Hughes Hall, Cambridge
Hughes Hall is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England. It is the oldest of the University of Cambridge's postgraduate colleges; the college admits undergraduates, though undergraduates admitted by the college must be aged 21 or over. There is no age requirement for postgraduate students; the majority of Hughes Hall students are postgraduate, although nearly one-fifth of the student population comprises individuals aged 21 and above who are studying undergraduate degree courses at the University. Hughes Hall was founded in the 19th century as the Cambridge Training College for Women with the purpose of providing a college of the University dedicated to training women graduates for the teaching profession. Since it has enlarged and expanded to support a community of students and researchers, both male and female, working in all the academic domains encompassed by the University of Cambridge; the college is housed in a number of 19th and 20th century buildings at a main site adjacent to the University of Cambridge's Cricket ground, between the City Centre and the railway station.
In 1878 the University of Cambridge established a Teachers' Training Syndicate to develop a training curriculum in education for students of the University intending to become teachers. Hughes Hall was established in 1885 as a college for women graduate students taking the Teacher Training curriculum. Key amongst its early supporters and founders were Rev. G. F. Browne, fellow of St Catharine's College, Miss Frances Buss, headmistress of the North London Collegiate School, Miss Anne Clough, first principal of Newnham College, Professor James Ward, fellow of Trinity College; the college was founded as the Cambridge Training College for Women, it began with 14 students in a small house in Newnham called Crofton Cottage. The first principal was a graduate of Newnham College, Elizabeth Phillips Hughes, in post from 1885 to 1899. In 1895, the college moved to a distinguished purpose-built building, designed by architect William Fawcett, overlooking Fenner's Cricket Ground - which continues to be the main college building to this day.
One of the first matriculants, Molly Thomas, recounted the experience of the first class of students in A London Girl of the 1880s, published under her married name, M. V. Hughes. Following recognition of full membership of the University for women in 1947, the college formally became a recognized institution of the University in 1949 and was renamed Hughes Hall in honour of its first principal; the college became an approved foundation of the University in 1985, received a Royal Charter marking its full college status in 2006. The college's first male students arrived in 1973, making Hughes Hall the first of the all-female colleges to admit men, from that time students began to study a wider range of affiliated post-graduate degrees. Student numbers increased in the 1980s and 1990s. Today, Hughes Hall has about 500 graduate students and around 90 undergraduates, all students are "mature", the college accommodates study in the wide range of studies taught in the University; the college is one of the most international Cambridge colleges, with its students representing over 60 nationalities.
The college's main building, known as the Wileman Building, was designed by architect William Fawcett and built in 1895. It was opened by the first Marquess of Ripon; the building is Grade II listed, red brick in Neo-Dutch style, has an notable terracotta porch. One wing of the Wileman Building is named the Pfeiffer Wing, after husband and wife Jurgen Edward Pfeiffer and Emily Pfeiffer who funded much of the construction cost as part of their mission to support and develop women's education; the building, its various more modern wings, contains student rooms, the college library, social areas and study spaces, various college administrative offices. Next door to the Wileman Building is Wollaston Lodge, a fine symmetrical early-20th century building in buff brick, designed by E. S. Prior, that provides further student accommodation. More recent buildings on the college site, all of which provide accommodation and other facilities for students, include Chancellor’s Court, inaugurated in 1992 by the Chancellor of the University, HRH the Duke of Edinburgh, the Centenary Building, which opened in 1997.
In 2005 Hughes opened a new residential and meeting building, the Fenner's Building, beside and overlooks the University cricket ground named Fenner's. It is possible to see the spire of the Our Lady and the English Martyrs Church – the tallest church spire in Cambridge - from the building's west-facing windows and terraces; the college owns a number of houses in the nearby area which provide additional student accommodation. In 2014 the college acquired the former Cambridge University gym building on Gresham Road, directly across the cricket ground from the main college site, to develop as a new facility - construction began on the site in 2015; the main college site is near the middle of Cambridge, halfway between Cambridge railway station and the Market Square. The college is located in the Petersfield area of the city, close to Mill Road and accessible from Mortimer Road; the main site is in a residential area, it is beside Fenner's, the Cambridge University Cricket ground, across the road from Parkside Pools and Kelsey Kerridge Gym, which are the main public sports facilities in the city.
A short walk from the college is the Mill Road Cemetery where a number of the University's renowned historic figures, including astronomer James Challis, Isaac Newton's editor Percival Frost, historian John Seeley are buried. Hughes Hall is the nearest o
Churchill College, Cambridge
Churchill College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. It has a primary focus on science and technology, but still retains a strong interest in the arts and humanities. In 1958, a trust was established with Sir Winston Churchill as its chairman of trustees, to build and endow a college for 60 fellows and 540 students as a national and Commonwealth memorial to Winston Churchill, it is situated on the outskirts of Cambridge, away from the traditional centre of the city, but close to the University's main new development zone, which some would argue is the new city centre. Its 16 hectares of grounds make it physically the largest of all the colleges. Churchill was the first all-male college to decide to admit women, was among three men's colleges to admit its first women students in 1972. Within 15 years all others had followed suit; the college has a reputation for relative informality compared with other Cambridge colleges, traditionally admits a larger proportion of its undergraduates from state schools.
The college motto is "Forward". It was taken from the final phrase of Winston Churchill's first speech to the House of Commons as Prime Minister – his famous "Blood, Toil and Sweat" speech – in which he said "Come let us go forward together". In 1955, on holiday in Sicily soon after his resignation as prime minister, Winston Churchill discussed with Sir John Colville and Lord Cherwell the possibility of founding a new institution. Churchill had been impressed by MIT and wanted a British version, but the plans evolved into the more modest proposal of creating a science and technology-based college within the University of Cambridge. Churchill wanted a mix of non-scientists to ensure a well-rounded education and environment for scholars and fellows; the college therefore admits students to read all subjects except land economy and theology & religious studies. The first postgraduate students arrived in October 1960, the first undergraduates a year later. Full college status was received in 1966.
All students were male. Women were not accepted as undergraduates until 1972; the bias to science and engineering remains as policy to the current day, with the statutes requiring 70% science and technology students amongst its student intake each year. The college statutes stipulate that one third of the students of the college should be studying for postgraduate qualification. Cambridge University Radio broadcast from Churchill College from 1979 until 2011. In 1958, a 42-acre site was purchased to the west of the city centre, farmland. After a competition, Richard Sheppard was appointed to design the new college. Building was completed by 1968 with nine main residential courts, separate graduate flats and a central building consisting of the dining hall, combination rooms and offices; the dining hall is the largest in Cambridge. It measures 22m square, 9m to the base of the vault beams, 11.6m to the highest point. It can cater for up to 430 guests in a formal dining arrangement; the main college buildings and courtyards are arranged around a large central space, in which the library was placed.
Only a few years being opened in 1974, an extension to the library building was added to house the Churchill Archives Centre. Its original purpose was to provide a home to Sir Winston's papers, however since it has been endowed with papers from other political figures including former Prime Ministers Margaret Thatcher and John Major, as well as former Leader of the Opposition Neil Kinnock, those of eminent scientists and engineers including Reginald Victor Jones, Rosalind Franklin and Sir Frank Whittle. In 1992, the Møller Centre for Continuing Education was built on the Churchill site, designed by Henning Larsen, it is a dedicated residential executive training and conference centre, aiming to bring together education and commerce. As well as the main College buildings, Sheppard designed a separate group of flats, known as the Sheppard flats, for the use of married graduate students; these are located to one side of a short distance from the main buildings. At the farthest end of the college grounds is the Chapel.
Sheppard's original design placed it within the main building complex near the college main entrance. The idea of having a religious building within a modern, scientifically-oriented academic institution annoyed some of the original fellows, leading to the resignation of Nobel Prize winner Francis Crick in protest. A compromise was found: the chapel was sited just to the west of the Sheppard Flats, funded and managed separately from the rest of the College itself, being tactfully referred to as "the Chapel at Churchill College"; the chimney of the heating system at the front of the college substitutes visually for the missing chapel tower. Crick had agreed to become a fellow on the basis. A donation was made by Lord Beaumont of Whitley to Churchill College for the establishment of one, the majority of fellows voted in favour of it. Sir Winston Churchill wrote to him saying that no-one need enter the chapel unless they wished to do so, therefore it did not need to be a problem. Crick, in short order, replied with a letter dated 12 October 1961 accompanied by a cheque for 10 guineas saying that, if that were the case, the enclosed money should be used for the establishment of a brothel.
This story was repeated by Crick in an interview with Matt Ridley, quotes from which are reported in the Daily Telegraph. The
Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Cambridge
The Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology known as MAA, at the University of Cambridge houses the University's collections of local antiquities, together with archaeological and ethnographic artefacts from around the world. The museum is located on the University's Downing Site, on the corner of Downing Street and Tennis Court Road. In 2013 it reopened following a major refurbishment of the exhibition galleries, with a new public entrance directly on to Downing Street; the museum is part of the University of Cambridge Museums consortium. Founded in 1884 as the University's Museum of General and Local Archaeology, the museum initial collections included local antiquities collected by the Cambridge Antiquarian Society and artefacts from Polynesia donated by Alfred Maudslay and Sir Arthur Gordon. Anatole von Hügel, the museum's first curator donated his own collection of artefacts from the South Pacific. More material was collected by the 1898 Cambridge anthropological expedition to the Torres Strait under Alfred Haddon and W. H. R. Rivers.
Haddon and Rivers would encourage their Cambridge students — including Alfred Radcliffe-Brown, John Layard and Gregory Bateson — to continue to collect for the museum in their ethnographic fieldwork. Von Hügel set in motion a move to larger, specially built, premises: in 1913 the museum moved to its present location in Downing Street, although the new galleries were not installed until after World War I. Various depositions and donations of eighteenth-century collections — including material collected on James Cook's three expeditions — were made to the museum in the 1910s and 1920s. Von Hügel's successors as curator have been Louis Colville Gray Clarke, Thomas Paterson, Geoffrey Bushnell, Peter Gathercole, Prof. David Phillipson, the 2006-present Director, Prof. Nicholas Thomas; the museum's current displays are arranged on three floors: Ground floor: The Clarke Hall: Archaeology of Cambridge and the Li Ka Shing Gallery First floor: The Maudslay Maudslay Hall: Anthropology Second floor: Andrews Gallery: World Archaeology V. Ebin and D.
A. Swallow, “The Proper Study of Mankind…”: great anthropological collections in Cambridge. University of Cambridge Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, 1984 A. Herle and J. Philp, Torres Strait Islanders: an exhibition marking the centenary of the 1898 Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to the Torres Strait. University of Cambridge Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, 1998. J. Tanner, From Pacific Shores: eighteenth-century ethnographic collections at Cambridge. University of Cambridge Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, 1999. Robin Boast, S. Guha and A. Herle Collecting Sights: the Photographic Collections of the Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology, 1850—1970. Cambridge: Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge University Press, 2001 Haidy Geismar and Anita Herle: Moving images. John Layard and photography on Malakula since 1914, with contributions by Kirk Huffman and John Layard.
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam 50 miles north of London. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, its population was 123,867 including 24,506 students. Cambridge became an important trading centre during the Roman and Viking ages, there is archaeological evidence of settlement in the area as early as the Bronze Age; the first town charters were granted in the 12th century, although modern city status was not conferred until 1951. The world-renowned University of Cambridge was founded in 1209; the buildings of the university include King's College Chapel, Cavendish Laboratory, the Cambridge University Library, one of the largest legal deposit libraries in the world. The city's skyline is dominated by several college buildings, along with the spire of the Our Lady and the English Martyrs Church, the chimney of Addenbrooke's Hospital and St John's College Chapel tower. Anglia Ruskin University, which evolved from the Cambridge School of Art and the Cambridgeshire College of Arts and Technology has its main campus in the city.
Cambridge is at the heart of the high-technology Silicon Fen with industries such as software and bioscience and many start-up companies born out of the university. More than 40% of the workforce have a higher education qualification, more than twice the national average; the Cambridge Biomedical Campus, one of the largest biomedical research clusters in the world, is soon to house premises of AstraZeneca, a hotel and the relocated Papworth Hospital. The first game of association football took place at Parker's Piece; the Strawberry Fair music and arts festival and Midsummer Fair are held on Midsummer Common, the annual Cambridge Beer Festival takes place on Jesus Green. The city is adjacent to the A14 roads. Cambridge station is less than an hour from London King's Cross railway station. Settlements have existed around the Cambridge area since prehistoric times; the earliest clear evidence of occupation is the remains of a 3,500-year-old farmstead discovered at the site of Fitzwilliam College.
Archaeological evidence of occupation through the Iron Age is a settlement on Castle Hill from the 1st century BC relating to wider cultural changes occurring in southeastern Britain linked to the arrival of the Belgae. The principal Roman site is a small fort Duroliponte on Castle Hill, just northwest of the city centre around the location of the earlier British village; the fort was bounded on two sides by the lines formed by the present Mount Pleasant, continuing across Huntingdon Road into Clare Street. The eastern side followed Magrath Avenue, with the southern side running near to Chesterton Lane and Kettle's Yard before turning northwest at Honey Hill, it was converted to civilian use around 50 years later. Evidence of more widespread Roman settlement has been discovered including numerous farmsteads and a village in the Cambridge district of Newnham. Following the Roman withdrawal from Britain around 410, the location may have been abandoned by the Britons, although the site is identified as Cair Grauth listed among the 28 cities of Britain by the History of the Britons.
Evidence exists that the invading Anglo-Saxons had begun occupying the area by the end of the century. Their settlement – on and around Castle Hill – became known as Grantebrycge. Anglo-Saxon grave goods have been found in the area. During this period, Cambridge benefited from good trade links across the hard-to-travel fenlands. By the 7th century, the town was less significant and described by Bede as a "little ruined city" containing the burial site of Etheldreda. Cambridge was on the border between the East and Middle Anglian kingdoms and the settlement expanded on both sides of the river; the arrival of the Vikings was recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 875. Viking rule, the Danelaw, had been imposed by 878 Their vigorous trading habits caused the town to grow rapidly. During this period the centre of the town shifted from Castle Hill on the left bank of the river to the area now known as the Quayside on the right bank. After the Viking period, the Saxons enjoyed a return to power, building churches such as St Bene't's Church, merchant houses and a mint, which produced coins with the town's name abbreviated to "Grant".
In 1068, two years after his conquest of England, William of Normandy built a castle on Castle Hill. Like the rest of the newly conquered kingdom, Cambridge fell under the control of the King and his deputies; the first town charter was granted by Henry I between 1120 and 1131. It recognised the borough court; the distinctive Round Church dates from this period. In 1209, Cambridge University was founded by students escaping from hostile townspeople in Oxford; the oldest existing college, was founded in 1284. In 1349 Cambridge was affected by the Black Death. Few records survive; the town north of the river was affected being wiped out. Following further depopulation after a second national epidemic in 1361, a letter from the Bishop of Ely suggested that two parishes in Cambridge be merged as there were not enough people to fill one church. With more than a third of English clergy dying in the Black Death, four new colleges were established at the university over the following years to train new clergymen, namely Gonville Hall, Trinity Hall, Corpus Christi and Clare.
In 1382 a revised town charter effects a "diminution of the liberties that the community had enjoyed", due to Cambridge's pa
Lucy Cavendish College, Cambridge
Lucy Cavendish College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge which admits only postgraduates and undergraduates aged 21 or over. It only accepts female students and fellows, making the college one of only three women-only university colleges in England; the college is named in honour of Lucy Cavendish, who campaigned for the reform of women's education. The College has announced its intention to reform its admissions policy to include women and men from the standard university age, effective from October 2021; the college was founded in 1965 by female academics of the University of Cambridge who believed that the university offered too few and too restricted opportunities for women as either students or academics. Its origins are traceable to the Society of Women Members of the Regent House who are not Fellows of Colleges which in the 1950s sought to provide the benefits of collegiality to its members who, being female, were not college fellows. At the time there were only two women's colleges in Cambridge and Newnham, insufficient for the large and growing numbers of female academic staff in the university.
The college was named in honour of Lucy Caroline Cavendish, a pioneer of women's education and the great aunt of one of its founders, Margaret Braithwaite. First formally recognised as the Lucy Cavendish Collegiate Society, it moved to its current site in 1970, received consent to be called Lucy Cavendish College in 1986, gained the status of a full college of the university by Royal Charter in 1997; the first president of the college, from 1965 to 1970, was Anna McClean Bidder, one of the founding members of the Dining Group and a zoologist specialising in cephalopod digestion. She was succeeded by Kate Bertram until 1979, Phyllis Hetzel, Dame Anne Warburton, Baroness Perry of Southwark, Dame Veronica Sutherland, Janet Todd and Jackie Ashley; the current and 9th President of Lucy Cavendish is Madeleine Atkins, who took up the post in 2018. In March 2019 Lucy Cavendish announced its intention to begin admitting both women and men from the standard university age; this change followed a consultation of the College's community, leading to an "in principle vote" of the Lucy Cavendish Governing Body.
The College gave as its primary reason for the change "to grow graduate and undergraduate numbers to support the University and the other colleges in making more places available for excellent students from under-represented backgrounds." Lucy Cavendish has over 350 students 40% of whom are undergraduates and 60% graduates. Students originate from over 60 different countries; the majority of its undergraduates have applied directly, but in comparison to the university-wide averages the college makes proportionately more offers to the university's'pool' applicants. The college website states that "Students from every corner of the UK mix with students from around the world. Students with'Access' qualifications interact with students who have studied for A-levels and the International Baccalaureate. Former bankers, singers and police officers mix with recent graduates of universities from around the world. Women come at any age to study any subject offered by the University." The average age of students in the college is 22.
Lucy Cavendish students are called "Lucians". The overall examination results of the college tend to be lower than at most other Cambridge colleges, with Lucy Cavendish featuring towards the bottom of the Tompkins table together with the other colleges that only admit mature students. For the first few years of the college's existence it occupied rooms first in Silver Street and in Northampton Street. In 1970 it moved to its current site on the corner of Madingley Road and Lady Margaret Road, near Westminster College and St John's College, which had provided some of the land. In 1991 the college bought Balliol Croft, a neighbouring house to its grounds and former home of the economist Alfred Marshall and his wife Mary Paley Marshall, with whom he wrote his first economics textbook; the building was renamed Marshall House in his honour and used for student accommodation until 2001 when it was converted back to its original layout and used as the President's Lodge. Meanwhile, the majority of the college's buildings, including Warburton Hall and the library, were completed in the 1990s.
Anna McClean Bidder. Rt. Hon. Baroness Chakrabarti of Kennington CBE PC Dame Judi Dench Anna Ford Cynthia Glassman Lady Grantchester P. D. James Queen Margrethe of Denmark Dame Anne Owers Pauline Perry, Baroness Perry of Southwark Professor Alison Richard Dame Stella Rimington Dame Cath Tizard Sandi Toksvig Claire Tomalin Jean Barker, Baroness Trumpington Martina Navratilova Ali Smith Professor Jane Clarke FRS Official college website Lucy Cavendish College Students' Union website History of Lucy Cavendish College
Little St Mary's, Cambridge
Little St Mary's or St Mary the Less is a Church of England parish church in Cambridge, England, on Trumpington Street between Emmanuel United Reformed Church and Peterhouse. The church Is in the Diocese of Ely and follows the'Anglo-Catholic' or'high-church' tradition of the Church of England. In addition to its main Sunday Mass, the church has a strong tradition of daily morning and evening prayer, regular weekday Communion and the keeping of church festivals; the church has a particular ministry helping men and women to explore possible vocations to the priesthood. Little St Mary's has active overseas mission links, provides support to local mental health projects, participates in Hope Cambridge's Churches Homeless Project. At present, the vicar is The Rev. Dr Robert Mackley. There has been a place of worship on the current site since around the twelfth century; the earliest known records of the church state that the first church here was called St Peter-without-Trumpington Gate, to distinguish it from St Peter by the Castle.
It was controlled by three successive generations of the same family until 1207. After that date it was given to the Hospital of St John the Evangelist and served by chaplains from that foundation. In the early 1280s, Hugh de Balsham, Bishop of Ely, lodged some scholars in the Hospital but to his dismay found soon that the sick and the students could not live in harmony together; the students were moved in 1284 to the site of. By the 1340s the church was in such a bad state that the fellows of Peterhouse decided to rebuild it. In 1352, the new building had the dual purpose of Parish Church. At this time, it was rededicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary. In 1632 Peterhouse built St Mary the Less reverted to being a Parish Church. Richard Crashaw, the metaphysical poet, was a priest there from 1638 to 1643, at the same time that he was a Fellow of Peterhouse. In 1643, after his departure, many of the Church's ornaments and statues were damaged or destroyed by the Puritan iconoclast William Dowsing; the damage to the sedilia and the entrance to the Lady Chapel has never been repaired.
In 1741 the church was refitted with wooden panelling, box pews, choir gallery, the present pulpit. From 1856 -- 7 Sir George Gilbert Scott removed the 18th-century panelling. Further restoration work was carried out in 1876 and 1891, but by 1880 the church was much as it is now; the south, or Lady Chapel, was added in 1931 and designed by T. H. Lyon, the architect of Sidney Sussex College Chapel; the Parish Centre at the west end of the church was built in 1892 and enlarged in 1990 and again in 2011. Reverend Godfrey Washington, who died on 28 September 1729, is buried in Little St Mary's, his memorial is on the north wall close to the main door. The coat of arms of the Washington family, a black eagle atop a shield of red stars and stripes, adorns the tablet, it is from this coat of arms that the'Stars and Stripes' of the U. S. National Flag, the U. S. black eagle emblem, may derive. Church website
Newnham College, Cambridge
Newnham College is a women's constituent college of the University of Cambridge. The college was founded in 1871 by a group organising Lectures for Ladies, members of which included philosopher Henry Sidgwick and suffragist campaigner Millicent Garrett Fawcett, it was the second women's college to be founded following Girton College. The history of Newnham begins with the formation of the Association for Promoting the Higher Education of Women in Cambridge in 1869; the progress of women at Cambridge University owes much to the pioneering work undertaken by the philosopher Henry Sidgwick, fellow of Trinity. Lectures for Ladies had been started in Cambridge in 1869, such was the demand from those who could not travel in and out on a daily basis that in 1871 Sidgwick, one of the organisers of the lectures, rented a house at 74, Regent Street to house five female students who wished to attend lectures but did not live near enough to the University to do so, he persuaded Anne Jemima Clough, who had run a school in the Lake District, to take charge of this house.
The following year, Anne Clough moved to Merton House on Queen's Road to premises in Bateman Street. Clough became president of the college. Demand continued to increase and the supporters of the enterprise formed a limited company to raise funds, lease land and build on it. In 1875 the first building for Newnham College was built on the site off Sidgwick Avenue where the college remains. In 1876 Henry Sidgwick married Eleanor Mildred Balfour, a supporter of women's education, they lived at Newnham for two periods during the 1890s. The college formally came into existence in 1880 with the amalgamation of the Association and the Company. Women were allowed to sit University examinations as of right from 1881; the demand from prospective students remained buoyant and the Newnham Hall Company built providing three more halls, a laboratory and a library, in the years up to the First World War. The architect Basil Champneys was employed throughout this period and designed the buildings in the Queen Anne style to much acclaim, giving the main college buildings an extraordinary unity.
These and buildings are grouped around beautiful gardens, which many visitors to Cambridge never discover, unlike most Cambridge colleges, students may walk on the grass for most of the year. Many young women in mid-19th century England had no access to the kind of formal secondary schooling which would have enabled them to go straight into the same university courses as the young men - the first principal herself had never been a pupil in a school. So Newnham's founders allowed the young women to work at and to a level which suited their attainments and abilities; some of them, with an extra year's preparation, did indeed go on to degree-level work. And as girls' secondary schools were founded in the last quarter of the 19th century, staffed by those, to the women's colleges of Cambridge and London, the situation began to change. In 1890 the Newnham student Philippa Fawcett was ranked above the Senior Wrangler, i.e. top in the Mathematical Tripos. By the First World War the vast majority of Newnham students were going straight into degree-level courses.
In tailoring the curriculum to the students, Newnham found itself at odds with the other Cambridge college for women, founded at the same time. Emily Davies, Girton's founder, believed passionately that equality could only be expressed by women doing the same courses as the men, on the same time-table; this meant. But the Newnham Council held its ground, reinforced by the commitment of many of its members to educational reform and a wish to change some of the courses Cambridge was offering to its men. In 1948 Newnham, like Girton, attained the full status of a college of the university; the university as an institution at first took no notice of these women and arrangements to sit examinations had to be negotiated with each examiner individually. In 1868 Cambridge's Local Examinations Board allowed women to take exams for the first time. Concrete change within the university would have to wait until the first female colleges were formed, following the foundation of Girton College and Newnham women were allowed into lectures, albeit at the discretion of the lecturer.
By 1881, however, a general permission to sit examinations was negotiated. A first attempt to secure for the women the titles and privileges of their degrees, not just a certificate from their colleges, was rebuffed in 1887 and a second try in 1897 went down to more spectacular defeat. Undergraduates demonstrating against the women and their supporters did hundreds of pounds' worth of damage in the Market Square; the First World War brought a catastrophic collapse of fee income for the men's colleges and Cambridge and Oxford both sought state financial help for the first time. This was the context in which the women tried once more to secure inclusion, this time asking not only for the titles of degrees but for the privileges and involvement in university government that possession of degrees proper would bring. In Oxford this was secured in 1920 but in Cambridge the women went down to defeat again in 1921, having to settle for the titles - the much-joked-about BA tit - but not the substance of degrees.
This time the male undergraduates celebrating victory over the women used a handcart as a battering ram to destroy the lower half of the bronze gates at Newnham, a memorial to Anne Clough. The women spent the inter-war years trapped on the threshold of the university, they could hold university posts but they