Irwin M. Jacobs
Irwin Mark Jacobs is an electrical engineer, a co-founder and former chairman of Qualcomm, chair of the board of trustees of the Salk Institute. Jacobs was born to a Jewish family in Massachusetts, he earned his B. S. degree in electrical engineering from Cornell University in 1956, his S. M. and Sc. D. degrees in EECS from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1959, respectively. His doctoral advisor was Edward Arthurs. Additionally, he is a brother of Sigma Alpha Mu Fraternity. Jacobs was Assistant and Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering at MIT from 1959 to 1966 and Professor of Computer Science and Engineering at University of California San Diego from 1966 to 1972, he co-authored a textbook entitled Principles of Communication Engineering in 1965, still in use today. UCSD's Jacobs School of Engineering is named for his wife. In 1968, Jacobs co-founded Linkabit Corporation with Andrew Viterbi to develop satellite encryption devices; that company merged with M/A-COM in 1980. In 1985, Jacobs went on to co-found Qualcomm along with Andrew Viterbi, Harvey White, Adelia Coffman, Andrew Cohen, Klein Gilhousen, Franklin Antonio.
QUALCOMM developed the OmniTRACS system was deemed one of the world's most "technologically advanced two-way mobile satellite communications and tracking systems". He pioneered these systems which use the communication bandwidth more efficiently than the older fixed time-sliced TDMA technology, its Code Division Multiple Access has been adopted as one of two digital standards used in the next generation of cellular telephones in North America at the time. Jacobs announced on March 3, 2009 that he had stepped down as chairman of Qualcomm and that Paul E. Jacobs, his son, had been named to succeed him. Jacobs is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a Fellow of the IEEE, he is a member of the Inter-American Dialogue. He is a chairman on the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, is on the international advisory board for the Israel Institute of Technology. Additionally, he serves on the advisory board for the School of Economics and Management at Tsing Hua University in Beijing, he is active on the board of directors of the Pacific Council on International Policy in Los Angeles.
In 1980, Jacobs was the co-recipient, with Andrew J. Viterbi, the 1980 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics biannual award. In 1992, Jacobs was awarded the Entrepreneur of the Year Award in High Technology by the Institute of American Entrepreneurs, in May 1993, he was awarded the American Electronics Association "Inventing America's Future" award. In 1994, for his development of CDMA, Jacobs was awarded the National Medal of Technology and Innovation. In 1994, he was awarded the "Cornell University Entrepreneur of the Year" Award. In 1995, Jacobs won the IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal - For outstanding contributions to telecommunications, including leadership, theory and product development. In 2001, Jacobs was awarded the Bower Award for Business Leadership in 2001. In 2004, Jacobs and his wife Joan Jacobs are education in San Diego. For this, Jacobs was awarded the Woodrow Wilson Award for Corporate Citizenship in 2004. In 2005, Jacobs delivered the 2005 commencement speech at MIT, the 2008 commencement speech at the Jacobs School of Engineering.
In 2007, Jacobs and Andrew J. Viterbi received the 2007 IEEE/RSE Wolfson James Clerk Maxwell Award, for "fundamental contributions and leadership that enabled the growth of wireless telecommunications". In 2009, he was named a Fellow of AAAS. In 2011, he received the Marconi Prize together with Jack Wolf. In 2011, he was named Marconi Fellow. In 2011, Branson was inducted into the International Air & Space Hall of Fame at the San Diego Air & Space Museum. In 2012, Jacobs was named the W. P. Carey School of Business Dean’s Council of 100 Executive of the Year, which honors change-making business leaders who serve as models for today’s business students. In 2013, Jacobs was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame. In 2013, he received the Medal of Honor from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, the highest honor an engineer can receive from his or her peers; the IEEE said he was receiving the award not just for his innovations but for "the ability to translate innovation into industry applications, time after time after time."In November 2013, he was conferred the title of "Distinguished Honor Chair Professor" of National Tsing Hua University, TAIWAN.
On 19 August 2014, Jacobs was conferred the "Honorary Doctor of Engineering Degree" from National Tsing Hua University, TAIWAN. On 25 October 2014, Jacobs was conferred the "Honorary Doctor of Engineering Degree" from Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, CHINA. In 2014, Jacobs was elected to the Computer History Museum as a Fellow - for "his pioneering work in digital mobile telephony and communications, technology". In 2015, Jacobs received the Carnegie Medal of Philanthropy, for having made a significant and lasting impact on a particular field, nation and/or the international community. In 2017, along with Andrew Viterbi, received the IEEE Milestone Award for their CDMA and spread spectrum development that drives the mobile industry. In 01 February 2018, he was appointed as an Honorary Advisor to the President of National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan. In March 2018, he was named the winner of IMEC Lifetime of Innovation Award As the co-founder and chairman of Qualcomm, Jacobs has contributed hundreds of millions of dollars
Donald Judd was an American artist associated with minimalism. In his work, Judd sought autonomy and clarity for the constructed object and the space created by it achieving a rigorously democratic presentation without compositional hierarchy, it created an outpouring of effervescent works that defied the term "minimalism". He is considered the leading international exponent of "minimalism," and its most important theoretician through such seminal writings as "Specific Objects". Judd voices his unorthodox perception of minimalism in Arts Yearbook 8, where he asserts; the common aspects are too general and too little common to define a movement. The differences are greater than the similarities" Through his work Judd shines light on the profound effect on new three dimensional by specificity and generality. Judd was born in Missouri, he served in the Army from 1946 to 1947 as an engineer and in 1948 began his studies in philosophy at the College of William and Mary transferring to Columbia University School of General Studies.
At Columbia, he earned a degree in philosophy and worked towards a master's in art history under Rudolf Wittkower and Meyer Schapiro. At this time he attended night classes at the Art Students League of New York, he supported himself by writing art criticism for major American art magazines between 1959 and 1965. In 1968 Judd bought a five-story cast-iron building, designed by Nicholas Whyte in 1870, at 101 Spring Street for under $70,000, serving as his New York residence and studio. Over the next 25 years, Judd renovated the building floor by floor, sometimes installing works he purchased or commissioned from other artists. Judd died of Lymphoma in New York City on February 12, 1994. In the late 1940s, Donald Judd began to practice as a painter, his first solo exhibition, of expressionist paintings, opened in New York in 1957. From the mid-1950s to 1961, as he explored the medium of the woodcut, Judd progressively moved from figurative to abstract imagery, first carving organic rounded shapes moving on to the painstaking craftsmanship of straight lines and angles.
His artistic style soon moved away from illusory media and embraced constructions in which materiality was central to the work. He would not have another one person show until the Green Gallery in 1963, an exhibition of works that he thought worthy of showing. By 1963 Judd had established an essential vocabulary of forms — ‘stacks’, ‘boxes’ and ‘progressions’ — which preoccupied him for the next thirty years. Most of his output was in freestanding "specific objects", that used simple repeated forms to explore space and the use of space. Humble materials such as metals, industrial plywood and color-impregnated Plexiglas became staples of his career. Judd's first floor box structure was made in 1964, his first floor box using Plexiglas followed one year later. By 1964, he began work on wall-mounted sculptures, first developed the curved progression format of these works in 1964 as a development from his work on an untitled floor piece that set a hollow pipe into a solid wooden block. While Judd executed early works himself, in 1964 he began delegating fabrication to professional artisans and manufacturers based on his drawings.
In 1965, Judd created his first stack, an arrangement of identical iron units stretching from floor to ceiling. As he abandoned painting for sculpture in the early 1960s, he wrote the manifesto-like essay “Specific Objects” in 1964. In his essay, Judd found a starting point for a new territory for American art, a simultaneous rejection of residual inherited European artistic values, these values being illusion and represented space, as opposed to real space, he pointed to evidence of this development in the works of an array of artists active in New York at the time, including H. C. Westermann, Lucas Samaras, John Chamberlain, Jasper Johns, Dan Flavin, George Earl Ortman and Lee Bontecou; the works that Judd had fabricated inhabited a space not comfortably classifiable as either painting or sculpture and in fact he refused to call them sculpture, pointing out that they were not sculpted but made by small fabricators using industrial processes. That the categorical identity of such objects was itself in question, that they avoided easy association with well-worn and over-familiar conventions, was a part of their value for Judd.
He displayed two pieces in the seminal 1966 exhibit, "Primary Structures" at the Jewish Museum in New York where, during a panel discussion of the work, he challenged Mark di Suvero's assertion that real artists make their own art. He replied. In 1968, the Whitney Museum of American Art staged a retrospective of his work which included none of his early paintings. In 1968, Judd bought a five-story building in New York that allowed him to start placing his work in a more permanent manner than was possible in gallery or museum shows; this would lead him to push for permanent installations for his work and that of others, as he believed that temporary exhibitions, being designed by curators for the public, placed the art itself in the background degrading it due to incompetency or incomprehension. This would become a major preoccupation as the idea of permanent installation grew in importance and his distaste for the art wor
Robert Charles Venturi Jr. was an American architect, founding principal of the firm Venturi, Scott Brown and Associates, one of the major architectural figures of the twentieth century. Together with his wife and partner, Denise Scott Brown, he helped shape the way that architects and students experience and think about architecture and the American-built environment, their buildings, theoretical writings, teaching have contributed to the expansion of discourse about architecture. Venturi was awarded the Pritzker Prize in Architecture in 1991. Subsequently, a group of women architects attempted to get her name added retroactively to the prize, but the Pritzker Prize jury declined to do so. Venturi is known for having coined the maxim "Less is a bore", a postmodern antidote to Mies van der Rohe's famous modernist dictum "Less is more". Venturi lived in Philadelphia with Denise Scott Brown, he was the father of James Venturi and principal of ReThink Studio. Venturi was raised as a Quaker. Venturi attended school at the Episcopal Academy in Pennsylvania.
He graduated summa cum laude from Princeton University in 1947 where he was a member-elect of Phi Beta Kappa and won the D'Amato Prize in Architecture. He received his M. F. A. from Princeton in 1950. The educational program at Princeton under Professor Jean Labatut, who offered provocative design studios within a Beaux-Arts pedagogical framework, was a key factor in Venturi's development of an approach to architectural theory and design that drew from architectural history and commercial architecture in analytical, as opposed to stylistic, terms. In 1951 he worked under Eero Saarinen in Bloomfield Hills and for Louis Kahn in Philadelphia, he was awarded the Rome Prize Fellowship at the American Academy in Rome in 1954, where he studied and toured Europe for two years. From 1959 to 1967, Venturi held teaching positions at the University of Pennsylvania, where he served as Kahn's teaching assistant, an instructor, as associate professor, it was there, in 1960, that he met fellow faculty member and planner Denise Scott Brown.
Venturi taught at the Yale School of Architecture and was a visiting lecturer with Scott Brown in 2003 at Harvard University's Graduate School of Design. A controversial critic of the blithely functionalist and symbolically vacuous architecture of corporate modernism during the 1950s, Venturi was considered a counterrevolutionary, he published his "gentle manifesto", Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture in 1966. The work was derived from course lectures at the University of Pennsylvania, Venturi received a grant from the Graham Foundation in 1965 to aid in its completion; the book demonstrated, through countless examples, an approach to understanding architectural composition and complexity, the resulting richness and interest. Citing vernacular as well as high-style sources, Venturi drew new lessons from the buildings of architects familiar and then-forgotten, he made a case for "the difficult whole" rather than the diagrammatic forms popular at the time, included examples — both built and unrealized — of his own work to demonstrate the possible application of such techniques.
The book has been published in 18 languages to date. Hailed as a theorist and designer with radical ideas, Venturi went to teach a series of studios at the Yale School of Architecture in the mid-1960s; the most famous of these was a studio in 1968 in which Venturi and Scott Brown, together with Steven Izenour, led a team of students to document and analyze the Las Vegas Strip the least subject for a serious research project imaginable. In 1972, Scott Brown and Izenour published the folio, A Significance for A&P Parking Lots, or Learning from Las Vegas, it was revised using the student work as a foil for new theory, reissued in 1977 as Learning from Las Vegas: the Forgotten Symbolism of Architectural Form. This second manifesto was an more stinging rebuke to orthodox modernism and elite architectural tastes; the book coined the terms "Duck" and "Decorated Shed," descriptions of the two predominant ways of embodying iconography in buildings. The work of Venturi, Scott Brown, John Rauch adopted the latter strategy, producing formally simple "decorated sheds" with rich and shocking ornamental flourishes.
Venturi and his wife co-wrote several more books at the end of the century, but these two have so far proved to the most influential. The architecture of Robert Venturi, although not as familiar today as his books, helped redirect American architecture away from a practiced banal, modernism in the 1960s to a more exploratory design approach that drew lessons from architectural history and responded to the everyday context of the American city. Venturi's buildings juxtapose architectural systems and aims, to acknowledge the conflicts inherent in a project or site; this "inclusive" approach contrasted with the typical modernist effort to resolve and unify all factors in a complete and rigidly structured—and less functional and more simplistic—work of art. The diverse range of buildings of Venturi's early career offered surprising alternatives to current architectural practice, with "impure" forms casu
Ellsworth Kelly was an American painter and printmaker associated with hard-edge painting, Color Field painting and minimalism. His works demonstrate unassuming techniques emphasizing line and form, similar to the work of John McLaughlin and Kenneth Noland. Kelly employed bright colors, he worked in Spencertown, New York. Kelly was born the second son of three to Allan Howe Kelly and Florence Rose Elizabeth Kelly in Newburgh, New York 60 miles north of New York City, his father was an insurance company executive of German descent. His mother was a former schoolteacher of Pennsylvania German stock, his family moved from Newburgh to a town of nearly 7,500 people. His family lived near the Oradell Reservoir, where his paternal grandmother introduced him to ornithology when he was eight or nine years old. There he developed his passion for color. John James Audubon had a strong influence on Kelly's work throughout his career. Author Eugene Goossen speculated that the two- and three-color paintings for which Kelly is so well known can be traced to his bird watching and his study of the two- and three-color birds he saw so at an early age.
Kelly has said he was alone as a young boy and became somewhat of a "loner". He had a slight stutter. Kelly attended public school, where art classes stressed materials and sought to develop the "artistic imagination"; this curriculum was typical of the broader trend in schooling that had emerged from the Progressive education theories promulgated by the Columbia University's Teacher's College, at which the American modernist painter Arthur Wesley Dow had taught. Although his parents were reluctant to support Kelly's art training, a school teacher encouraged him to go further; as his parents would pay only for technical training, Kelly studied first at Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, which he attended from 1941 until he was inducted into the Army on New Year’s Day 1943. Upon entering U. S military service in 1943 Kelly requested to be assigned to the 603rd Engineers Camouflage Battalion, which took many artists, he was inducted at Fort Dix, New Jersey and sent to Camp Hale, where he trained with mountain ski troops.
He had never skied before. Six to eight weeks he was transferred to Fort Meade, Maryland. During World War II, he served with other artists and designers in a deception unit known as The Ghost Army; the Ghost soldiers used inflatable tanks and other elements of subterfuge to mislead the Axis forces about the direction and disposition of Allied forces. His exposure to military camouflage during the time he served became part of his basic art training. Kelly served with the unit from 1943 until the end of the European phase of the war. Kelly used the G. I. Bill to study from 1946-47 at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, where he took advantage of the museum's collections, at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris. While in Boston he exhibited in his first group show at the Boris Mirski Gallery and taught art classes at the Norfolk House Center in Roxbury. While in Paris Kelly established his aesthetic, he attended classes infrequently, but immersed himself in the rich artistic resources of the French capital.
He had heard a lecture by Max Beckmann on the French artist Paul Cézanne in 1948 and moved to Paris that year. There he encountered fellow Americans John Cage and Merce Cunningham, experimenting in music and dance, respectively; the experience of visiting artists such as Alberto Magnelli, Francis Picabia, Alberto Giacometti and Georges Vantongerloo in their studios was transformative. After being abroad for six years Kelly's French was still poor and he had sold only one painting. In 1953 he was evicted from his studio and he returned to America the following year, he had become interested after reading a review of an Ad Reinhardt exhibit, an artist whose work he felt his work related to. Upon his return to New York, he found the art world “very tough.” Although Kelly is now considered an essential innovator and contributor to the American art movement, it was hard for many to find the connection between Kelly's art and the dominant stylistic trends. In May 1956 Kelly had his first New York City exhibition at Betty Parsons' gallery.
His art was considered more European. He showed again at her gallery in the fall of 1957. Three of his pieces: Atlantic and Painting in Three Panels, were selected for and shown at the Whitney Museum of American Art's exhibit, "Young America 1957", his pieces were considered radically different from the other twenty-nine artists’ works. Painting in Three Panels, for example, was noted. For instance, Michael Plante has said that, more than not, Kelly’s multiple-panel pieces were cramped because of installation restrictions, which reduced the interaction between the pieces and the architecture of the room. Kelly moved away from Coenties Slip, where he had sometimes shared a studio with fellow artist and friend Agnes Martin, to the ninth floor of the high-rise studio/co-op Hotel des Artistes at 27 West 67th Street. Kelly left New York City for Spencertown in 1970 and was joined there by his partner, photographer Jack Shear, in 1984. From 2001 until his death Kelly worked in a 20,000-square-feet studio in Spencertown reconfigured and extended by the architect Richard Gluckman.
Kelly and Shear moved in 2
San Diego County, California
San Diego County the County of San Diego, is a county in the southwestern corner of the state of California, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,095,313. Making it California's second-most populous county and the fifth-most populous in the United States, its county seat is the eighth-most populous city in the United States. It is the southwesternmost county in the 48 contiguous United States. San Diego County comprises the San Diego-Carlsbad, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, the 17th most populous metropolitan statistical area and the 18th most populous primary statistical area of the United States as of July 1, 2012. San Diego is part of the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area shared between the United States and Mexico. Greater San Diego ranks as the 38th largest metropolitan area in the Americas. San Diego County has more than 70 miles of coastline; this forms the most densely populated region of the county, which has a mild Mediterranean to semiarid climate and extensive chaparral vegetation, similar to the rest of the western portion of southern California.
Precipitation and temperature extremes increase to the east, with mountains that receive frost and snow in the winter. These lushly forested mountains receive more rainfall than average in southern California, while the desert region of the county lies in a rain shadow to the east, which extends into the Desert Southwest region of North America. There are 16 naval and military installations of the U. S. Navy, U. S. Marine Corps, the U. S. Coast Guard in San Diego County; these include the Naval Base San Diego, Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, Naval Air Station North Island. From north to south, San Diego County extends from the southern borders of Orange and Riverside Counties to the Mexico-U. S. Border and Baja California. From west to east, San Diego County stretches from the Pacific Ocean to its boundary with Imperial County; the area, now San Diego County has been inhabited for more than 12,000 years by Kumeyaay, Luiseño, Cupeño and Cahuilla Indians and their local predecessors.
In 1542, the explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, who may have been born in Portugal but sailed on behalf of Spain, claimed San Diego Bay for the Spanish Empire, he named the site San Miguel. In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego. European settlement in what is now San Diego County began with the founding of the San Diego Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá by Spanish soldiers and clerics in 1769; this county was part of Alta California under the Viceroyalty of New Spain until the Mexican declaration of independence. From 1821 through 1848 this area was part of Mexico. San Diego County became part of the United States as a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, ending the Mexican–American War; this treaty designated the new border as terminating at a point on the Pacific Ocean coast which would result in the border passing one Spanish league south of the southernmost portion of San Diego Bay, thus ensuring that the United States received all of this natural harbor.
San Diego County was one of the original counties of California, created at the time of California statehood in 1850. At the time of its establishment in 1850, San Diego County was large, included all of southernmost California south and east of Los Angeles County, it included areas of what are now Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, as well as all of what are now Riverside and Imperial Counties. During the part of the 19th century, there were numerous changes in the boundaries of San Diego County, when various areas were separated to make up the counties mentioned above; the most recent changes were the establishments of Riverside County in 1893 and Imperial County in 1907. Imperial County was the last county to be established in California, after this division, San Diego no longer extended from the Pacific Ocean to the Colorado River, it no longer covered the entire border between California and Mexico. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,526 square miles, of which 4,207 square miles is land and 319 square miles is water.
The county is larger in area than the combined states of Rhode Delaware. San Diego County has a varied topography. On its western side is more than 70 miles of coastline. Most of San Diego between the coast and the Laguna Mountains consists of hills and small canyons. Snow-capped mountains rise with the Sonoran Desert farther to the east. Cleveland National Forest is spread across the central portion of the county, while the Anza-Borrego Desert State Park occupies most of the northeast. Although the county's western third is urban, the mountains and deserts in the eastern two-thirds are undeveloped backcountry. Most of these backcountry areas are home to a native plant community known as chaparral. San Diego County contains more than a million acres of chaparral, twice as much as any other California county. North San Diego County is known as North County; the eastern suburbs are collectively known as East County, though most still lie in the western third of the county. The southern suburbs and southern detached portion of the city of San Diego, extending to the Mexican border, are collectively referred to as South Bay.
Periodically the area has been subject to wildfires th
San Diego is a city in the U. S. state of California. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California 120 miles south of Los Angeles and adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,419,516 as of July 1, 2017, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California, it is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the U. S. and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. The city is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the United States Navy, recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center. San Diego has been called "the birthplace of California". Home to the Kumeyaay people, it was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later.
The Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850; the city is the seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, international trade, manufacturing; the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San La Jolla people; the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing under the flag of Castile but born in Portugal.
Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, named the site "San Miguel". In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego. Permanent colonization of California and of San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the San Carlos, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó and the soldier and future governor Pedro Fages, the San Antonio, under Juan Pérez.
An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier Fernando Rivera and included the Franciscan missionary and chronicler Juan Crespí, followed by a second party led by the designated governor Gaspar de Portolà and including the mission president Junípero Serra. In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River, it was the first settlement by Europeans in. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra. By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper. Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in Alta California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks. In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began its attempt to extend its authority over the coastal territory of Alta California.
The fort on Presidio Hill was abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, most of the Mission lands were granted to former soldiers; the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote. However, San Diego had been losing population throughout the 1830s and in 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because its size dropped to an estimated 100 to 150 residents. Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy. Americans gained increased awareness of California, its commercial possibilities, from the writings of two countrymen involved in the officially forbidden, to foreigners, but economically significant hide and tallow trade, where San Diego was a major port and the only one with an adequate harbor: William Shaler's "Journal of a Voyage Between China and the North-Western Coast of America, Made in 1804" and Richard Henry Dana's more substantial and convincing account, of his 1834–36 voyage, the classic Two Years Before the Mast.
In 1846, the United States went to war against Mexico and sent a naval and land expedition to conquer Alta California. At firs
Meroni Manzoni di Chiosca e Poggiolo, better known as Piero Manzoni was an Italian artist best known for his ironic approach to avant-garde art. Compared to the work of Yves Klein, his own work anticipated, directly influenced, the work of a generation of younger Italian artists brought together by the critic Germano Celant in the first Arte Povera exhibition held in Genoa, 1967. Manzoni is most famous for a series of artworks that call into question the nature of the art object, directly prefiguring Conceptual Art, his work eschews normal artist's materials, instead using everything from rabbit fur to human excrement in order to "tap mythological sources and to realize authentic and universal values". His work is seen as a critique of the mass production and consumerism, changing Italian society after World War II. Italian artists such as Manzoni had to negotiate the new economic and material order of post-war Europe through inventive artistic practices which crossed geographic and cultural borders.
Manzoni died of myocardial infarction in his studio in Milan on February 6, 1963. His contemporary Ben Vautier signed Manzoni's death certificate. Manzoni was born in province of Cremona, his full name was Count Meroni Manzoni di Chiosca e Poggiolo. Self-taught as an artist, Manzoni first exhibited at the Soncino's Castle in Soncino in August 1956, at the age of 23, his early work was broadly gestural, showed the influence of Milanese proponents of Nuclear Art, such as Enrico Baj. His works, from 1957 until his death in 1963, questioned and satirized the status of the art object as it had been conceived throughout modernism. Influences include earlier artists like Marcel Duchamp and contemporaneous practitioners Ben Vautier and Yves Klein. Manzoni's work changed irrevocably after visiting Yves Klein's exhibition'Epoca Blu' at the Galleria Apollinaire in Milan, January 1957; this exhibition consisted of 11 identical blue monochromes. By the end of the year he had ceased producing work influenced by the prevailing trends in Art Informel, to works that responded directly to Klein's monochromes.
Called Achromes, they invariably looked white but were colourless. In these paintings Manzoni experimented with various materials. Favouring canvases coated in gesso, he worked with kaolin, another form of white clay used in the production of porcelain; the kaolin works are made from clay covered canvases folded horizontally, or sometimes cut-out squares of canvas coated in the clay and adhered onto the canvas. As well as Yves Klein, these works showed the influence of Lucio Fontana and Alberto Burri and the American artist Robert Rauschenberg, who had painted neutral white canvases in 1951, he would create Achromes from white cotton wool, rabbit skin and bread rolls. He experimented with phosphorescent paint and cobalt chloride so that the colours would change over time. In addition to these fabricated materials, the artist's own bodily products and features became art. In addition to his famous Merda d'Artista, in which Manzoni's own excrement became a series of art objects, the use of fingerprints and breath figured into his experimental body of work.
Manzoni founded the Gallery Azimuth in Milan in 1959 with the artist Enrico Castellani, staged a series of revolutionary exhibitions of multiples. The first, 12 Linee took place in December 1959 followed by Corpi d'Aria in May 1960; this was an edition of 45 balloons on tripods that could be blown up by the buyer, or the artist himself, depending on the price paid. In July 1960 he exhibited Consumption of Art by the Art-Devouring Public, in which he hard-boiled 70 eggs, printed his thumbprint onto them, after eating several himself handed them out to the audience to eat; the eggs themselves were titled Uova con impronta. This was the last exhibition by Manzoni at Azimuth, after which the gallery was forced to close when the lease ran out. Although the invitation named the Gallery Azimuth as the location of the opening, the actual event took place at the Studio Filmgiornale Sedi in Milan; the discrepancy between the location on the invitation and the film studio where the event was recorded further complicates the role and space of art as it was expected to be seen.
Contemporaneously with the Bodies of Air, Manzoni produced the Artist's Breaths, a series of red, white or blue balloons and attached to a wooden base inscribed "Piero Manzoni- Artist's Breath". The works continued Manzoni's obsession with the limits of physicality, whilst parodying the Art World's obsession with permanence, provided a poignant Memento Mori. In May 1961 Manzoni created 90 small cans, sealed with the text Artist's Shit; each 30-gram can was priced by weight based on the current value of gold. The contents of the cans remain a much-disputed enigma, since opening them would destroy the value of the artwork. Various theories about the contents have been proposed, including speculation. In the following years, the cans have spread to various art collections all over the world and netted large prices, far outstripping inflation. A tin was sold for € 124,000 at Sotheby's on May 23, 2007, it sold for £97,250. It was described as: "It is a joke, a parody of the art market, a critique of consumerism and the waste it generates."
On October 16, 2015, tin 54