Georges de La Tour
Georges de La Tour was a French Baroque painter, who spent most of his working life in the Duchy of Lorraine, temporarily absorbed into France between 1641 and 1648. He painted religious chiaroscuro scenes lit by candlelight. Georges de La Tour was born in the town of Vic-sur-Seille in the Diocese of Metz, technically part of the Holy Roman Empire, but had been ruled by France since 1552. Baptism documentation revealed that he was the son of Jean de La Tour, a baker, Sybille de La Tour, née Molian, it has been suggested that Sybille came from a noble family. His parents had seven children in all, with Georges being the second-born. La Tour's educational background remains somewhat unclear, but it is assumed that he traveled either to Italy or the Netherlands early in his career, he may have trained under Jacques Bellange in Nancy, the capital of Lorraine, although their styles are different. His paintings reflect the Baroque naturalism of Caravaggio, but this reached him through the Dutch Caravaggisti of the Utrecht School and other Northern contemporaries.
In particular, La Tour is compared to the Dutch painter Hendrick Terbrugghen. In 1617 he married Diane Le Nerf, from a minor noble family, in 1620 he established his studio in her quiet provincial home-town of Lunéville, part of the independent Duchy of Lorraine, occupied by France, during his lifetime, in the period 1641–1648, he painted religious and some genre scenes. He was given the title "Painter to the King" in 1638, he worked for the Dukes of Lorraine in 1623–4, but the local bourgeoisie provided his main market, he achieved a certain affluence, he is not recorded in Lunéville between 1639 and 1642, may have traveled again. He was involved in a Franciscan-led religious revival in Lorraine, over the course of his career he moved to painting entirely religious subjects, but in treatments with influence from genre painting. Georges de La Tour and his family died in 1652 in an epidemic in Lunéville, his son Étienne was his pupil. La Tour's early work shows influences from Caravaggio via his Dutch followers, the genre scenes of cheats—as in The Fortune Teller—and fighting beggars derive from the Dutch Caravaggisti, also his fellow-Lorrainer, Jacques Bellange.
These are believed to date from early in his career. La Tour is best known for the nocturnal light effects which he developed much further than his artistic predecessors had done, transferred their use in the genre subjects in the paintings of the Dutch Caravaggisti to religious painting in his. Unlike Caravaggio his religious paintings lack dramatic effects, he painted these in a second phase of his style beginning in the 1640s, using chiaroscuro, careful geometrical compositions, simplified painting of forms. His work moves during his career towards greater simplicity and stillness—taking from Caravaggio different qualities than Jusepe de Ribera and his Tenebrist followers did, he painted several variations on the same subjects, his surviving output is small. His son Étienne was his pupil, distinguishing between their work in versions of La Tour's compositions is difficult; the version of the Education of the Virgin in the Frick Collection in New York is an example, as the Museum itself admits.
Another group of paintings, of great skill but claimed to be different in style to those of La Tour, have been attributed to an unknown "Hurdy-gurdy Master". All show older male figures solitary, either beggars or saints. After his death at Lunéville in 1652, La Tour's work was forgotten until rediscovered by Hermann Voss, a German scholar, in 1915. Director Peter Greenaway has described La Tour's work as a primary influence on his 1982 film The Draughtsman's Contract. Job Mocked by His Wife by La Tour appears in the 2003 Francis Veber film Le Dîner de Cons. A reference to a work purportedly by La Tour is featured prominently in the 2003 Merchant Ivory film Le Divorce. Magdalene with the Smoking Flame is the painting in Ariel's grotto she longingly motions toward when she yearns to know about fire while singing "Part of Your World" in Disney's 1989 film The Little Mermaid. Chiaroscuro scenes Other Canada Art Gallery of Ontario, Musée des Beaux-Arts de l'Ontario, Ontario France Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon Musée des Beaux-Arts de Nancy in Nancy, former capital of Lorraine, has the largest collection.
Musée des Beaux-Arts de Nantes Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rennes Musée de Bergues Musée départemental d'Art ancien et contemporain, Épinal Musée Georges de La Tour, Vic-sur-Seille Museum of Grenoble Musée du Louvre and many provincial galleries. Musée Toulouse-Lautrec, Albi Germany Gemaldegalerie, Berlin Japan The National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo Spain Museo del Prado, Madrid Sweden Nationalmuseum, Stockholm UK Preston Hall Museum in Stockton-on-Tees, has The Dice Players. Leicester's New Walk Museum holds'The Choirboy' Ukraine Lviv National Art Gallery USA Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio Chrysler Museum of Art, Virginia Seattle Art Museum, Washington De Young, San Francisco Frick, New York Getty Center, Los Angeles, California Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, California Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York National Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C. Ten
Matthias Stom or Matthias Stomer was a Dutch golden age painter considered one of the masters of Utrecht Caravaggism. Other variants of his name are Matheo Schem and Matteo Tomar. Stom spent most of his artistic life in Italy, 200 of his works have been preserved, it is conjectured that Stom was born at Amersfoort or in the Utrecht area, but many details of his life are vague. An early mention of Stom was around 1630, when he lived in the same location as Paulus Bor had lived a few years earlier, he was a pupil of Gerard van Honthorst in Rome after 1615. He remained in Rome until 1632, after which he traveled to Naples, where he stayed until 1640, he moved to Palermo, delivered paintings for churches in Caccamo and Monreale. He sold three paintings to duke of Messina, it is speculated that he died in Sicily, or alternatively in Northern Italy, where in 1652 he painted an altar piece for the church in Chiuduno. His son or grandson, Mattia Stomer was a painter. Stom was influenced by the Baroque painter Caravaggio and his followers, utilizing their mastery of chiaroscuro.
His work features religious scenes. He is appreciated for his psychology and noted for his "distinctive claylike treatment of flesh". Matthias Stom Works at WGA Dutch and Flemish paintings from the Hermitage, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Stom
Francesco Solimena was a prolific Italian painter of the Baroque era, one of an established family of painters and draughtsmen. Francesco Solimena was born in province Avellino, he received early training from his father, Angelo Solimena, with whom he executed a Paradise for the cathedral of Nocera and a Vision of St. Cyril of Alexandria for the church of San Domenico at Solofra, he settled in Naples in 1674, there he worked in the studio of Francesco di Maria. He was patronized early on, encouraged to become an artist by Cardinal Vincenzo Orsini. By the 1680s, he had independent fresco commissions, his active studio came to dominate Neapolitan painting from the 1690s through the first four decades of the 18th century, he modeled his art—for he was a conventional painter—after the Roman Baroque masters, Luca Giordano and Giovanni Lanfranco, Mattia Preti, whose technique of warm brownish shadowing Solimena emulated. Solimena painted many frescoes in Naples, celebrations of weddings and courtly occasions, mythological subjects, characteristically chosen for their theatrical drama, portraits.
His settings are suggested with a few details—steps, balustrades, columns—concentrating attention on figures and their draperies, caught in pools and shafts of light. Art historians take pleasure in identifying the models he adapted in his compositions, his numerous preparatory drawings mix media, combining pen-and-ink and watercolor washes. A typical example of the elaborately constructed allegorical "machines" of his early mature style employing his mastery of chiaroscuro, is the Allegory of Rule from the Stroganoff collection, which has come to the State Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg. Francesco Solimena lived in sumptuous style founded on his success, he died at Barra, near Naples, in 1747. As Solimena had intended it, his nephew Orazio became his successor as a painter, his large, efficiently structured atelier became a virtual academy, at the heart of cultural life in Naples. Among his many pupils were Francesco de Mura, Giuseppe Bonito, Pietro Capelli, Domenico Mondo, Onofrio Avellino, Scipione Cappella, Giovanni della Camera, Francesco Campora, Alessandro Guglielmi, Leonardo Oliviero, Salvatore Olivieri, Salvatore Pace, Romualdo Polverino, Paolo Gamba, Evangelista Schiano, Gaspare Traversi, Eugenio Vegliante, most notably Corrado Giaquinto and Sebastiano Conca.
The Scottish portraitist Allan Ramsay spent three years in Solimena's studio. Francesco Solimena Francesco Solimena on-line J. Paul Getty Museum: Francesco Solimena Scuola Media F. Solimena, Canale di Serino. Farquhar, Maria. Ralph Nicholson Wornum, ed. Biographical catalogue of the principal Italian painters, by a lady. Woodfall & Kinder, Angel Court, Skinner Street, London. Wittkower, Rudolf. Art and Architecture in Italy, 1600-1750. Pelican History of Art. Pp. 462–465
Paris Bordon was an Italian painter of the Venetian Renaissance who, despite training with Titian, maintained a strand of Mannerist complexity and provincial vigor. Bordone had moved to Venice by late adolescence, he apprenticed and unhappily with Titian. Vasari may have met the elder Bordone. From the 1520s, we have works by Bordone, including the Holy Family in Florence, Sacra Conversazione with Donor, Holy Family with St. Catherine; the St. Ambrose and a Donor is now in the Pinacoteca di Brera. In 1525–26, Bordone painted an altarpiece for the church of S. Agostino in Crema, a Madonna with St. Christopher and St George. A second altarpiece, Pentecost, is in the Pinacoteca di Brera. In 1534–35, he painted his large-scale masterpiece for the Scuola di San Marco a canvas of The Fisherman Presenting the Ring to Doge Gradenigo. However, comparison between this latter painting and the near-contemporary, structurally similar, Presentation of the Virgin reveals Bordone's limitations, his use of superior perspective which creates dwarfed distant perspectives, limited coloration relative to the brilliant tints of Titian.
Bordone is at his best in his smaller cabinet pieces, showing half-figures, semi-undressed men and women from mythology or religious stories in a muscular interaction despite the crowded space. Paris Bordone subsequently executed many important mural paintings in Venice and Vicenza, all of which have perished. In 1538 he was invited to France by Francis I, at whose court he painted many portraits, though no trace of them is to be found in French collections, the two portraits at the Louvre being acquisitions. On his return journey he worked for the Fugger palace at Augsburg, but again the works have been lost. Annunciation in the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Caen Baptism of Christ in the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C. Bathsheba Bathing, with an African Servant - The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore Chess Players in Berlin Daphnis and Chloe - Porczyński Gallery, Warsaw Holy Family - Bridgewater House, Westminster Madonna - Accademia di Belle Arti Tadini at Lovere Mythological picture - the Galleria Borghese, Rome Mythological picture - the Doria Pamphilj Gallery, Rome The paintings in the Duomo of Treviso Perseus Armed by Mercury and Minerva - Birmingham Museum of Art A Portrait of a Lady - The National Gallery, London Portrait of Giovanni Jacopo Caraglio - Wawel Castle, Kraków Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Bordone, Paris". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Luca Giordano was an Italian late Baroque painter and printmaker in etching. Fluent and decorative, he worked in Naples and Rome and Venice, before spending a decade in Spain. Born in Naples, Giordano was the son of the painter Antonio Giordano. In around 1650 he was apprenticed to Ribera on the recommendation of the viceroy of Naples and his early work was influenced by his teacher. Like Ribera, he painted many half-length figures of philosophers, either imaginary portraits of specific figures, or generic types, he acquired the nickname Luca fa presto, which translates into "Luca paints quickly." His speed, in design as well as handiwork, his versatility, which enabled him to imitate other painters deceptively, earned for him two other epithets, "The Thunderbolt" and "The Proteus" of painting. Following a period studying in Rome and Venice, Giordano developed an elaborate Baroque style fusing Venetian and Roman Influences, his mature work combines the ornamental pomp of Paul Veronese with the lively complex schemes, the "grand manner", of Pietro da Cortona.
He is noted for his lively and showy use of colour. In 1682–1683 Giordano painted various fresco series in Florence, including one in the dome of Corsini Chapel of the Chiesa del Carmine. In the large block occupied by the former Medici palace, he painted the ceiling of the Biblioteca Riccardiana and the long gallery of the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi; the vast frescoes of the latter are contained in the 1670s gallery addition, overlooking the gardens. The planning was commissioned by Francesco Riccardi, they include the prototypic hagiographic celebration of the Medici family in the center, surrounded by a series of interlocking narratives: allegorical figures and mythological episodes. In 1692 Giordano went to Spain at the invitation of Charles II, he stayed there for ten years, returning to Naples following Charles' death. While in Spain, he painted major decorative schemes at the Buen Retiro Palace, El Escorial, the sacristry of Toledo Cathedral, other sites, he painted many pictures for the court, private patrons and churches.
His pupils, Aniello Rossi and Matteo Pacelli, assisted him in Spain. Giordano was popular at the Spanish court, the king granted him the title of a "caballero". After his return to Naples early in 1702, Giordano continued to paint prolifically. Executed in a lighter, less rhetorical style, these late works, prefiguring Rococo, proved influential throughout the eighteenth century, were admired by Fragonard, he spent large sums in acts of munificence, was liberal to poorer artists. One of his maxims was that the good painter is the one whom the public like, that the public are attracted more by colour than by design. Giordano had an astonishing facility, which lead to an impression of superficiality of his works, he left many works in Rome, far more in Naples. Of the latter, his Christ expelling the Traders from the Temple in the church of the Padri Girolamini, a colossal work, full of expressive "lazzaroni" or beggars from Naples; this church contains the artist's own tomb. Other notable examples are the Judgment of Paris in the Berlin Museum, Christ with the Doctors in the Temple, in the Corsini Gallery of Rome.
In years, he painted influential frescoes for the Cappella Corsini, the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi and other works. Giordano died in Naples in 1705, his best pupil in painting was Paolo de Matteis. However, his influence, like his travels and career, were prolific. For example, he is said to have influenced in Venice, Giovan Battista Langetti, Giovanni Coli, Filippo Gherardi. Other pupils included Juan Antonio Boujas, Nunzio Ferraiuoli, Ansel Fiammingo, Giovanni Battista Lama, Andrea Miglionico, Giuseppe Simonelli, Andrea Vicenti, Andrea Viso, Ferrante Amendola, Pedro de Calabria, Matteo Pacelli, Francisco Tramulles, Nicolo Maria Rossi, Aniello Rossi, Raimondo de Dominici; as a young man, Giordano engraved works with considerable skill, including some of his own paintings, such as the Slaughter of the Priests of Baal. He painted much on the crystal borderings of looking-glasses and others seen in many Italian palaces, was, in this form of art, the master of Pietro Garofalo. Giordano has been criticized as being a prolific trader of all styles, master of none.
Michael Levey remarks of him "Giordano was the ideal rococo painter, prolific, dazzling in colour, assured in draughtsmanship, ever-talented and never touching the fringe of genius." He has been viewed as a proto-Tiepolo, reanimating that grand manner of Cortona in a style that would brighten with Tiepolo. See Category:Paintings by Luca Giordano. Painting in Naples 1606-1705: From Caravaggio to Giordano. Catalogue of an exhibition held at the Royal London. London: Royal Academy. 1982. De Dominici, Bernardo. Francesco Ricciardo, ed. Vita del Cavaliere D. Luca Giordano, pittore napoletano'. Francesco RIcciardo, Naples. Encyclopædia Britannica 2004 Ultimate Reference Suite DVD O. Ferrari - G. Scavizzi, Luca Giordano, varie edizioni M. Horak, Importanti opera di Luca Giordano a Piacenza, in "Strenna Piacentina 2011" - Amici dell'Arte, Piacenza 2011 G. Scavizzi - G. De Vito, Luca Giordano giovane 1650-16
Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin was a French post-Impressionist artist. Unappreciated until after his death, Gauguin is now recognized for his experimental use of color and Synthetist style that were distinctly different from Impressionism. Toward the end of his life, he spent ten years in French Polynesia, most of his paintings from this time depict people or landscapes from that region, his work was influential to the French avant-garde and many modern artists, such as Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse. Gauguin's art became popular after his death from the efforts of art dealer Ambroise Vollard, who organized exhibitions of his work late in his career and assisted in organizing two important posthumous exhibitions in Paris. Gauguin was an important figure in the Symbolist movement as a painter, printmaker and writer, his expression of the inherent meaning of the subjects in his paintings, under the influence of the cloisonnist style, paved the way to Primitivism and the return to the pastoral. He was an influential proponent of wood engraving and woodcuts as art forms.
Gauguin was born in Paris to Clovis Gauguin and Alina Maria Chazal on June 7, 1848. His birth coincided with revolutionary upheavals throughout Europe that year, his father, a 34-year-old liberal journalist, came from a family of petits bourgeois entrepreneurs residing in Orléans. He was compelled to flee France when the newspaper for which he wrote was suppressed by French authorities. Gauguin's mother was the 22-year-old daughter of André Chazal, an engraver, Flora Tristan, an author and activist in early socialist movements, their union ended when André assaulted his wife Flora and was sentenced to prison for attempted murder. Paul Gauguin's maternal grandmother, Flora Tristan, was the illegitimate daughter of Thérèse Laisnay and Don Mariano de Tristan Moscoso. Details of Thérèse's family background are not known, he was an officer of the Dragoons. Members of the wealthy Tristan Moscoso family held powerful positions in Peru. Nonetheless, Don Mariano's unexpected death plunged his daughter Flora into poverty.
When Flora's marriage with André failed, she petitioned for and obtained a small monetary settlement from her father's Peruvian relatives. She sailed to Peru in hopes of enlarging her share of the Tristan Moscoso family fortune; this never materialized. An active supporter of early socialist societies, Gauguin's maternal grandmother helped to lay the foundations for the 1848 revolutionary movements. Placed under surveillance by French police and suffering from overwork, she died in 1844, her grandson Paul "idolized his grandmother, kept copies of her books with him to the end of his life."In 1850, Clovis Gauguin departed for Peru with his wife Alina and young children in hopes of continuing his journalistic career under the auspices of his wife's South American relations. He died of a heart attack en route, Alina arrived in Peru a widow with the 18-month-old Paul and his 2½ year-old sister, Marie. Gauguin's mother was welcomed by her paternal granduncle, whose son-in-law would shortly assume the presidency of Peru.
To the age of six, Paul enjoyed a privileged upbringing, attended by servants. He retained a vivid memory of that period of his childhood which instilled "indelible impressions of Peru that haunted him the rest of his life."Gauguin's idyllic childhood ended abruptly when his family mentors fell from political power during Peruvian civil conflicts in 1854. Aline returned to France with her children, leaving Paul with his paternal grandfather, Guillaume Gauguin, in Orléans. Deprived by the Peruvian Tristan Moscoso clan of a generous annuity arranged by her granduncle, Alina settled in Paris to work as a dressmaker. After attending a couple of local schools, Gauguin was sent to the prestigious Catholic boarding school Petit Séminaire de La Chapelle-Saint-Mesmin, he spent three years at the school. At age fourteen, he entered the Loriol Institute in Paris, a naval preparatory school, before returning to Orléans to take his final year at the Lycée Jeanne D'Arc. Gauguin signed on as a pilot's assistant in the merchant marine.
Three years he joined the French navy in which he served for two years. His mother died on 7 July 1867, but he did not learn of it for several months until a letter from his sister Marie caught up with him in India. In 1871, Gauguin returned to Paris. A close family friend, Gustave Arosa, got him a job at the Paris Bourse, he remained one for the next 11 years. In 1879 he was earning 30,000 francs a year as a stockbroker, as much again in his dealings in the art market, but in 1882 the Paris stock market crashed and the art market contracted. Gauguin's earnings deteriorated and he decided to pursue painting full-time. In 1873, he married Mette-Sophie Gad. Over the next ten years, they had five children: Émile. By 1884, Gauguin had moved with his family to Copenhagen, where he pursued a business career as a tarpaulin salesman, it was not a success: He could not speak Danish, the Danes did not want French tarpaulins. Mette became the chief breadwinner, his middle-class family and marriage fell apart after 11 years when Gauguin was driven to paint full-time.
He returned to Paris in