Carnegie Education Pavilion
The Carnegie Education Pavilion, more known as the Carnegie Monument, is a marble Beaux-Arts monument located in Atlanta, United States. The pavilion was constructed in 1996 from the exterior facade of the Carnegie Library, named after Andrew Carnegie; the monument pays homage to the legacy of Carnegie by serving as a monument to higher education in Atlanta, with the seals of nine local area colleges and universities embedded in the floor of the monument. The monument was commissioned in 1996 by the Corporation for Olympic Development in Atlanta and designed by Henri Jova; the pavilion is located in Downtown's Hardy Ivy Park, at the curve in Peachtree Street where it intersects with Baker Street. The monument's inscription reads: "The Advancement of Learning." It features the inscriptions of the names of three famous Western poets "Dante", "Milton", "Asop", in addition to the library's namesake, "Carnegie". From 1899 to 1901, Andrew Carnegie, the steel magnate and philanthropist from Pittsburgh, donated $145,000 to construct and supply a new public library in Atlanta.
A site was chosen at 126 Carnegie Way in downtown Atlanta. The library, built by New York architects Ackerman and Ross, opened in 1902, it was renovated in 1950 and 1966, remained the central library of the system until it was demolished in 1977 in order to make way for the controversial Marcel Breuer-designed Central Library. The architectural bays of the original structure were preserved and used to create the pavilion twenty years after the building's demolition; the Atlanta Public Arts Legacy Fund
Contemporary art is the art of today, produced in the second half of the 20th century or in the 21st century. Contemporary artists work in a globally influenced, culturally diverse, technologically advancing world, their art is a dynamic combination of materials, methods and subjects that continue the challenging of boundaries, well underway in the 20th century. Diverse and eclectic, contemporary art as a whole is distinguished by the lack of a uniform, organising principle, ideology, or "-ism". Contemporary art is part of a cultural dialogue that concerns larger contextual frameworks such as personal and cultural identity, family and nationality. In vernacular English and contemporary are synonyms, resulting in some conflation of the terms modern art and contemporary art by non-specialists; some define contemporary art as art produced within "our lifetime," recognising that lifetimes and life spans vary. However, there is a recognition; the classification of "contemporary art" as a special type of art, rather than a general adjectival phrase, goes back to the beginnings of Modernism in the English-speaking world.
In London, the Contemporary Art Society was founded in 1910 by the critic Roger Fry and others, as a private society for buying works of art to place in public museums. A number of other institutions using the term were founded in the 1930s, such as in 1938 the Contemporary Art Society of Adelaide, an increasing number after 1945. Many, like the Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston changed their names from ones using "Modern art" in this period, as Modernism became defined as a historical art movement, much "modern" art ceased to be "contemporary"; the definition of what is contemporary is always on the move, anchored in the present with a start date that moves forward, the works the Contemporary Art Society bought in 1910 could no longer be described as contemporary. Particular points that have been seen as marking a change in art styles include the end of World War II and the 1960s. There has been a lack of natural break points since the 1960s, definitions of what constitutes "contemporary art" in the 2010s vary, are imprecise.
Art from the past 20 years is likely to be included, definitions include art going back to about 1970. And early 21st cent. Both an outgrowth and a rejection of modern art". Many use the formulation "Contemporary Art", which avoids this problem. Smaller commercial galleries and other sources may use stricter definitions restricting the "contemporary" to work from 2000 onwards. Artists who are still productive after a long career, ongoing art movements, may present a particular issue. Sociologist Nathalie Heinich draws a distinction between modern and contemporary art, describing them as two different paradigms which overlap historically, she found that while "modern art" challenges the conventions of representation, "contemporary art" challenges the notion of an artwork. She regards Duchamp's Fountain as the starting point of contemporary art, which gained momentum after World War II with Gutai's performances, Yves Klein's monochromes and Rauschenberg's Erased de Kooning Drawing. One of the difficulties many people have in approaching contemporary artwork is its diversity—diversity of material, subject matter, time periods.
It is "distinguished by the lack of a uniform organizing principle, ideology, or -ism" that we so see in other, oftentimes more familiar, art periods and movements. Broadly speaking, we see Modernism as looking at modernist principles—the focus of the work is self-referential, investigating its own materials. Impressionism looks at our perception of a moment through light and color as opposed to attempts at stark realism. Contemporary art, on the other hand, does not have single objective or point of view, its view instead is unclear reflective of the world today. It can be, contradictory and open-ended. There are, however, a number of common themes. While these are not exhaustive, notable themes include: identity politics, the body and migration, contemporary society and culture and memory, institutional and political critique. Post-modern, post-structuralist and Marxist theory have played important roles in the development of contemporary theories of art; the functioning of the art world is dependent on art institutions, ranging from major museums to private galleries, non-profit spaces, art schools and publishers, the practices of individual artists, writers and philanthropists.
A major division in the art world is between the for-profit and non-profit sectors, although in recent years the boundaries between for-profit private and non-profit public institutions have become blurred. Most well-known contemporary art is exhibited by professional artists at commercial contemporary art galleries, by private collectors, art auctions, corporation
Delta Flight Museum
The Delta Flight Museum is an aviation and corporate museum located in Atlanta, United States, near the airline's main hub at the Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport. The museum is housed in two 1940s-era Delta Air Lines maintenance hangars, which were used until the 1960s when the Delta Technical Operations Center known as the Jet Base, was completed; the museum is a nonprofit organization and relies on volunteers, special event rentals and Museum Store sales. The Delta Museum is considered an ongoing project and it collects various items year round; the museum opened to the general public in June 2014. Prior to that, Delta employee ID or prior arrangement was required to access the campus in which the museum is located; the idea for a museum about Delta Air Lines originated with group of retirees who started a campaign in 1990 to find one of Delta's original five purchased-new Douglas DC-3's from the early 1940s. After some searching, the employees struck gold when they found Delta Ship 41, Delta's second DC-3 to carry passengers, in Puerto Rico performing cargo services.
The group bought the plane from the cargo airline and the Delta Air Transport Heritage Museum was started. From 1995 to October 8, 1999, the plane was painstakingly restored to its exact original configuration & appearance when it was first delivered to Delta back in 1940 by active and retired Delta mechanics. Delta Ship 41 is by far one of the most faithfully restored passenger transport DC-3's in the world, evidenced by the fact that in 2001, it was the first aircraft to be presented with an award from the National Trust for Historic Preservation. Delta Ship 41 is the only remaining Delta passenger Douglas DC-3 left in existence. Delta Air Lines is the only major air carrier known to still possess its first new passenger carrying DC-3. On May 23, 1995, the Delta Air Transport Heritage Museum was incorporated under Georgia law as an independent nonprofit corporation, organized for public charitable uses and purposes and qualified under Section 501 of the Internal Revenue Code. In Hangar One is the Monroe Cafe, a full-scale replica of Delta's former Monroe, Louisiana headquarters.
It served as Delta's headquarters from 1934 to 1941. The "hub" of Hangar One is the Delta Archives, it houses more than 200,000 images, 1,000 films, one of the world's largest airline uniform collections, as well as an aviation reference library. Hangar 1 houses several of the museum's restored aircraft, which include: Delta Ship 41, one of Delta's first passenger DC-3s and the museum's most prized piece. A 1931 Travel Air 6000. A Huff-Daland Duster biplane replica, representing the first aircraft operated by Delta's predecessor. A 1936 Stinson Reliant SE. Nicknamed the "Gull Wing," this unique aircraft served as an instrument trainer for Northeast Airlines pilots in 1941–1942. Hangar 2 houses The Spirit of Delta. Acquired in 1982, it was the company's first Boeing 767-200, it was paid for "by voluntary contributions from employees and Delta's community partners." The effort, called Project 767, was spearheaded by three Delta flight attendants to show the employees' appreciation to Delta for "solid management and strong leadership during the first years following airline deregulation."
The aircraft was repainted in a commemorative paint scheme and toured the country to celebrate the airline's 75th anniversary in 2004. The airplane remained the flagship of the Delta fleet until March 2006; the aircraft arrived at the museum on March 2006 after a farewell tour around the United States. Additional exhibit items in Hangar 2 include the forward fuselage of the prototype Lockheed L-1011, the cockpit section of a Convair 880, the tail section of a Douglas DC-9, a Boeing 737 flight simulator, in which brief rides are sold to the public during some special events; the museum's collection includes three other aircraft which are parked outdoors around the edges of the museum parking lot: a Boeing 757-200 registered N608DA, a McDonnell Douglas DC-9-50 registered N675MC, first produced Boeing 747-400 registered N661US. The most significant aircraft in the outdoor collection is Delta Ship 6301, the first production Boeing 747-400. Used for flight testing by Boeing as N401PW, N661US was delivered to Northwest Airlines on January 26, 1989.
On October 9, 2002, N661US operating as Northwest Flight 85 had to make an emergency landing in Anchorage while on its way to Tokyo from Detroit due to a rudder malfunction. When Northwest merged with Delta in 2009, N661US became Delta Ship 6301 and continued passenger operations for Delta until it was retired on September 9, 2015, having logged more than 61 million miles of flight over its lifetime. Ship 6301's significance, both as an individual aircraft and to Delta meant that it was acquired by the museum after it was retired; the following April, the jumbo jet was moved across two streets from a parking spot on the tarmac at Atlanta Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport to its permanent home in the museum parking lot. Delta employees conducted a funding campaign called "The Airloom Project" with the aim of converting Ship 6301 and the parking lot surrounding it into an outdoor exhibit similar to The Spirit of Delta inside. Much like in the Spirit of Delta, museum visitors enter the 747-400 via stairs and an elevator, proceed through the intact first class cabin through the economy section, part of, converted into an exhibition space, where the aft pressure bulkhead i
Georgia World Congress Center
The Georgia World Congress Center is a convention center in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Enclosing some 3.9 million ft2 in exhibition space and hosting more than a million visitors each year, the GWCC is the third-largest convention center in the United States. Opened in 1976, the GWCC was the first state-owned convention center established in the United States; the center is operated on behalf of the state by the Georgia World Congress Center Authority, chartered in 1971 by Georgia General Assembly to develop an international trade and exhibition center in Atlanta. The authority developed the Georgia Dome, Centennial Olympic Park, Mercedes-Benz Stadium, which replaced the Georgia Dome. In 2017, the Georgia Dome was closed on March 5 and demolished by implosion on November 20 while Mercedes-Benz Stadium opened on August 26. While the GWCCA owns Mercedes-Benz Stadium, AMB Group, the parent organization for the National Football League's Atlanta Falcons and Major League Soccer's Atlanta United FC, is responsible for the stadium's operations.
In addition to convention and trade shows, the GWCC coordinated with the Georgia Dome to host activities in conjunction with major events being held at the dome. Every year, the center hosts SEC Football Fanfare, a two-day fan festival for the thousands of Southeastern Conference football fans in the city for the SEC Championship Game; the center played host to a similar event in tandem with WrestleMania Axxess. Family Feud started taping at Georgia World Congress Center in 2015 and stayed there until 2018, when it moved back to Los Angeles; the GWCC is located in downtown Atlanta at 285 Andrew Young International Boulevard NW, adjacent to CNN Center and State Farm Arena. Public transportation is serviced by the Dome/GWCC/Philips Arena/CNN Center MARTA station. Delta Air Lines had a ticket office in the lobby of the complex. Though named, the Georgia International Convention Center is a smaller unrelated facility located near Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport; the GWCC is made up of three adjacent buildings, Buildings A, B, C.
In total these buildings have twelve exhibit halls, 105 meeting rooms, two ballrooms. Building A has three exhibit halls and the Sidney Marcus auditorium seating 1,740. Building B, the largest, contains five exhibit halls and the 33,000 square-foot Thomas B. Murphy Ballroom; the newest building, Building C, has the 25,700 square-foot Georgia Ballroom. Other amenities include a FedEx Kinko's office, coffee shops, a gift shop, internet access, telephone service, full IT management provided by CCLD, a concierge desk, a food court plus another restaurant. Freight rail tracks run under the parking decks; the complex incorporates pedestrian bridges to connect exhibit halls on opposite sides of the tracks. See article: 2008 Atlanta tornado outbreak. Designed by Atlanta-based architects tvsdesign, the GWCC opened in 1976 with 350,000 square feet of exhibit space. Additional phases opened in 1985, 1992, 2002. During the 1996 Summer Olympics, the GWCC hosted handball, judo, table tennis, weightlifting and the fencing and shooting portions of the modern pentathlon.
The International Broadcast Centre for the worldwide media was set up inside the GWCC. On November 8, 2001, President George W. Bush made a speech at the GWCC in which he exhorted the crowd of police and politicians, "My fellow Americans, Let's roll!", He was invoking the last words of Todd Beamer, a passenger on United Airlines Flight 93, one of the participants in an attempt to storm the cockpit and wrest control of the airplane from the hijackers. He would use the words again in the 2002 State of the Union address: "For too long our culture has said,'If it feels good, do it.' Now America is embracing a new ethic and a new creed:'Let's roll.'"The center hosted the 2009 Soul Train Music Awards, the first held outside of the Los Angeles area. On March 14, 2008, a tornado struck Atlanta, including the downtown area; the Georgia World Congress Center was damaged by the storm, including roof and water damage. In addition to rain pouring in from the holes in the roof, there was water damage from the sprinkler system and broken water pipes.
The extent of the damage led to the cancellation of immediate events. After the disaster, a letter was posted on the GWCC's website detailing the closure of the GWCC. However, the facility along with the nearby Georgia Dome was able to be repaired enough to host the FIRST Robotics World Championship during the dates of April 18–20; the Georgia Dome and the Congress Center were ready in time for the International Career Development Conference run by DECA, an association of marketing students from around the country. FBLA-PBL, a student business organization, held its opening and closing sessions for the National Leadership Conference in 2008 there; the tornado was the first to hit the downtown area. FBLA-PBL once again held their FBLA National Leadership Conference in the Congress Center in 2016 for Opening and Closing Session, with over 12,000 attendees. DECA once again held their DECA International Career Development Conference in 2018 in the facility, with over 19,000 attendees. Georgia World Congress Center website
World of Coca-Cola
The World of Coca-Cola is a museum, located in Atlanta, showcasing the history of The Coca-Cola Company. The 20-acre complex opened to the public on May 24, 2007, relocating from and replacing the original exhibit, founded in 1990 in Underground Atlanta. There are various similar World of Coca-Cola stores in locations such as Las Vegas and Disney Springs; the original World of Coca-Cola was located in downtown Atlanta, Georgia at 55 Martin Luther King Jr Drive, between the Georgia State Capitol and the Underground Atlanta shopping and entertainment district. The museum opened in 1990, would remain open until 2007; the original World of Coca-Cola saw around nine million visitors during its years of operation, becoming Atlanta's most visited indoor attraction until it was surpassed by the Georgia Aquarium in 2009. The museum was inspired to serve as a continuation of Coca-Cola history dating back to 1886. During this time, Dr. John S. Pemberton, a pharmacist from Atlanta, created a unique soft drink with a specific flavour syrup, popular.
Frank M. Robinson, his partner and bookkeeper is responsible for the name of Coca-Cola as well as the well-known design of the script; the museum was located in a three-story pavilion, its entrance had a huge neon Coca-Cola sign. This sign was built by Metals Manufacturing in Utah; the tour started on the top floor and worked downwards, featuring 1,000 Coca-Cola artifacts presented in chronological order, interactive exhibits such as a replica 1930s soda fountain, video presentations of Coca-Cola advertising over the years, a 10-minute film about Coke around the world. The tour featured the'Spectacular Fountain,' where visitors were allowed to sample various Coke products. At the'Tastes of the States' area in the same room, guests were able to try 22 different soft drink brands, some available only regionally. The'Tastes of the World' exhibit was located in the International Lounge. There was a gift shop; the Georgia state government acquired the former World of Coca-Cola building for $1.1 million after Coca-Cola vacated the facility in 2007, state legislators had proposed to install a state history museum in the building, but no action has been taken due to the cost of refurbishing the old World of Coca-Cola building as well as the lack of funding to do so.
The Atlanta museum was relocated to 121 Baker Street in Atlanta, just blocks away from where John Pemberton created the original Coca-Cola formula. The 92,000-square-foot building was constructed at a cost of $97 million and opened in 2007, it is located in Georgia at Pemberton Place. The 20-acre complex is located across Baker Street from Centennial Olympic Park and is home to the Georgia Aquarium and the Center for Civil & Human Rights, it opened to the public on May 2007, relocating from and replacing the original exhibit. The museum features exhibits about the secret formula of Coca-Cola, a 4D movie where an intrepid scientist and his assistant set out to find the secret for themselves, allows visitors to taste 60 different flavors from around the world, it houses a functional bottling line that produced 8-ounce bottles of Coca-Cola for distribution to its guests. However, citing operation costs, since 2013, the plant runs in simulation as such practice was discontinued. There are other World of Coca-Cola locations beyond Atlanta as well.
Club Cool Ice Station Cool, is located in Walt Disney World Epcot park. The facade was themed to resemble a polar expedition with props such as a snowmobile. Like other Coca-Cola exhibits, it included an area where guests could taste Coca-Cola beverages from around the world. In 2016, the World of Coca-Cola opened in Disney Springs, modeled like the Atlanta attraction, it features a sampling of Coca-Cola products from around the world. World of Coca-Cola Las Vegas, built in 1997, was located in the Showcase Mall on the Las Vegas Strip, it closed in 2000. World of Coca-Cola Tokyo was located on the 6th floor of Mediage in Daiba, it closed on January 15, 2007. There is a Coca-Cola Museum in Taoyuan City, Taiwan as of 2007. Old Atlanta, Georgia location Current Atlanta, Georgia location Coca-Cola Museum List of food and beverage museums List of Coca-Cola buildings and structures List of Coca-Cola slogans Tourism in Atlanta World of Coca-Cola Atlanta website World of Coca-Cola from Roadside Georgia
High Museum of Art
The High Museum of Art, located in Atlanta, is a leading art museum in the Southeastern United States. Located on Peachtree Street in Midtown, the city's arts district, the High is a division of the Woodruff Arts Center. In 2010 it had 95th among world art museums; the museum was founded in 1905 as the Atlanta Art Association. In 1926, the High family, for whom the museum is named, donated their family home on Peachtree Street to house the collection following a series of exhibitions involving the Grand Central Art Galleries organized by Atlanta collector J. J. Haverty. Many pieces from the Haverty collection are now on permanent display in the High. A separate building for the museum was built adjacent to the family home in 1955. On June 3, 1962, 106 Atlanta arts patrons died in an airplane crash at Orly Airport in Paris, while on a museum-sponsored trip. Including crew and other passengers, 130 people were killed in what was, at the time, the worst single plane aviation disaster in history. Members of Atlanta's prominent families were lost including members of the Berry family who founded Berry College.
During their visit to Paris, the Atlanta arts patrons had seen Whistler's Mother at the Louvre. In the fall of 1962, the Louvre, as a gesture of good will to the people of Atlanta, sent Whistler's Mother to Atlanta to be exhibited at the Atlanta Art Association museum on Peachtree Street. To honor those killed in the 1962 crash, the Atlanta Memorial Arts Center was built for the High; the French government donated a Rodin sculpture The Shade to the High in memory of the victims of the crash. In 1983, a 135,000-square-foot building designed by Richard Meier opened to house the High Museum of Art. Meier won the 1984 Pritzker Prize after completing the building; the Meier building was funded by a $7.9 million challenge grant from former Coca-Cola president Robert W. Woodruff matched by $20 million raised by the museum. Meier's sculptural building has been criticized as having more beauty than brains. For example, constructed with white concrete, the lobby, a giant atrium in the middle of the building's cutaway cube, has no exhibition space, columns throughout the interior restrict the way curators can display large works of modern art.
With the atrium being just one of four quadrants, it's viewed as a luxuriously structured, but vacant pathway leading to the other exhibits, quite a shame when considering how radiant and light-filled the room is. At 135,000 square feet, the Meier building has room to display only about three percent of the museum's permanent collection. Although the building contains 135,000 square feet, only about 52,000 square feet is gallery space; the Meier building, now the Stent Family Wing, was termed Director Gudmund Vigtel's "crowning achievement" by his successor Michael Shapiro. During Vigtel's tenure 1963-1991, the size of the museum's permanent collection tripled and trust funds of more than $15 million were established, the operating budget increased from $60,000 to $9 million and the staff expanded from four to 150. In 2005, Renzo Piano designed three new buildings which more than doubled the museum's size to 312,000 square feet, at a cost of $124 million; the Piano buildings were designed as part of an overall upgrade of the entire Woodruff Arts Center complex.
All three new buildings erected as part of the expansion of the High are clad in panels of aluminum to align with Meier's original choice of a white enamel façade. Piano's design of the new Wieland Pavilion and Anne Cox Chambers Wing features a special roof system of 1,000 light scoops that capture northern light and filter it into the skyway galleries; the High Museum of Art's permanent collection includes more than 15,000 artworks across seven collecting areas: African Art, American Art, decorative arts and design, European art and self-taught art and contemporary art, photography. More than one-third of the High's collection was acquired after the museum announced its plans for expansion in 1999. Highlights of the collection include works by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Claude Monet, Martin Johnson Heade, Dorothea Lange, Clarence John Laughlin, Chuck Close. In 1958, 29 Renaissance and Baroque paintings and sculptures from the Samuel H. Kress Foundation were donated, establishing the core of the High's European art collection.
Highlights of the Kress gift include Giovanni Bellini's Madonna and Child, Tommaso del Mazza's Madonna and Child with Six Saints and Tiepolo's Roman Matrons Making Offerings to Juno. The European art collection includes Late Medieval Italian paintings by Paolo di Giovanni Fei, Niccolo di Segna and Italian Renaissance paintings by Francesco di Giorgio, Girolamo Romani, Vittore Carpaccio, as well as French paintings by Nicolas Tournier, Charles-André van Loo, Eugene Fromentin, Alexandre Decamps, Alfred Dehodencq, Luc-Olivier Merson, Jean Corot, Frédéric Bazille, Camille Pissarro, Édouard Vuillard, Pierre Bonnard, Chaim Soutine. European sculpture holdings include works by Giovanni Minnelli, François Rude, Pierre Hébert, Jean-Joseph Carriès, Medardo Rosso; the American art collection includes 18th-, 19th- and 20th- century American paintings by Ralph Earl, Charles Wilson Peale, John Copley, Benjamin West, Thomas Cole, George Henry Durrie, Jasper Cropsey, John Kensett, Thomas Doughty, John Quidor, George Inness, Albert Bierstadt, George Henry Yewell, Alfred Cornelius Howland, L. Birge Harrison, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Lilla Cabot Perry, Frederick Frieseke, Childe Hassam, Gaines Ruger Donoho, Elihu Vedder, Ernest Lawson, John Sloan and George Luks.
American sculpture holdings include works by William Rush, Erastus Palmer, Hiram Powers, William Stor
Stone Mountain is a quartz monzonite dome monadnock and the site of Stone Mountain Park near Stone Mountain, Georgia. At its summit, the elevation is 825 feet above the surrounding area. Stone Mountain is well known for not only its geology, but the enormous rock relief on its north face, the largest bas-relief in the world; the carving depicts three Confederate figures, Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson, has been the subject of widespread controversy. Stone Mountain was once owned by the Venable Brothers and was the site of the founding of the second Ku Klux Klan in 1915, it was purchased by the State of Georgia in 1958 "as a memorial to the Confederacy." Stone Mountain Park opened on April 14, 1965 – 100 years to the day after Lincoln's assassination. It is the most visited destination in the state of Georgia. Stone Mountain is more than 5 miles in circumference at its base; the summit of the mountain can be reached by a walk-up trail on the west side of the mountain or by the Skyride aerial tram.
Stone Mountain is a type of igneous intrusion. Composed of quartz monzonite, the dome of Stone Mountain was formed during the formation of the Blue Ridge Mountains around 300–350 million years ago, part of the Appalachian Mountains, it formed as a result of the upwelling of magma from within the Earth's crust. This magma solidified to form granite within the crust five to ten miles below the surface; the Stone Mountain pluton continues underground 9 miles at its longest point into Gwinnett County. Numerous reference books and Georgia literature have dubbed Stone Mountain as "the largest exposed piece of granite in the world"; this misconception is most a result of misrepresentation by granite companies and early park administration. Stone Mountain, though called a pink granite dome ranges in composition from quartz monzonite to granite and granodiorite; the minerals within the rock include quartz, plagioclase feldspar and muscovite, with smaller amounts of biotite and tourmaline. The tourmaline is black in color, the majority of it exists as optically continuous skeletal crystals, but much larger, euhedral pegmatitic tourmaline crystals can be found in the mountain's numerous, cross-cutting felsic dikes.
Embedded in the granite are xenoliths or pieces of foreign rocks entrained in the magma. The granite intruded into the metamorphic rocks of the Piedmont region during the last stages of the Alleghenian Orogeny, the time when North America and North Africa collided. Over time, erosion exposed the present mountain of more resistant igneous rock; this intrusion of granite gave rise to Panola Mountain and Arabia Mountain, both in DeKalb County, smaller outcroppings farther south of Stone Mountain. The top of the mountain is a landscape of bare rock and rock pools, it provides views of the surrounding area including the skyline of downtown Atlanta Kennesaw Mountain, on clear days the Appalachian Mountains. On some days, the top of the mountain is shrouded in a heavy fog, visibility may be limited to only a few feet; the clear freshwater pools on the summit form by rainwater gathering in eroded depressions, are home to unusual clam shrimp and fairy shrimp. The tiny shrimp appear only during the rainy season.
Through the process of cryptobiosis, the tiny shrimp eggs can remain dormant for years in the dried out depressions, awaiting favorable conditions. The mountain's lower slopes are wooded; the rare Georgia oak was first discovered at the summit, several specimens can be found along the walk-up trail and in the woods around the base of the mountain. In the fall, the rare Confederate yellow daisy flowers appear on the mountain, growing in rock crevices and in the large wooded areas. Owned and paid for by the state of Georgia, Stone Mountain is the most-visited tourist attraction in the state; the largest bas-relief sculpture in the world, the Confederate Memorial Carving depicts three Confederate leaders of the Civil War: President Jefferson Davis and Generals Robert E. Lee and Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson. The entire carved surface measures 1.57 acres. The carving of the three men towers 400 feet above the ground, measures 76 by 158 feet, is recessed 42 feet into the mountain; the deepest point of the carving is at Lee's right elbow, 12 feet to the mountain's surface."Who first conceived of a Confederate memorial on the side of Stone Mountain has long been a matter of debate.....
The written evidence...points to Francis Ticknor, a nineteenth-century physician and poet from Jones County, Georgia...in an 1869 poem.... William H. Terrell, an Atlanta attorney and son of a Confederate veteran...suggested it publicly on May 26, 1914 in an editorial for the Atlanta Constitution." Three weeks Georgian John Temple Graves, editor of the New York American, suggested it should have a 70 feet statue of Robert E. Lee; the project was advanced by Mrs. C. Helen Plane, a charter member of the United Daughters of the Confederacy and first president and Honorary Life President of the Georgia State Division. After obtaining the approval of the Georgia UDC, she set up the UDC Stone Mountain Memorial Association, it was she who invited him to visit the mountain. She met him at the Atlanta train station, took him to the family's summer home, Mont Rest, at the foot of the mountain, introduced hi