The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
Aquarium Marine of Rio de Janeiro or AquaRio is a public aquarium located in the Gamboa neighborhood, in the port zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. With a constructed area of about 26,000 square metres, it is located between Muhammad Ali Square, it is considered the largest marine aquarium in South America. It was inaugurated on October 31, 2016, in a ceremony, attended by the former minister of Tourism, Marx Beltrão; the public aquarium was made at Porto Maravilha, an urban operation that aims to revitalize the Port Zone of Rio de Janeiro. The building occupied by AquaRio has 28 tanks with various types of fish. In the tanks, about 4.5 million liters of salt water are stored, in addition to 8 thousand animals of 350 different species. The building belonged to Companhia Brasileira de Armazenamento, now Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento. AquaRio brings together about 8,000 animals from 350 different species from all oceans. Among the main species present in the aquarium are: the nurse shark; the fish are distributed in 28 enclosures.
In addition to the visit to the tanks, AquaRio allows the visitor to perform the following additional activities, subject to charge separately: "Sleeping in AquaRio", where the visitor can spend a night in the tunnel that passes in the middle of the Great Ocean Tank. The AquaRio visitor can enjoy the following attractions: the Virtual Aquarium, a digital aquarium with fish created by visitors; as part of its structure, AquaRio has a café, a scientific research center, a parking lot and a souvenir shop, including some kiosks. On May 31, 2016, the largest solar roof installed in urban areas of Brazil was inaugurated at AquaRio. Comprising about two thousand solar panels installed in an area of 6 thousand m², the solar roof will generate about 77 thousand kilowatts of energy per month, equivalent to the monthly consumption of 500 Brazilian homes; the roof reduces the consumption of electricity consumed by the aquarium by up to 30%. Tourism in Brazil Official website
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro, or Rio, is anchor to the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas. Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Brazil's third-most populous state. Part of the city has been designated as a World Heritage Site, named "Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea", by UNESCO on 1 July 2012 as a Cultural Landscape. Founded in 1565 by the Portuguese, the city was the seat of the Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, a domain of the Portuguese Empire. In 1763, it became the capital of the State of Brazil, a state of the Portuguese Empire. In 1808, when the Portuguese Royal Court transferred itself from Portugal to Brazil, Rio de Janeiro became the chosen seat of the court of Queen Maria I of Portugal, who subsequently, in 1815, under the leadership of her son, the Prince Regent, future King João VI of Portugal, raised Brazil to the dignity of a kingdom, within the United Kingdom of Portugal and Algarves.
Rio stayed the capital of the pluricontinental Lusitanian monarchy until 1822, when the War of Brazilian Independence began. This is one of the few instances in history that the capital of a colonising country shifted to a city in one of its colonies. Rio de Janeiro subsequently served as the capital of the independent monarchy, the Empire of Brazil, until 1889, the capital of a republican Brazil until 1960 when the capital was transferred to Brasília. Rio de Janeiro has the second largest municipal GDP in the country, 30th largest in the world in 2008, estimated at about R$343 billion, it is headquarters to Brazilian oil and telecommunications companies, including two of the country's major corporations – Petrobras and Vale – and Latin America's largest telemedia conglomerate, Grupo Globo. The home of many universities and institutes, it is the second-largest center of research and development in Brazil, accounting for 17% of national scientific output according to 2005 data. Despite the high perception of crime, the city has a lower incidence of crime than Northeast Brazil, but it is far more criminalized than the south region of Brazil, considered the safest in the country.
Rio de Janeiro is one of the most visited cities in the Southern Hemisphere and is known for its natural settings, samba, bossa nova, balneario beaches such as Barra da Tijuca, Copacabana and Leblon. In addition to the beaches, some of the most famous landmarks include the giant statue of Christ the Redeemer atop Corcovado mountain, named one of the New Seven Wonders of the World. Rio de Janeiro was the host of the 2016 Summer Olympics and the 2016 Summer Paralympics, making the city the first South American and Portuguese-speaking city to host the events, the third time the Olympics were held in a Southern Hemisphere city; the Maracanã Stadium held the finals of the 1950 and 2014 FIFA World Cups, the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, the XV Pan American Games. Europeans first encountered Guanabara Bay on 1 January 1502, by a Portuguese expedition under explorer Gaspar de Lemos, captain of a ship in Pedro Álvares Cabral's fleet, or under Gonçalo Coelho; the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci participated as observer at the invitation of King Manuel I in the same expedition.
The region of Rio was inhabited by the Tupi, Puri and Maxakalí peoples. In 1555, one of the islands of Guanabara Bay, now called Villegagnon Island, was occupied by 500 French colonists under the French admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon. Villegagnon built Fort Coligny on the island when attempting to establish the France Antarctique colony; the city of Rio de Janeiro proper was founded by the Portuguese on 1 March 1565 and was named São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, in honour of St. Sebastian, the saint, the namesake and patron of the Portuguese then-monarch Sebastião. Rio de Janeiro was the name of Guanabara Bay; until early in the 18th century, the city was threatened or invaded by several French pirates and buccaneers, such as Jean-François Duclerc and René Duguay-Trouin. In the late 17th century, still during the Sugar Era, the Bandeirantes discovered gold and diamonds in the neighbouring captaincy of Minas Gerais, thus Rio de Janeiro became a much more practical port for exporting wealth than Salvador, much farther northeast.
On 27 January 1763, the colonial administration in Portuguese America was moved from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro. The city remained a colonial capital until 1808, when the Portuguese royal family and most of the associated Lisbon nobles, fleeing from Napoleon's invasion of Portugal, moved to Rio de Janeiro; the kingdom's capital was transferred to the city, thus, became the only European capital outside of Europe. As there was no physical space or urban structure to accommodate hundreds of noblemen who arrived many inhabitants were evicted from their homes. In the first decades, several educational establishments were created, such as the Military Academy, the Royal School of Sciences and Crafts and the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, as well as the National Library of Brazil – with the largest collection in Latin America – and The Botanical Garden; the first printed newspaper in Brazil, the Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro, came into circulation during this period. When Brazil was elevated to Kingdom in 1815, it
Santiago Calatrava Valls is a Spanish architect, structural design and analyst engineer and painter known for his bridges supported by single leaning pylons, his railway stations and museums, whose sculptural forms resemble living organisms. His best-known works include the Milwaukee Art Museum, the Turning Torso tower in Malmö, the Margaret Hunt Hill Bridge in Dallas and his largest project, the City of Arts and Sciences and Opera House, in his birthplace, Valencia, his architectural firm has offices in New York City, Zürich. Calatrava was born on July 1951, in Benimàmet, an old municipality now part of Valencia, Spain, his Calatrava surname was an old aristocratic one from medieval times, was once associated with an order of knights in Spain. He had his primary and secondary schooling in Valencia, beginning in 1957, studied drawing and painting at the School of Applied Art. In 1964, as the regime of General Francisco Franco relaxed and Spain became more open to rest of Europe, he went to France as an exchange student.
In 1968, after completing secondary school, he went to study at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris, but he arrived in the midst of student uprisings and turmoil in Paris, returned home. Back in Valencia, discovered a book about the architecture of Le Corbusier, which persuaded him that he could be both an artist and an architect, he enrolled in the Higher School of Architecture at the Polytechnic University of Valencia. He received his diploma as an architect and did higher studies in urbanism. At the University he completed independent projects with fellow students, publishing two books on the vernacular architecture of Valencia and Ibiza. In 1975 he enrolled in the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, Switzerland for a second degree in civil engineering. In 1981 he was awarded a doctorate in the department of architecture, after completing his thesis on "The Pliability of three-dimensional structures." Speaking of this period, Calatrava told biographer Philip Jodidio:"The desire to start all over at zero was strong in me.
I was determined to put to one side all that I had learned in architecture school, to learn to draw and think like an engineer. I was fascinated by the concept of gravity and convinced that it was necessary to begin work with simple forms." Calatrava explained that he was influenced by the work of the early 20th century Swiss engineer Robert Maillart, which taught him that, "with an adequate combination of force and mass, you can create emotion." As soon as Calatrava completed his doctorate in 1981, he opened his own office in Zurich. He designed an exposition hall, a factory, a library, two bridges, but none were built, Finally in 1983, he began to receive commissions for industrial and transportation structures of greater size; the train station has several of the features. The railroad platforms curve, the supporting columns lean, the concrete walls of the modernistic cavern beneath the tracks are everywhere pierced with teardrop shaped skylights, tilting glass panels provide light and shelter without enclosing the platforms.
In 1984–87, he built his first bridge, the Bac de Roda Bridge in Barcelona, which for the first time brought him international notice. The bridge, designed for cyclists and pedestrians, connects two parts of the city by crossing a wasteland of railway tracks, it is 128 metres long, with twin arches. The upper portion of the bridge, composed of steel arches and cables, is light and airy, like a network of lace, anchored to the massive concrete supports and granite pillars below, his next bridge, the Puente del Alamillo, in Seville, was more spectacular and cemented his reputation. Built as part of the 1992 Expo 92, it is 200 metres long, its main feature is a single pylon 142 metres high, leaning to 58 degrees, the same angle as the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt in Africa. The weight of the concrete of the pylon is sufficient to hold up the bridge with just thirteen pairs of cables, eliminating the need for any cables behind it. At the beginning of the 1990s Calatrava built several remarkable railway stations and bridges, but broadened his portfolio by designing a wider range of structures, including a Canadian shopping center, a new passenger terminal for Bilbao airport.
And his first building in the United States, the new structure of the Milwaukee Art Museum. In 1992 he completed one of his most picturesque and sculptural works, the Montjuïc Communications Tower in Barcelona, a 136 m -high graceful concrete spire designed for the site of the 1992 Olympics; the concrete pylon leans backwards, seems to grasp the vertical broadcast antennas. Its form suggests an athlete about to throw a javelin; the circular building at the base of the tower, which contains the broadcast equipment, is clad in white bricks and is equipped with metal resembling an eye which opens and closes. The building has a Catalan touch, borrowed from
Neo-futurism is a late 20th to early 21st century movement in the arts and architecture. It could be seen as a departure from the attitude of post-modernism and represents an idealistic belief in a better future and "a need to periodize the modern rapport with the technological"; this avant-garde movement is a futuristic rethinking of the aesthetic and functionality of growing cities. The industrialization that began worldwide following the end of the Second World War gave wind to new streams of thought in life and architecture, leading to post-modernism, neo-modernism and neo-futurism. In the Western countries, futurist architecture evolved into Art Deco, the Googie movement and high-tech architecture, most into neo-futurism. Pioneered in the late 1960s and early 70s by American architects Buckminster Fuller and John C. Portman, Jr.. Although it was never built, the Fun Palace interpreted by architect Cedric Price as a "giant neo-futurist machine" influenced other architects, notably Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano, whose Pompidou Centre extended many of Price's ideas.
Neo-futurism was relaunched in 2007 after the dissemination of "The Neo-Futuristic City Manifesto" included in the candidature presented to the Bureau International des Expositions and written by innovation designer Vito Di Bari, a former executive director at UNESCO), to outline his vision for the city of Milan at the time of the Universal Expo 2015. Di Bari defined his neo-futuristic vision as the "cross-pollination of art, cutting edge technologies and ethical values combined to create a pervasively higher quality of life". Jean-Louis Cohen has defined neo-futurism as "a corollary to technology, being the structures built today byproducts of new materials to create impossible forms." Etan J. Ilfeld wrote that in the contemporary neo-futurist aesthetics "the machine becomes an integral element of the creative process itself, generates the emergence of artistic modes that would have been impossible prior to computer technology." Reyner Banham's definition of "une architecture autre" is a call for an architecture that technologically overcomes all previous architectures but possessing an expressive form, as Banham stated about neo-futuristic "Archigram’s Plug-in Computerized City, form does not have to follow function into oblivion."
Inspired by Futurist architect Antonio Sant'Elia and pioneered from early 1960s and late 1970s by thought leader Hal Foster, French architect Denis Laming, American architects William Pereira and Charles Luckman and Danish architects Henning Larsen and Jørn Utzon. The neo-futurist avant-garde movement has been relaunched in 2007 by Expo 2015 Innovation Designer Vito Di Bari. Neo-Futurist architecture and art have been creatively inspired by Iraqi-British Pritzker Prize architect Zaha Hadid, Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava. Italian Innovation Designer Vito Di Bari is considered the thought leader of the movement, his vision of the “cross-pollination of art and technology for a better world” has been defined by Steve Jobs as the "post-PC DNA" and it is shared by acclaimed architects and artists such as the youngest recipient of the Pritzker Prize Japanese architect Ryue Nishizawa, architect of Ecoville in Curitiba and of the first rotating residential buildings Bruno de Franco, Design for Asia Award 2004-7-9 recipient Hong Kong Architect Gary Chang, Brazilian architect Rodrigo Ohtake, Lubetkin Prize Winner British designer Thomas Heatherwick, Design for Asia 2008 Award recipient Japanese artist Tokujin Yoshioka, Italian artist Mario Arlati, Polish artist Karina Smigla-Bobinski.
The relaunch of neo-futurism in the 21st century has been creatively inspired by the Iraqi-British Pritzker Architecture Prize-winning architect Zaha Hadid, Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava and by Vito DiBari. Neo-futurist architects and artists are French architect Denis Laming. Neo-futurism has absorbed some of the high-tech architecture’s themes and ideas, incorporating elements of high-tech industry and technology іnto building design: technology and context is the focus of some architects of this movement such as Buckminster Fuller, Norman Foster, Kenzo Tange, Renzo Piano, Richard Rogers, Frei Otto, Santiago Calatrava
National Museum (Rio de Janeiro)
The National Museum of Brazil is Brazil's oldest scientific institution, installed in the Paço de São Cristóvão, inside the Quinta da Boa Vista, in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The main building was the residence of the Portuguese Royal Family between 1808 and 1821 and was used to house the Brazilian Imperial Family between 1822 and 1889. After the monarchy was deposed, it hosted the Republican Constituent Assembly from 1889 to 1891 before being assigned to the use of the museum in 1892; the building was listed as Brazilian National Heritage in 1938 and destroyed by a fire in 2018. Founded by King João VI of Portugal and the Algarves on 6 June 1818, under the name of "Royal Museum", the institution was housed at the Campo de Santana park, where it exhibited the collections incorporated from the former House of Natural History, popularly known as Casa dos Pássaros, created in 1784 by the Viceroy of Brazil, Luís de Vasconcelos e Sousa, 4th Count of Figueiró, as well as collections of mineralogy and zoology.
The museum foundation was intended to address the interests of promoting the socioeconomic development of the country by the diffusion of education and science. In the 19th century, the institution was established as the most important South American museum of its type. In 1946, it was incorporated into the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro; the National Museum held a vast collection with more than 20 million objects, one of the largest collections of natural history and anthropological artifacts in the world, encompassing some of the most important material records regarding natural science and anthropology in Brazil, as well as numerous items that came from other regions of the world and were produced by several cultures and ancient civilizations. Formed along more than two centuries through expeditions, acquisitions and exchanges, the collection was subdivided into seven main nuclei: geology, botany, biological anthropology and ethnology; the collection was the principal basis for the research conducted by the academic departments of the museum – which are responsible for carrying out activities in all the regions of the Brazilian territory and several places of the world, including the Antarctic continent.
The museum held one of the largest scientific libraries of Brazil, with over 470,000 volumes and 2,400 rare works. In the area of education, the museum offers specializations and post-graduation courses in several fields of the knowledge, in addition to hosting temporary and permanent exhibitions and educational activities open to the general public; the museum manages the Horto Botânico, adjacent to the Paço de São Cristóvão, as well as an advanced campus in the city of Santa Teresa, in Espírito Santo – the Santa Lúcia Biological Station, jointly managed with the Museum of Biology Prof. Mello Leitão. A third site, located in the city of Saquarema, is used as a support and logistics center for field activities; the museum is dedicated to editorial production, outstanding in that field the Archivos do Museu Nacional, the oldest scientific journal of Brazil, continuously published since 1876. The palace, which housed a large part of the collection, was destroyed in a fire on the night of 2 September 2018.
The building had been called a "firetrap" by critics, who argued the fire was predictable and could have been prevented. The fire began in the air-conditioning system of auditorium on the ground floor. One of the three devices did not have external grounding, there was no individual circuit breaker for each of them, a wire was without insulation in contact with metal. In the wake of the fire, the ruined edifice is being treated as an archaeological site and undergoing reconstruction efforts, with a metallic roof covering a 5,000 m² area including debris. In 2019, more than 30,000 pieces of the Imperial Family's past were found during archaeological works on Rio de Janeiro Zoological Garden nearby, part of Quinta da Boa Vista. Among the finds are many items such as fragments of crockery, plates, cutlery and buttons and brooches with imperial coat of arms from military clothing; those items were given to the museum. The National Museum was established by His Majesty King João VI of Portugal and the Algarves in 1818 with the name of Royal Museum, in an initiative to stimulate scientific research in the Kingdom of Brazil a constituent part of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves.
The Museum sheltered botanical and animal specimens birds, what caused the old building where it was located in center of Rio de Janeiro, to be known by the population as the "House of the Birds". After that, with the marriage of King João VI's eldest son and Brazil's first Emperor, Dom Pedro I, with H. I. & R. H. Archduchess Maria Leopoldina of Austria, the Museum started to attract the greatest European naturalists of the 19th century, such as Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwied, Johann Baptist von Spix and Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius. Other European researchers who explored the country, such as Augustin Saint-Hilaire and the Baron von Langsdorff, contributed to the collections of the Royal Museum. By the end of the 19th century, reflecting the personal preferences of His Imperial Majesty Emperor Pedro II, the National Museum started to invest in the areas of the anthropology and archaeology; the Emperor himself, an avid amateur scientist and enthusiastic supporter of all branches of science, contributed with several of the collections of the a
2016 Summer Olympics
The 2016 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XXXI Olympiad and known as Rio 2016, was an international multi-sport event, held from 5 to 21 August 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, with preliminary events in some sports beginning on 3 August. These were the first Olympic Games to be held in South America and the second to be held in a developing country, after the 1968 games in Mexico City. More than 11,000 athletes from 205 National Olympic Committees, including first time entrants Kosovo, South Sudan, the Refugee Olympic Team, took part. With 306 sets of medals, the games featured 28 Olympic sports, including rugby sevens and golf, which were added to the Olympic program in 2009; these sporting events took place at 33 venues in the host city, at five separate venues in the Brazilian cities of São Paulo, Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Manaus. These were the first Summer Olympic Games to take place under the International Olympic Committee presidency of Thomas Bach; the host city Rio de Janeiro was announced at the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 2 October 2009.
Rio became the first South American city to host the Olympic Games. These were the first games to be held in a Portuguese-speaking country, the first summer edition to be held in the host country's winter season, the first since 1968 to be held in Latin America, the first since 2000 to be held in the Southern Hemisphere; the lead-up to these Games was marked by controversies, including the Brazil's political and economic crisis. However, nobody competing in or attending the Olympics contracted the Zika virus and the Games took place without any major incident; the United States topped the medal table, winning the most gold and overall medals, 46 and 121, as well as its 1,000th Summer Olympic gold medal overall. Great Britain finished second and became the first country of modern Olympics history to increase its tally of medals in the subsequent games after being the host nation. China finished third. Host country Brazil won seven gold medals, its most at any single Summer Olympics, finishing in thirteenth place.
Bahrain, Jordan, Puerto Rico, Tajikistan, Ivory Coast and Vietnam each won their first gold medals, as did the group of Independent Olympic Athletes. The process for the 2016 Olympic Games was launched on 16 May 2007; the first step for each city was to submit an initial application to the International Olympic Committee by 13 September 2007, confirming their intention to bid. Completed official bid files, containing answers to a 25-question IOC form, were to be submitted by each 14 January 2008. Four candidate cities were chosen for the shortlist on 4 June 2008: Chicago, Rio de Janeiro and Tokyo, which hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics and will host again in 2020; the IOC did not promote Doha to the candidature phase, despite scoring higher than selected candidate city Rio de Janeiro, because of their intent of hosting the Olympics in October, outside of the IOC's sporting calendar. Prague and Baku failed to make the cut. Nawal El Moutawakel of Morocco headed the 10-member Evaluation Commission, having chaired the evaluation commission for the 2012 Summer Olympics bids.
The commission made on-site inspections in the second quarter of 2009. They issued a comprehensive technical appraisal for IOC members on 2 September, one month before elections. Many restrictions are in place designed to prevent bidding cities from communicating with or influencing directly the 115 voting members. Cities may not invite any IOC member to visit nor may they send anything that could be construed as a gift. Nonetheless, bidding cities invest large sums in their PR and media programs in an attempt to indirectly influence the IOC members by garnering domestic support, support from sports media and general international media; the final voting was held on 2 October 2009, in Copenhagen with Madrid and Rio de Janeiro perceived as favourites to land the games. Chicago and Tokyo were eliminated after the first and second rounds of voting while Rio de Janeiro took a significant lead over Madrid heading into the final round; the lead held and Rio de Janeiro was announced as host of 2016 Summer Olympics.
On 26 June 2011, it was reported on AroundTheRings.com that Roderlei Generali, the COO of the Rio de Janeiro Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games, resigned just one year after taking the job at ROOC. This comes. Pestana withdrew during the 2012 Summer Paralympics. Renato Ciuchin was appointed as COO. Events took place at eighteen existing venues, nine new venues constructed for the Games, seven temporary venues; each event was held in one of four geographically segregated Olympic clusters: Barra, Copacabana and Maracanã. The same was done for the 2007 Pan American Games. Several of the venues were located at the Barra Cluster Olympic Park. Athletes could access their venues in shorter than ten minutes and about 75 percent could do so in less than 25 minutes. Of the 34 competition locations, eight of them underwent permanent works, seven were limited, nine were perpetual legacy venues; the largest venue at the games in terms of seating capacity was the 74,738-seat Maracanã Stadium, which served as the ceremonies venue and site of the football finals.
The second largest stadium was the 60,000-seat Estádio Olímpico João Havelange, which hosted track and field events. The athletes' village was said to be the largest in Olympic history. Fittings inc