Batley is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees, West Yorkshire, England. It lies 7 miles south-east of Bradford, 7 miles south-west of Leeds and 1 mile north of Dewsbury, near the M62 motorway. In the West Riding of Yorkshire, in 2011 its two wards had a combined population of 38,573. Other nearby towns include: Morley to the north-east, Ossett to the south-east and Brighouse west-south-west. Batley is part of a special EU transformation zone; the name Batley is derived from Danish, meaning either valley or homestead of bats, or more homestead of the locally prominent Batte family. It is recorded in the Domesday Book as'Bateleia'. After the Norman conquest, the manor was granted to Elbert de Lacy and in 1086 was within the wapentake of Morley, it subsequently passed into the ownership of the de Batleys, by the 12th century had passed by marriage to the Copley family. Their residence at Batley Hall was held directly from the Crown; the population at this time was 30 to 40 people. By the late 14th century, the population has increased to around 100.
There has been a church in Batley since the 11th century. Batley Parish Church was built in the reign of Henry VI, parts of the original remain. Despite Batley being an ancient settlement, this is all. Howley Hall in Soothill was built during the 1580s by Sir John Savile, a member of the great Yorkshire landowners, the Savile family; the house was besieged during the English Civil War in 1643 before the Battle of Adwalton Moor but appears to have sustained no serious damage. It fell into disrepair. Howley Hall was demolished in 1730. Many ruins exist including the cellars of its great hall. Batley Grammar School is still in existence. Methodism came to Batley in the 1740s and took a strong hold in the town which continued into the 20th century. John Nelson from Birstall was a leading lay preacher in the early Methodist movement. Areas of the town, such as Mount Pleasant, were noted for their absence of pubs due to the Methodist beliefs of the populations. During the late 18th century the main occupations in the town were weaving.
The Industrial Revolution reached Batley in 1796 with the arrival of its first water powered mills for carding and spinning. During the next half century the population grew from around 2,500 at the start of the 19th century to 9,308 at the 1851 census; the parish of Batley at this point included Morley and Gildersome, with a total population of 17,359. A toll road built in 1832 between Gomersal and Dewsbury had a branch to Batley which allowed for "the growing volumes of wool and coal" to be transported; until there had only been foot and cart tracks. Around the same time there were strikes in the mills, which led to an influx of Irish workers who settled permanently; this led to antagonism from residents, due to the lower wages demanded by the Irish workers and general anti-Roman Catholic sentiment, but this faded in time. By 1853 Catholic services were held in the town. By 1848 there was a railway station in Batley, in 1853 Batley Town Hall was erected, it was enlarged in 1905, is in the Neoclassical style, with a corbelled parapet and pilasters rising to a centre pediment.
In 1868 Batley was incorporated as a municipal borough, the former urban district of Birstall was added to it in 1937.1853 saw the establishment of a small confectionery shop by Michael Spedding. His business expanded. Today, along with Tesco, it is one of the largest employers in the town. During the late 19th century, Batley was the centre of the shoddy and mungo trade in which wool rags and clothes were recycled by reweaving them into blankets and uniforms. In 1861 there were at least 30 shoddy mills in Batley; the owners of the recycling businesses were known as the "shoddy barons". There was a "shoddy temple", properly known as the Zion Chapel; this imposing building in the town centre was opened in 1870, reflected the popularity of the Methodist movement. The chapel is still active today. At the close of the 19th century, growth in population changed the form of governmental institutions above the parish of Batley; the library was built in 1907 with funds donated by the philanthropist Andrew Carnegie.
The library has been modernised, with a new microfilm viewer, reels of the Batley News dating back over 120 years. The newspaper was founded by James Fearnsides – a local printer, his grandson Clement became the mayor of Batley. There was coal mining in Batley at this time; the first records of coal mining in Batley date back to the 16th century at White Lee. From the end of the 1950s, the need for cheap labour in the town's textile industries drew in migrant labourers from Gujarat and other parts of modern-day Pakistan and India. In 1974 responsibility for local government passed to Kirklees Metropolitan Council, with its headquarters in Huddersfield. From the end of the 1950s, the need for cheap labour in the town's textile industries drew in migrant labourers from Gujarat and other parts of modern-day Pakistan and India; the South Asian population of Batley is now around 54 % in Batley East. Batley Parish CE J, I and N School Birstall
Bracken Hall Countryside Centre and Museum
Bracken Hall Countryside Centre and Museum is a children's museum, natural history education centre and nature centre established in 1989 at Bracken Hall on the edge of Baildon Moor, close to Shipley Glen in West Yorkshire. In 2013 the Bradford Council removed their funding of the museum; the Friends of Bracken Hall worked to gather support in order to reopen the museum, whilst the centre was planned to re-open in late 2015, it was re-opened to the public in April 2016 with the help of Baildon Town Council. This c. 1890s Yorkshire gritstone building was once a bailiff's house a farm house, it still has the original big, pannelled front door. It is of the traditional rural, four-up, four-down domestic design, common in the Georgian era and continued throughout the 19th century; this type of house has two rooms each side of the front door, stairs in the middle leading back from the front door, two upstairs bedrooms each side of the stairwell, with a 19th-century dressing room above the front hall.
The walls between front and back rooms are load-bearing, supported by the two chimneys, which allow fireplaces in all eight main rooms. Bradford City Council has built an extra ground-floor room onto the left hand side, this contains the museum entrance door and reception; the two original downstairs front rooms are now the Archaeology Exhibition room. The public cannot see the two downstairs back rooms, the stairs or the upstairs rooms, which are now accessed from behind the reception desk; the back door leads from the new entrance room to the toilets. This children's museum and countryside centre specialises in interactive displays for all ages and out; when the museum is open, the public can walk through the ground floor rooms of the museum, through the back and front gardens which are dedicated to wildlife discovery. The whole site and surrounding moor and glen are used for public groups on Wild Wednesdays and on guided walks, for school groups when the museum is closed to the public: all these groups by appointment.
This changes with the seasons. In May and June there are many wild flowers, including green alkanet, herb Robert and creeping buttercup. There are bird feeders which attract various finches and tits, an animal hutch for a rabbit or guinea pig. There is a double gate so that the animal could be safely let out to graze under staff supervision. Due to the vigorously interactive nature of children, the transient nature of wildlife, some of the following displays will be replaced with other items of interest. In the Entrance room next to Reception is a interactive video microscope. You place a dish of natural objects on the lighted tray at the bottom, move it around until it shows in the video screen at the top; the tray is at child-height to enable youngsters to take part. On the screen a housefly looks bigger than your hand. Along the back wall is a gallery of fishtanks, containing animals such as tadpoles, bullheads and water fleas. In the far corner of the back wall is a wormery. On the wall opposite Reception there used to be an indoor beehive with an observation panel for the children, but it was dismantled due to colony collapse disorder.
It has been replaced with an information board about bees, a honeycomb for the children to handle. The wall-display explains bee behaviour and hive structure. There is an information board about wasps. Like the bee board, this board explains behaviour and nest structure, but it mentions the wasp's usefulness in organic pest control. Below it are the remains of a wasp nest so that the children can compare the papery and waxy textures of the nest and honeycomb; this computer uses a Dangerous Creatures CD-ROM, a program for children which allows them to learn about wildlife outside the UK while being entertained. It is situated halfway along the wall opposite Reception. Near the computer is an identification-by-touch display of natural objects. On the same side wall opposite Reception there are two interactive boards. One, made of painted plywood, is for young children, has large wooden handles which cause rabbits and other animals to pop up out of holes in the screen; the other is for older children, contains safety-glass panels with pictured or mounted animals behind.
There is a row of wooden flaps painted with animal pictures. The children try to name the animals lift the flaps to read the names; this safety-glass display is behind the entrance door, set low enough for young children to see some of the mounted birds at eye-level. It contains a wren's nest and a tawny owl; this display plays birdsong recordings. This serves as an introduction to pishing. Staff at the Reception desk have answer-cards for the various quizzes; this room contains displays of archaeological and local history exhibits which are aimed at both adults and children. The museum's prime exhibit, the Heygate stone, is central; the walls have information boards, there are various other exhibits here. This is one of ring rocks, they were engraved in the neolithic era, the larger engraved rocks have been left on the moor as it is thought that their meaning may be associated with the landscape. This more portable rock is in the museum for safety: the plough-marks on the rock indicate one of the reasons for this.
The Heygate stone is one of the clearest examples of this type of petroglyph. A cast of the engraving reveals that the two larger ring-mark
West Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England. It is an inland and in relative terms upland county having eastward-draining valleys while taking in moors of the Pennines and has a population of 2.2 million. West Yorkshire came into existence as a metropolitan county in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. West Yorkshire consists of five metropolitan boroughs and is bordered by the counties of Derbyshire to the south, Greater Manchester to the south-west, Lancashire to the north-west, North Yorkshire to the north and east, South Yorkshire to the south and south-east. Remnants of strong coal and iron ore industries remain in the county, having attracted people over the centuries, this can be seen in the buildings and architecture. Leeds may become a terminus for a north-east limb of High Speed 2. Major railways and two major motorways traverse the county, which contains Leeds Bradford International Airport. West Yorkshire County Council was abolished in 1986 so its five districts became unitary authorities.
However, the metropolitan county, which covers an area of 2,029 square kilometres, continues to exist in law, as a geographic frame of reference. Since 1 April 2014 West Yorkshire has been a combined authority area, with the local authorities pooling together some functions over transport and regeneration as the West Yorkshire Combined Authority. West Yorkshire includes the West Yorkshire Urban Area, the biggest and most built-up urban area within the historic county boundaries of Yorkshire. West Yorkshire was formed as a metropolitan county in 1974, by the Local Government Act 1972, corresponds to the core of the historic West Riding of Yorkshire and the county boroughs of Bradford, Halifax, Huddersfield and Wakefield. West Yorkshire Metropolitan County Council inherited the use of West Riding County Hall at Wakefield, opened in 1898, from the West Riding County Council in 1974. Since 1987 it has been the headquarters of Wakefield City Council; the county had a two-tier structure of local government with a strategic-level county council and five districts providing most services.
In 1986, throughout England the metropolitan county councils were abolished. The functions of the county council were devolved to the boroughs. Organisations such as the West Yorkshire Metro continue to operate on this basis. Although the county council was abolished, West Yorkshire continues to form a metropolitan and ceremonial county with a Lord Lieutenant of West Yorkshire and a High Sheriff. Wakefield's Parish Church was raised to cathedral status in 1888 and after the elevation of Wakefield to diocese, Wakefield Council sought city status and this was granted in July 1888; however the industrial revolution, which changed West and South Yorkshire led to the growth of Leeds and Bradford, which became the area's two largest cities. Leeds was granted city status in 1893 and Bradford in 1897; the name of Leeds Town Hall reflects the fact that at its opening in 1858 Leeds was not yet a city, while Bradford renamed its Town Hall as City Hall in 1965. The county borders, going anticlockwise from the west: Lancashire, Greater Manchester, South Yorkshire and North Yorkshire.
It lies entirely on rocks of carboniferous age which form the southern Pennine fringes in the west and the Yorkshire coalfield further eastwards. In the extreme east of the metropolitan county there are younger deposits of magnesian limestone; the Bradford and Calderdale areas are dominated by the scenery of the eastern slopes of the Pennines, dropping from upland in the west down to the east, dissected by many steep-sided valleys. Large-scale industry, housing and commercial buildings of differing heights, transport routes and open countryside conjoin; the dense network of roads and railways and urban development, confined by valleys creates dramatic interplay of views between settlements and the surrounding hillsides, as shaped the first urban-rural juxtapositions of David Hockney. Where most rural the land crops up in the such rhymes and folklore as On Ilkley Moor Bah'Tat, date unknown, the early 19th century novels and poems of the Brontë family in and around Haworth and long-running light comedy-drama Last of the Summer Wine in the 20th century.
The carboniferous rocks of the Yorkshire coalfield further east have produced a rolling landscape with hills and broad valleys. In this landscape there is widespread evidence of former industrial activity. There are numerous derelict or converted mine buildings and landscaped former spoil heaps; the scenery is a mixture of built up areas, industrial land with some dereliction, farmed open country. Ribbon developments along transport routes including canal and rail are prominent features of the area although some remnants of the pre industrial landscape and semi-natural vegetation still survive. However, many areas are affected by urban fringe pressures creating fragmented and downgraded landscapes and present are urban influences from major cities, smaller industrial towns and former mining villages. In the magnesian limestone belt to the east of the Leeds and Wakefield areas is an elevated ridge with smoothly rolling scenery, dissected by dry valleys. Here, there is a large number of country houses and estates with parkland, estate woodlands and game coverts.
The rivers Aire and Calder drain the area, flowing from west to east. The table below outlines many of the co
Marsden, West Yorkshire
Marsden is a large village within the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees district, in West Yorkshire, England. It is 7 miles west of Huddersfield and located at the confluence of the River Colne and the Wessenden Brook, it was an important centre for the production of woollen cloth, focused at Bank Bottom Mill, which closed in 2003. According to a 2008 mid-year estimate the village has a population of 4,440. Marsden grew wealthy in the 19th century from the production of woollen cloth, it is still home to Bank Bottom Mill known as Marsden Mill, home to John Edward Crowther Ltd one of the largest mills in Yorkshire. The Crowthers moved to Marsden in 1876, beginning a long and profitable association with cloth manufacturing in the town. During the 1930s Bank Bottom Mill covered an area of 14 acres, employed 680 looms, provided employment for 1,900 workers; the Church of St Bartholomew was completed in 1899, although the nave and aisle had been in use from 1895, when the previous chapel was demolished.
The tower was built in 1911, the Parochial Hall in 1924. The church has a peal of ten bells. Production of woollen cloth at Bank Bottom Mill ceased with the loss of 244 jobs. Marsden is the last significant settlement on the West Yorkshire side of the Standedge Pennine crossing into Greater Manchester; the village is in the South Pennines with the boundary of the Peak District National Park to the south. It is surrounded on three sides by the moorland of Marsden and Meltham Moors with Saddleworth Moor nearby. Marsden has low level access only from the east along the Colne Valley; the Marsden Moor Estate, which surrounds Marsden to the west and south, includes several reservoirs, is in the care of the National Trust. The trust is developing techniques to rehabilitate the moor. Butterley Reservoir with its distinctive spillway is near Marsden inside the Peak District National Park. In chronostratigraphy, the British sub-stage of the Carboniferous period, the Marsdenian derives its name from Marsden.
Several generations of tracks and roads have crossed the moors near Marsden. Mellor Bridge by the church, Close Gate Bridge at the edge of the moor to the east of the village are both packhorse bridges; the A62 road between Huddersfield and Oldham passes through the village and the Standedge cutting some 2.5 miles to the west. The road between Oldham and Huddersfield, in particular the stretch between Marsden and Diggle was named the fourth dangerous road in Britain in 2003-2005. First West Yorkshire operates bus services between Marsden. A local service run by JRT, runs before continuing to Slaithwaite. A Trans-Pennine service between Huddersfield and Manchester, jointly operated by First Greater Manchester and First West Yorkshire, passes through the village; until 1963 it was a Huddersfield trolleybus terminus. The Huddersfield Narrow Canal and the Huddersfield to Manchester railway enter the parallel rail and canal Standedge Tunnels about half a mile to the west of the town centre. Marsden railway station on the Huddersfield line is operated by Northern provides services to Huddersfield, Manchester Piccadilly railway station and Leeds.
The Holme Valley Mountain Rescue Team has its headquarters at Marsden Fire Station from where the volunteer team provides rescue cover for surrounding moorland areas and assists West Yorkshire Police with searches for missing people. The team was founded in 1965 and was based in Meltham before relocating in 2005. Marsden football club, Marsden AFC, play. In its centenary year the 1st team were promoted from the West Riding County Amateur League Division 1, played in the West Riding County Amateur Premier Division for the 2008–09 season. Above the village at Hemplow, on Mount Road is a sports ground that hosts Marsden's cricket and tennis clubs, as well as Hemplow Bowling Club; the cricket club, formed in 1865, runs two teams in the Drake's Huddersfield Cricket League and teams in five age groups in the Huddersfield Junior Cricket League. In 2010 Marsden gained Walkers are Welcome status in recognition of its well-maintained footpaths and information for walkers and ramblers. Marsden Silver Prize Band is the local silver band.
The village hosts cultural events throughout the year. Marsden Cuckoo Day, a day-long festival held annually in Spring, holds clog dancing, a duck race, music, a procession and a "cuckoo walk"; the Marsden Jazz Festival is held every October, the winter Imbolc Festival, in which the'triumph of the Green Man', over Jack Frost is celebrated with fire juggling and giant puppets. Marsden is the home of Mikron Theatre Company, the world's only professional theatre company to tour by Narrowboat. Marsden's'Cuckoo Day festival' is named after a local legend of the Marsden Cuckoo: "Many years ago the people of Marsden were aware that when the cuckoo arrived, so did the Spring and sunshine, they tried to keep Spring forever, by building a tower around the Cuckoo. As the last stones were about to be laid, away flew the cuckoo. If only they'd built the tower one layer higher; as the legend says, it'were nobbut just wun course too low'." Marsden is popular as a location for film productions. These productions have used the village: Where the Heart Is Last of the Summer Wine Eleventh Hour Housewife, 49 Wokenwell The League of Gentlemen Between Two Women In the Flesh Remember Me A Monster Calls Walk Like a Panther Marsden was the birthplace of Henrietta Thompson, the mother of General James Wolfe who took Quebec from the French in 1759.
Marsden is where Enoch Taylor was buried. Enoch Taylor was the
Bradford is a city in West Yorkshire, England, in the foothills of the Pennines, 8.6 miles west of Leeds, 16 miles north-west of Wakefield. Bradford became a municipal borough in 1847, received its charter as a city in 1897. Following local government reform in 1974, city status was bestowed upon the City of Bradford metropolitan borough. Bradford forms part of the West Yorkshire Urban Area, which in 2001 had a population of 1.5 million and is the fourth largest in the United Kingdom, with Bradford itself having a population of 529,870. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, Bradford rose to prominence in the 19th century as an international centre of textile manufacture wool, it was a boomtown of the Industrial Revolution, amongst the earliest industrialised settlements becoming the "wool capital of the world". The area's access to a supply of coal, iron ore and soft water facilitated the growth of Bradford's manufacturing base, which, as textile manufacture grew, led to an explosion in population and was a stimulus to civic investment.
The textile sector in Bradford fell into decline from the mid-20th century. Bradford has since emerged as a tourist destination, becoming the first UNESCO City of Film with attractions such as the National Science and Media Museum, Bradford City Park, the Alhambra theatre and Cartwright Hall. Bradford has faced similar challenges to the rest of post-industrial Northern England, including deindustrialisation, social unrest and economic deprivation; the name Bradford is derived from the Old English brad and ford the broad ford which referred to a crossing of the Bradford Beck at Church Bank below the site of Bradford Cathedral, around which a settlement grew in Saxon times. It was recorded as "Bradeford" in 1086. After an uprising in 1070, during William the Conqueror's Harrying of the North, the manor of Bradford was laid waste and is described as such in the Domesday Book of 1086, it became part of the Honour of Pontefract given to Ilbert de Lacy for service to the Conqueror, in whose family the manor remained until 1311.
There is evidence of a castle in the time of the Lacys. The manor passed to the Earl of Lincoln, John of Gaunt, The Crown and private ownership in 1620. By the middle ages Bradford, had become a small town centred on Kirkgate and Ivegate. In 1316 there is mention of a fulling mill, a soke mill where all the manor corn was milled and a market. During the Wars of the Roses the inhabitants sided with House of Lancaster. Edward IV granted the right to hold two annual fairs and from this time the town began to prosper. In the reign of Henry VIII Bradford exceeded Leeds as a manufacturing centre. Bradford grew over the next two-hundred years as the woollen trade gained in prominence. During the Civil War the town was garrisoned for the Parliamentarians and in 1642 was unsuccessfully attacked by Royalist forces from Leeds. Sir Thomas Fairfax took the command of the garrison and marched to meet the Duke of Newcastle but was defeated; the Parliamentarians retreated to Bradford and the Royalists set up headquarters at Bolling Hall from where the town was besieged leading to its surrender.
The Civil War caused a decline in industry but after the accession of William III and Mary II in 1689 prosperity began to return. The launch of manufacturing in the early 18th century marked the start of the town's development while new canal and turnpike road links encouraged trade. In 1801, Bradford was a rural market town of 6,393 people, where wool spinning and cloth weaving was carried out in local cottages and farms. Bradford was thus not much bigger than nearby Keighley and was smaller than Halifax and Huddersfield; this small town acted as a hub for three nearby townships – Manningham and Great and Little Horton, which were separated from the town by countryside. Blast furnaces were established in about 1788 by Hird, Dawson Hardy at Low Moor and iron was worked by the Bowling Iron Company until about 1900. Yorkshire iron was used for shackles and piston rods for locomotives, colliery cages and other mining appliances where toughness was required; the Low Moor Company made pig iron and the company employed 1,500 men in 1929.
When the municipal borough of Bradford was created in 1847 there were 46 coal mines within its boundaries. Coal output continued to expand, reaching a peak in 1868 when Bradford contributed a quarter of all the coal and iron produced in Yorkshire. In 1825 the wool-combers union called a strike that lasted five-months but workers were forced to return to work through hardship leading to the introduction of machine-combing; this Industrial Revolution led to rapid growth, with wool imported in vast quantities for the manufacture of worsted cloth in which Bradford specialised, the town soon became known as the wool capital of the world. A permanent military presence was established in the city with the completion of Bradford Moor Barracks in 1844. Bradford had ample supplies of locally mined coal to provide the power. Local sandstone was an excellent resource for building the mills, with a population of 182,000 by 1850, the town grew as workers were attracted by jobs in the textile mills. A desperate shortage of water in Bradford Dale was a serious limitation on industrial expansion and improvement in urban sanitary conditions.
In 1854 Bradford Corporation bought the Bradford Water Company and embarked on a huge engineering programme to bring supplies of soft water from Airedale and Nidderdale. By 1882 water supply had radically improved. Meanwhile, urban expansion took place along the routes out of the city towards th
Television, sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program, or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for advertising and news. Television became available in crude experimental forms in the late 1920s, but it would still be several years before the new technology would be marketed to consumers. After World War II, an improved form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States and Britain, television sets became commonplace in homes and institutions. During the 1950s, television was the primary medium for influencing public opinion. In the mid-1960s, color broadcasting was introduced in most other developed countries; the availability of multiple types of archival storage media such as Betamax, VHS tape, local disks, DVDs, flash drives, high-definition Blu-ray Discs, cloud digital video recorders has enabled viewers to watch pre-recorded material—such as movies—at home on their own time schedule.
For many reasons the convenience of remote retrieval, the storage of television and video programming now occurs on the cloud. At the end of the first decade of the 2000s, digital television transmissions increased in popularity. Another development was the move from standard-definition television to high-definition television, which provides a resolution, higher. HDTV may be transmitted in various formats: 1080p, 720p. Since 2010, with the invention of smart television, Internet television has increased the availability of television programs and movies via the Internet through streaming video services such as Netflix, Amazon Video, iPlayer and Hulu. In 2013, 79 % of the world's households owned; the replacement of early bulky, high-voltage cathode ray tube screen displays with compact, energy-efficient, flat-panel alternative technologies such as LCDs, OLED displays, plasma displays was a hardware revolution that began with computer monitors in the late 1990s. Most TV sets sold in the 2000s were flat-panel LEDs.
Major manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT, DLP, fluorescent-backlit LCDs by the mid-2010s. In the near future, LEDs are expected to be replaced by OLEDs. Major manufacturers have announced that they will produce smart TVs in the mid-2010s. Smart TVs with integrated Internet and Web 2.0 functions became the dominant form of television by the late 2010s. Television signals were distributed only as terrestrial television using high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the signal to individual television receivers. Alternatively television signals are distributed by coaxial cable or optical fiber, satellite systems and, since the 2000s via the Internet; until the early 2000s, these were transmitted as analog signals, but a transition to digital television is expected to be completed worldwide by the late 2010s. A standard television set is composed of multiple internal electronic circuits, including a tuner for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is called a video monitor rather than a television.
The word television comes from Ancient Greek τῆλε, meaning'far', Latin visio, meaning'sight'. The first documented usage of the term dates back to 1900, when the Russian scientist Constantin Perskyi used it in a paper that he presented in French at the 1st International Congress of Electricity, which ran from 18 to 25 August 1900 during the International World Fair in Paris; the Anglicised version of the term is first attested in 1907, when it was still "...a theoretical system to transmit moving images over telegraph or telephone wires". It was "...formed in English or borrowed from French télévision." In the 19th century and early 20th century, other "...proposals for the name of a then-hypothetical technology for sending pictures over distance were telephote and televista." The abbreviation "TV" is from 1948. The use of the term to mean "a television set" dates from 1941; the use of the term to mean "television as a medium" dates from 1927. The slang term "telly" is more common in the UK; the slang term "the tube" or the "boob tube" derives from the bulky cathode ray tube used on most TVs until the advent of flat-screen TVs.
Another slang term for the TV is "idiot box". In the 1940s and throughout the 1950s, during the early rapid growth of television programming and television-set ownership in the United States, another slang term became used in that period and continues to be used today to distinguish productions created for broadcast on television from films developed for presentation in movie theaters; the "small screen", as both a compound adjective and noun, became specific references to television, while the "big screen" was used to identify productions made for theatrical release. Facsimile transmission systems for still photographs pioneered methods of mechanical scanning of images in the early 19th century. Alexander Bain introduced the facsimile machine between 1843 and 1846. Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a working laboratory version in 1851. Willoughby Smith discovered the photoconductivity of the element selenium in 1873; as a 23-year-old German university student, Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow proposed and patented the Nipkow disk in 1884.
This was a spinning disk with a spiral pattern of holes in it, so each hole scanned a line of the image. Although he never built a working model
Scammell Lorries Limited was a British manufacturer of trucks specialist and military off-highway vehicles, between 1921 and 1988. Scammell started as a late-Victorian period wheelwright and coach-building business, G Scammell & Nephew Ltd in Spitalfields, London. George Scammell, the founder, was joined by Richard's sons Alfred and James. By the early 1900s, the firm had become financially stable, providing maintenance to customers of Foden steam wagons. One such customer, Edward Rudd, had imported a Knox Automobile tractor from the United States, impressed with its low weight/high hauling power had asked Scammell if they could make a similar model of their own. However, the outbreak of World War I in 1914 stopped the project and presented itself as a turning point in road transport history. Mechanical transport was seen to work, proving its vast potential beyond doubt to forward-thinking companies such as Scammell. George Scammell's great nephew, Lt Col Alfred Scammell, was injured and invalided out of the army, he was able to apply the practical experience he had gained during the war and began developing the articulated six wheeler.
Percy G Hugh, chief designer, conceived the idea and at the 1920 Commercial Motor Show, 50 orders were taken for the new design. The vehicle's low axle weight allowed it to carry 7.5 tonnes payload at 12 miles per hour, rather than being limited to 5 mph. Scammell started production of the 7.5-ton articulated vehicle in 1920. Needing to move to new premises, Scammell & Nephew floated a new company, Scammell Lorries Ltd in July 1922, with Col Scammell as Managing Director; the new firm built a new factory at Tolpits Lane, next to Watford West railway station on the branch line from Watford Junction to Croxley Green. The original company remained in business in Fashion Street, Spitalfields refurbishing and bodybuilding until taken over in 1965 by York Trailer Co. In 1929, Scammell manufactured the "100 Tonner" low loader. Only two were produced. Scammell were looking for new markets, diversified into four- and six-wheel rigid designs. The'Rigid Six-wheeler' found some success and, with its balloon tyres, at last permitted sustained high-speed, long-distance road operation.
In 1934, Scammell produced the three-wheeled Mechanical Horse, designed by Oliver North to replace horses in rail and other delivery applications. This featured automatic carriage coupling and the single front wheel could be steered through 360 degrees, it was sold in three- and six-ton versions. The three-tonner was powered by a 1,125-cc side-valve petrol engine and the six-tonner by a 2,043-cc engine. Karrier had introduced the Cob, four years earlier. From 1937, a Citroën Traction Avant powered version was made under licence in France, by Chenard-Walcker-FAR, known as the Pony Mécanique; this continued in production, in various versions, until 1970. In the late 1940s, the Mechanical Horse was superseded by the Scammell Scarab, with similar features, but a much less angular cab and now with a 2,090-cc, side-valve petrol engine in both models and a diesel version with a Perkins engine; the company concentrated on articulated and rigid eight-wheeler lorries, from the 1920s. One vehicle not in those lines that became well-known was the 6×4 Pioneer.
This was an off-highway, heavy haulage tractor, first produced in 1927. It showed outstanding cross-country performance due to the design that included the patent beam bogie rear axle, with 2 feet of vertical movement for each of the rear wheels; this design was the work of Oliver Danson North. The Pioneer proved popular in the oil field and forestry markets, formed the basis of the British Army's World War II R100 30-ton tank transporter. With the outbreak of war, development of new vehicles stopped and production concentrated on military Pioneers for use as artillery tractors and transporter vehicles. Post war, foreign competition and rationalisation of the UK manufacturers led to Scammell coming under Leyland Motors in 1955; this provided access to ready-made components within the Leyland group, allowing the replacement of the "lightweight" range with the: Highwayman: bonneted 4x2 Routeman: forward control 8-wheeler Handyman: forward control 4x2Both the tractor units could be configured up to 50 tons, complemented by the full range of Scammell trailers made at the Moor Park works, allowed the company to continue production in specialist and military markets.
In the 1960s, Scammell contracted Giovanni Michelotti to design its cabs, resulting in a series of glass-reinforced plastic "spring"-like designs. The first to be redesigned was the Routeman, followed by the Handyman. In 1967, the'Scarab' was replaced by the'Townsman', which had a GRP body; the factory designed the 6x4 Contractor equipped with a Cummins 335 engine, Lipe clutch and Fuller semi-automatic gearbox, that went into production in 1964. Offered with a choice of Leyland 24 tonne or Scammell 30 and 40 tonne bogies, the Contractor was popular in the UK for 240+ ton GTW operation, overseas heavy haul, with the military for tank transport. In 1964, Scammell assembled 38 BUT RETB/1 trolleybuses for use in New Zealand. Scammell launched the three-axle 6x4 Crusader at London's 1968 Earl's Court Commercial Vehicle Show; the truck was designed for high-speed long distance transport to cover 250,000 miles a year. The truck included a'repair by replacement' philosophy to cut downtime and the consequences of unscheduled maintenance.
The drive line included a 9.3-litre GM Detroit Diesel 8V71N