walls is referred to as the Old Town. It is characterized by the antiquity of its various quarters, among them El Pópulo, La Viña, Santa María, which present a marked contrast to the newer areas of town. While the Old City's street plan consists of narrow winding alleys connecting large plazas, newer areas of Cádiz have wide avenues and more modern buildings.
In addition, the city is dotted with numerous parks where exotic plants flourish, including giant trees brought to Spain by Columbus from the New World. Little remains of the Phoenician language, but numismatic inscriptions record that they knew the site as a Gadir or Agadir, meaning "The Wall", "The Compound", or "The Stronghold". Borrowed by the Berber languages, this became the agadir common in North African place names; the Carthaginians continued to use this name and all subsequent names have derived from it. The Greek cothon refers to a Carthaginian type of fortified basin that can be seen at ancient sites such as Motya. Attic Greek sources hellenized Gadir as tà Gádeira, neuter plural. Herodotus, using Ionic Greek, transcribed it a little differently, as Gḗdeira; as in Stephanus of Byzantium's notes on the writings of Eratosthenes, the name is given in the feminine singular form as hè Gadeíra. In Latin, the city was known as its Roman colony as Augusta Urbs Iulia Gaditana. In Arabic, the Latin name became Qādis.
The Spanish demonym for people and things from Cádiz is gaditano. In English, the name is pronounced variously; when the accent is on the second syllable, it is pronounced but, when the accent is on the first syllable, it may be pronounced as, as, or as. In Spanish, the accent is always on the first syllable but, while the usual pronunciation in Spain is, the local dialect says, or instead. More some English speakers may attempt to pronounce it as the Spanish to the British version of "Ibiza", leading to pronunciations of Cádiz with /s/ or /θ/ instead of /z/, but keeping the English vowels and the strong /d/. According to a 2016 census estimate, the population of the city of Cádiz was 118,919, that of its metropolitan area was 629,054. Cádiz is the seventeenth-largest Spanish city. In recent years, the city's population has declined. Between 1995 and 2006, it lost more than 14,000 residents, a decrease of 9%. Among the causes of this loss of population is the peculiar geography of Cádiz. There is a pronounced shortage of land to be developed.
The city has little vacant land, a high proportion of its housing stock is low in density. The older quarters of Cádiz are full of buildings that, because of their age and historical significance, are not eligible for urban renewal. Two other physical factors tend to limit the city's population, it is impossible to increase the amount of land available for building by reclaiming land from the sea. Because Cádiz is built on a sandspit, it is a costly proposition to sink foundations deep enough to support the high-rise buildings that would allow for a higher population density; as it stands, the city's skyline is not different from in the Middle Ages. A 17th-century watchtower, the Tavira Tower, still commands a panoramic view of the city and the bay despite its modest 45 meters height. Cádiz is the provincial capital with the highest rate of unemployment in Spain. This, tends to depress the population level. Young Gaditanos, those between 18 and 30 years of age, have been migrating to other places in Spain, as well as to other places in Europe and the Americas.
The population younger than twenty years old is only 20.58% of the total, the population older than sixty-five is 21.67%, making Cádiz one of the most aged cities in all of Spain. The population distribution of the municipality is uneven. In its inhabited areas, Cádiz is one of the most densely populated cities in Europe; the uninhabited Zona Franca industrial area, Bay of Cádiz Port Area, Bay of Cádiz Natural Park occupy 63
In European academic traditions, fine art is art developed for aesthetics or beauty, distinguishing it from applied art, which has to serve some practical function, such as pottery or most metalwork. The five main fine arts were painting, architecture and poetry, with performing arts including theatre and dance; the old master print and drawing were included as related forms to painting, just as prose forms of literature were to poetry. Today, the range of what would be considered fine arts includes additional modern forms, such as film, video production/editing and conceptual art. One definition of fine art is "a visual art considered to have been created for aesthetic and intellectual purposes and judged for its beauty and meaningfulness painting, drawing, watercolor and architecture." In that sense, there are conceptual differences between the applied arts. As conceived, as understood for much of the modern era, the perception of aesthetic qualities required a refined judgment referred to as having good taste, which differentiated fine art from popular art and entertainment.
The word "fine" does not so much denote the quality of the artwork in question, but the purity of the discipline according to traditional Western European canons. Except in the case of architecture, where a practical utility was accepted, this definition excluded the "useful" applied or decorative arts, the products of what were regarded as crafts. In contemporary practice these distinctions and restrictions have become meaningless, as the concept or intention of the artist is given primacy, regardless of the means through which this is expressed. According to some writers the concept of a distinct category of fine art is an invention of the early modern period in the West. Larry Shiner in his The Invention of Art: A Cultural History locates the invention in the 18th century: "There was a traditional “system of the arts” in the West before the eighteenth century. In that system, an artist or artisan was a skilled maker or practitioner, a work of art was the useful product of skilled work, the appreciation of the arts was integrally connected with their role in the rest of life.
“Art”, in other words, meant the same thing as the Greek word techne, or in English “skill”, a sense that has survived in phrases like “the art of war”, “the art of love”, “the art of medicine.” Similar ideas have been expressed by Paul Oskar Kristeller, Pierre Bourdieu, Terry Eagleton, though the point of invention is placed earlier, in the Italian Renaissance. The decline of the concept of "fine art" is dated by George Kubler and others to around 1880, when it "fell out of fashion" as, by about 1900, folk art came to be regarded as of equal significance. ""fine art" was driven out of use by about 1920 by the exponents of industrial design... who opposed a double standard of judgment for works of art and for useful objects". This was among theoreticians; the separation of arts and crafts that exists in Europe and the US is not shared by all other cultures. In Japanese aesthetics, the activities of everyday life are depicted by integrating not only art with craft but man-made with nature. Traditional Chinese art distinguished within Chinese painting between the landscape literati painting of scholar gentlemen and the artisans of the schools of court painting and sculpture.
A high status was given to many things that would be seen as craft objects in the West, in particular ceramics, jade carving and embroidery. Latin American art was dominated by European colonialism until the 20th-century, when indigenous art began to reassert itself inspired by the Constructivist Movement, which reunited arts with crafts based upon socialist principles. In Africa, Yoruba art has a political and spiritual function; as with the art of the Chinese, the art of the Yoruba is often composed of what would ordinarily be considered in the West to be craft production. Some of its most admired manifestations, such as sculpture and textiles, fall in this category. Drawing is one of the major forms of the visual arts. Common instruments include: graphite pencils and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, charcoals, pastels, stylus, or various metals like silverpoint. There are a number including cartooning and creating comics. There remains debate whether the following is considered a part of “drawing” as “fine art”: "doodling", drawing in the fog a shower and leaving an imprint on the bathroom mirror, or the surrealist method of "entopic graphomania", in which dots are made at the sites of impurities in a blank sheet of paper, the lines are made between the dots.
Mosaics are images formed with small pieces of glass, called tesserae. They can be functional. An artist who designs and makes mosaics is called a mosaicist. Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing on paper. Except in the case of monotyping, the process is capable of producing multiples of the same piece, called a print; each print is considered an original, as opposed to a copy. The reasoning behind this is that the print is not a reproduction of another work of art in a different medium — for instance, a painting — but rather an image designed from inception as a print. An individual print is referred to as an impression. Prints ar
A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, historical, or scientific importance. Many public museums make these items available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary; the largest museums are located in major cities throughout the world, while thousands of local museums exist in smaller cities and rural areas. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public; the goal of serving researchers is shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, children's museums. Amongst the world's largest and most visited museums are the Louvre in Paris, the National Museum of China in Beijing, the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. the British Museum and National Gallery in London, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and Vatican Museums in Vatican City.
According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries. The English "museum" comes from the Latin word, is pluralized as "museums", it is from the Ancient Greek Μουσεῖον, which denotes a place or temple dedicated to the Muses, hence a building set apart for study and the arts the Musaeum for philosophy and research at Alexandria by Ptolemy I Soter about 280 BC. The purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public. From a visitor or community perspective, the purpose can depend on one's point of view. A trip to a local history museum or large city art museum can be an entertaining and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the economic health of a city, a way to increase the sophistication of its inhabitants. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museum's mission, such as civil rights or environmentalism.
Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithson's bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge."Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of each classification of a field of knowledge for research and for display was the purpose; as American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students. By the last quarter of the 19th century, the scientific research in the universities was shifting toward biological research on a cellular level, cutting edge research moved from museums to university laboratories. While many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums. While there is an ongoing debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museum's collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect and preserve artifacts for future generations.
Much care and expense is invested in preservation efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artifacts and buildings. All museums display objects; as historian Steven Conn writes, "To see the thing itself, with one's own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting."Museum purposes vary from institution to institution. Some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects, they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a historic printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia; some seek to reach a wide audience, such as a national or state museum, while some museums have specific audiences, like the LDS Church History Museum or local history organizations. Speaking, museums collect objects of significance that comply with their mission statement for conservation and display.
Although most museums do not allow physical contact with the associated artifacts, there are some that are interactive and encourage a more hands-on approach. In 2009, Hampton Court Palace, palace of Henry VIII, opened the council room to the general public to create an interactive environment for visitors. Rather than allowing visitors to handle 500-year-old objects, the museum created replicas, as well as replica costumes; the daily activities, historic clothing, temperature changes immerse the visitor in a slice of what Tudor life may have been. This section lists the 20 most visited museums in 2015 as compiled by AECOM and the Themed Entertainment Association's annual report on the world's most visited attractions. For 2016 figures see List of most visited museums; the cities of London and Washington, D. C. contain more of the 20 most visited museums in the world than any others, with six museums and four museums, respectively. Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy individuals, families or institutions of art and rare or curious natural objects and artifacts.
These were displayed in so-called wonder rooms or cabinets of curiosities. One of the oldest museums known is Ennigaldi-Nanna's museum, built by Princess Ennigaldi at the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire; the site dates from c. 530 BCE, contained artifacts from earlier M
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered a branch of the humanities. In North America archaeology is a sub-field of anthropology, while in Europe it is viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology is distinct from palaeontology, the study of fossil remains, it is important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world. Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and analysis of data collected to learn more about the past. In broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research, it draws upon anthropology, art history, ethnology, geology, literary history, semiology, textual criticism, information sciences, statistics, paleography, paleontology and paleobotany. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, has since become a discipline practiced across the world. Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Since its early development, various specific sub-disciplines of archaeology have developed, including maritime archaeology, feminist archaeology and archaeoastronomy, numerous different scientific techniques have been developed to aid archaeological investigation. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, opposition to the excavation of human remains.
The science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with particular attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts, as well as historical sites. Antiquarianism focused on the empirical evidence that existed for the understanding of the past, encapsulated in the motto of the 18th-century antiquary, Sir Richard Colt Hoare, "We speak from facts not theory". Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. In Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Flavio Biondo, an Italian Renaissance humanist historian, created a systematic guide to the ruins and topography of ancient Rome in the early 15th century, for which he has been called an early founder of archaeology. Antiquarians of the 16th century, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, drawing and interpreting the monuments that they encountered.
One of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England. John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other field monuments in southern England, he was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings. He attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out by the Spanish military engineer Roque Joaquín de Alcubierre in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum, both of, covered by ash during the Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79; these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and human shapes, as well the unearthing of frescos, had a big impact throughout Europe. However, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard; the father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington. He undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798.
Cunnington made meticulous recordings of Neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, the terms he used to categorize and describe them are still used by archaeologists today. One of the major achievements of 19th-century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy; the idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton and Charles Lyell. The application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites. In the third and fourth decades of the 19th-century, archaeologists like Jacques Boucher de Perthes and Christian Jürgensen Thomsen began to put the artifacts they had found in chronological order. A major figure in the development of archaeology into a rigorous science was the army officer and ethnologist, Augustus Pitt Rivers, who began excavations on his land in England in the 1880s, his approach was methodical by the standards of the time, he is regarded as the first scientific archaeologist.
He arranged his artifacts by type or "typologically, within types by date or "chronologically"
Contemporary art is the art of today, produced in the second half of the 20th century or in the 21st century. Contemporary artists work in a globally influenced, culturally diverse, technologically advancing world, their art is a dynamic combination of materials, methods and subjects that continue the challenging of boundaries, well underway in the 20th century. Diverse and eclectic, contemporary art as a whole is distinguished by the lack of a uniform, organising principle, ideology, or "-ism". Contemporary art is part of a cultural dialogue that concerns larger contextual frameworks such as personal and cultural identity, family and nationality. In vernacular English and contemporary are synonyms, resulting in some conflation of the terms modern art and contemporary art by non-specialists; some define contemporary art as art produced within "our lifetime," recognising that lifetimes and life spans vary. However, there is a recognition; the classification of "contemporary art" as a special type of art, rather than a general adjectival phrase, goes back to the beginnings of Modernism in the English-speaking world.
In London, the Contemporary Art Society was founded in 1910 by the critic Roger Fry and others, as a private society for buying works of art to place in public museums. A number of other institutions using the term were founded in the 1930s, such as in 1938 the Contemporary Art Society of Adelaide, an increasing number after 1945. Many, like the Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston changed their names from ones using "Modern art" in this period, as Modernism became defined as a historical art movement, much "modern" art ceased to be "contemporary"; the definition of what is contemporary is always on the move, anchored in the present with a start date that moves forward, the works the Contemporary Art Society bought in 1910 could no longer be described as contemporary. Particular points that have been seen as marking a change in art styles include the end of World War II and the 1960s. There has been a lack of natural break points since the 1960s, definitions of what constitutes "contemporary art" in the 2010s vary, are imprecise.
Art from the past 20 years is likely to be included, definitions include art going back to about 1970. And early 21st cent. Both an outgrowth and a rejection of modern art". Many use the formulation "Contemporary Art", which avoids this problem. Smaller commercial galleries and other sources may use stricter definitions restricting the "contemporary" to work from 2000 onwards. Artists who are still productive after a long career, ongoing art movements, may present a particular issue. Sociologist Nathalie Heinich draws a distinction between modern and contemporary art, describing them as two different paradigms which overlap historically, she found that while "modern art" challenges the conventions of representation, "contemporary art" challenges the notion of an artwork. She regards Duchamp's Fountain as the starting point of contemporary art, which gained momentum after World War II with Gutai's performances, Yves Klein's monochromes and Rauschenberg's Erased de Kooning Drawing. One of the difficulties many people have in approaching contemporary artwork is its diversity—diversity of material, subject matter, time periods.
It is "distinguished by the lack of a uniform organizing principle, ideology, or -ism" that we so see in other, oftentimes more familiar, art periods and movements. Broadly speaking, we see Modernism as looking at modernist principles—the focus of the work is self-referential, investigating its own materials. Impressionism looks at our perception of a moment through light and color as opposed to attempts at stark realism. Contemporary art, on the other hand, does not have single objective or point of view, its view instead is unclear reflective of the world today. It can be, contradictory and open-ended. There are, however, a number of common themes. While these are not exhaustive, notable themes include: identity politics, the body and migration, contemporary society and culture and memory, institutional and political critique. Post-modern, post-structuralist and Marxist theory have played important roles in the development of contemporary theories of art; the functioning of the art world is dependent on art institutions, ranging from major museums to private galleries, non-profit spaces, art schools and publishers, the practices of individual artists, writers and philanthropists.
A major division in the art world is between the for-profit and non-profit sectors, although in recent years the boundaries between for-profit private and non-profit public institutions have become blurred. Most well-known contemporary art is exhibited by professional artists at commercial contemporary art galleries, by private collectors, art auctions, corporation