The Benaki Museum and endowed in 1930 by Antonis Benakis in memory of his father Emmanuel Benakis, is housed in the Benakis family mansion in downtown Athens, Greece. In 1931, the Benakis donated the house in Athens and their collection of more than 37,000 Islamic. More than 9,000 artifacts were added by the 1970s, Benakis remained active in the museum until his death in 1954. Under the directorship of Angelos Delivorrias, the museum added more than 60,000 objects and documents, some of which were purchased, Delivorrias opts to focus on displaying donated items in order to encourage public participation and strengthen the communitys ties to the museum. The museum focuses on the fact that Greek history does not begin and end with specific events, in 2000, the Benaki Museum reopened following a $20 million renovation and restoration of the building, which had been damaged in an earthquake. The renovation allowed it to become the museum in Greece that brings visitors through all ages of Greek culture.
It is unique in that it does not focus on nationalism, although the museums director, Angelos Delivorrias, came up with the idea to refocus the museum and its exhibits in 1973, more than 25 years passed before he was able to make this a new reality. This reality involved moving the collections of Islamic Art and Chinese porcelain with painting to other locations so that the main museum in Athens would focus solely on Greece. As part of the museums re-focusing on Greek culture, its Islamic collection was moved to a new home in 2004 in time for the Athens Olympics, the new museum has new galleries for temporary traveling exhibits. Covering Islamic art from the 7th through the 19th centuries, it has a collection of Ottoman art from the Empires peak in the 16th century. List of museums with major collections of Islamic art Sabetai, Athens, Research Centre for Antiquity of the Academy of Athens. ISBN9789604041015 The Benaki Museum Benaki Collection Postbyzantine ecclesiastical works Benaki Museum - Ebook by Latsis Foundation
Most large museums are located in major cities throughout the world and more local ones exist in smaller cities and even the countryside. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public, the goal of serving researchers is increasingly shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, the city with the largest number of museums is Mexico City with over 128 museums. According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries, the English museum comes from the Latin word, and is pluralized as museums. The first museum/library is considered to be the one of Plato in Athens, Pausanias gives another place called Museum, namely a small hill in Classical Athens opposite to the Akropolis. The hill was called Mouseion after Mousaious, a man who used to sing on the hill, the purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public.
The purpose can depend on ones point of view, to a family looking for entertainment on a Sunday afternoon, a trip to a local history museum or large city art museum could be a fun, and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the health of a city. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museums mission, Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithsons bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution for the increase, Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of classification of a field of knowledge for research. As American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students, while many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums.
While there is a debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museums collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect. Much care and expense is invested in efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artworks. All museums display objects that are important to a culture, as historian Steven Conn writes, To see the thing itself, with ones own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting. Museum purposes vary from institution to institution, some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects and they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia
The Acropolis Museum is an archaeological museum focused on the findings of the archaeological site of the Acropolis of Athens. The museum was built to house every artifact found on the rock and on the slopes, from the Greek Bronze Age to Roman. It lies over the ruins of a part of Roman, the museum was founded in 2003, while the Organization of the Museum was established in 2008. It opened to the public on 20 June 2009, nearly 4,000 objects are exhibited over an area of 14,000 square metres. The Organization for the Construction of the new museum is chaired by Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Professor Emeritus of Archaeology, the first museum was on the Acropolis, it was completed in 1874 and underwent a moderate expansion in the 1950s. However, successive excavations on the Acropolis uncovered many new artifacts which significantly exceeded its original capacity, creation of a gallery for the display of the Parthenon Marbles has been key to all recent proposals for the design of a new museum.
The first architectural competition to design a new museum was held in 1976 and was limited to participants from Greece, both the 1976 competition and one that followed it in 1979 failed to produce any results mainly because the plots of land selected for the proposed constructions were deemed unsuitable. In 1989, a competition for the design of the new Acropolis Museum was announced that would be international. A choice of three sites was provided. This competition was won by the Italian architects, Manfredi Nicoletti, in retrospect, the location of the new museum was rather straightforward, the large lot of the unused Camp Makrygianni gendarmerie barracks, opposite the Theater of Dionysus. The barracks were built on land and a limited number of expropriations of surrounding private houses were needed to free up the necessary space. The main building of the old barracks, the neoclassical Weiler Building, has been renovated, the fourth competition had made no provision for the preservation of the ancient site.
These were met to a degree only after local and international campaigners exposed this oversight, the new plans were adjusted so that the building was elevated above ground, on pillars. Competition was open only to architectural practices by invitation and it was won by New York–based architect, Bernard Tschumi, excavation has revealed two layers of modest, private roadside houses and workshops, one from the early Byzantine era and another from the classical era. Once the layout and stratigraphy of the findings were established, suitable locations for the pillars were identified. These traverse the soil to the bedrock and float on roller bearings able to withstand a Richter scale magnitude 10 earthquake. Greek officials expressed their hope that the new museum will help in the campaign for the return of the Parthenon Marbles, the museum is located by the southeastern slope of the Acropolis hill, on the ancient road that led up to the sacred rock in classical times. The entrance to the building is on Dionysiou Areopagitou Street and directly adjacent to the Akropoli metro station the red line of the Athens Metro, the design by Bernard Tschumi was selected as the winning project in the fourth competition
Old Acropolis Museum
The Old Acropolis Museum was an archaeological museum located in Athens, Greece on the archeological site of Acropolis. It is built in a niche at the edge of the rock and most of it lies beneath the level of the hilltop. It was considered one of the archaeological museums in Athens. Due to its size, the Greek government decided in the late 1980s to build a new museum. The New Acropolis Museum is now built at the foot of the Acropolis, in June 2007 the old museum closed its doors so that its antiquities could be moved to their new home, which opened on 20 June 2009. The museum was home to many of the Greek worlds ancient relics found in and it was designed by architect Panagis Kalkos and was constructed between 1865 and 1874. It was expanded in the 1950s to a modern design executed by Patroklos Karantinos, the Acropolis Museum housed stone sculptures and bronze remains from the monuments of the Acropolis and some artifacts that are excavated on the site. The building is located in the south-east corner of the Acropolis, in 1974 prime minister Konstantinos Karamanlis proposed the construction of a new museum.
Initial plans were made under Melina Mercouri and the ground of the Makrygianni former military hospital, the first competition was criticized and a new competition proclaimed some years later. In 2007 the old building was closed to prepare the move to the new building, a new building was designed by Bernard Tschumi and Michali Fotiades, and constructed from 2002-2007 on Areopagitou Street. It was inaugurated on Saturday, June 20,2009, and the fee was 1 euro for the first year. Drainage pipes from the Old Acropolis Museum have been attributed for causing much of the decay of the Acropolis, the museum housed artifacts that were found on the site of the Acropolis of Athens
Goulandris Museum of Cycladic Art
The Nicholas P. Goulandris Foundation - Museum of Cycladic Art is one of the great museums of Athens. It houses a collection of artifacts of Cycladic art. The museum was founded in 1986 in order to house the collection of Cycladic and Ancient Greek art belonging to Nicholas, starting in the early 1960s, the couple collected Greek antiquities, with special interest in the prehistoric art from the Cyclades islands of the Aegean Sea. The Museums main building, erected in the centre of Athens in 1985, was designed by the Greek architect Ioannis Vikelas, in 1991, the Museum acquired a new wing, the neo-classical Stathatos Mansion at the corner of Vassilissis Sofias Avenue and Herodotou Street. Cycladic art Cycladic civilization List of museums in Greece Museum of Cycladic Art official site Ministry of Culture and Tourism www. athensinfoguide. com
Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. In modern times, Athens is a cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, industrial, maritime. In 2015, Athens was ranked the worlds 29th richest city by purchasing power, Athens is recognised as a global city because of its location and its importance in shipping, commerce, entertainment, international trade, culture and tourism. It is one of the biggest economic centres in southeastern Europe, with a financial sector. The municipality of Athens had a population of 664,046 within its limits. The urban area of Athens extends beyond its administrative city limits. According to Eurostat in 2011, the Functional urban areas of Athens was the 9th most populous FUA in the European Union, Athens is the southernmost capital on the European mainland. The city retains Roman and Byzantine monuments, as well as a number of Ottoman monuments. Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Acropolis of Athens and the medieval Daphni Monastery, Athens was the host city of the first modern-day Olympic Games in 1896, and 108 years it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics.
In Ancient Greek, the name of the city was Ἀθῆναι a plural, in earlier Greek, such as Homeric Greek, the name had been current in the singular form though, as Ἀθήνη. It was possibly rendered in the on, like those of Θῆβαι and Μυκῆναι. During the medieval period the name of the city was rendered once again in the singular as Ἀθήνα, an etiological myth explaining how Athens has acquired its name was well known among ancient Athenians and even became the theme of the sculpture on the West pediment of the Parthenon. The goddess of wisdom and the god of the seas, Poseidon had many disagreements, in an attempt to compel the people, Poseidon created a salt water spring by striking the ground with his trident, symbolizing naval power. However, when Athena created the tree, symbolizing peace and prosperity. Different etymologies, now rejected, were proposed during the 19th century. Christian Lobeck proposed as the root of the name the word ἄθος or ἄνθος meaning flower, ludwig von Döderlein proposed the stem of the verb θάω, stem θη- to denote Athens as having fertile soil.
In classical literature, the city was referred to as the City of the Violet Crown, first documented in Pindars ἰοστέφανοι Ἀθᾶναι. In medieval texts, variant names include Setines and Astines, today the caption η πρωτεύουσα, the capital, has become somewhat common
Museum of Pavlos and Alexandra Kanellopoulou
The Museum of Pavlos and Alexandra Kanellopoulou is a museum of antiquities in Athens, Greece. Founded in 1976, it comprises the collection of Paul. It is housed in the mansion of the Michalea family, situated on the north slope of the Acropolis. The mansion was purchased by the Greek state in the 1960s-1970s and was restored to house the collection. The items of the collection include clay and stone vases and figurines, jewellery, weapons and inscriptions, hellenic Ministry of Culture and Tourism City of Athens www. athensinfoguide. com
National Museum of Contemporary Art, Athens
The National Museum of Contemporary Art, established in October 2000, is the sole national institution focused only on collecting and exhibiting contemporary Greek and international art in Athens. Anna Kafetsi, Ph. D in Aesthetics- Art History and former curator for 17 years of the 20th century collection at the National Gallery of Athens, was appointed founding director of EMST. It is located in proximity to the center of Athens as well as the archaeological sites of the city, including the Acropolis. Currently, the restoration of the building is in progress in order to state of the art facilities for the permanent collection, periodic exhibitions, educational programs. Pivotal aspect of the EMST’s artistic policy is the enhancement and enrichment of its permanent collections with works from Greek and international artists. There are two main axons according to which the collections are structured, a one, dating from the second half of the 20th century. The museum is developing its permanent collections through purchasing works of art as well as soliciting donations, EMST aims at developing, within the next few years, a core collection of works representative of the basic directions of contemporary art.
Tsurumaki. Lewis and Tessera. A rich collection of art has been built. Both centers will be developed with the support of the Ministry of Culture, special educational booklets for Primary and Secondary education, as well as editions with the Museum new Acquisitions. A series of editions of Critical Essays on contemporary art, as well as artists monographs based on unpublished material of The Archives of Greek Artists is being prepared, also, a project for the exchange of editions with institutions in Greece and abroad has already been initiated. Greek artists and galleries have granted to the archives related to contemporary Greek art. The archives are constituted by catalogues, exhibition invitations, audiovisual material, texts by artists, critiques, reproductions of works, the donation of the archives of Bia Davou and Pandelis Xagoraris by their son Zafos Xagoraris is exceptionally significant. National Gallery Municipal Gallery of Athens Benaki Museum, Athens State Museum of Contemporary Art, Thessaloniki EMST website EMST blog City of Athens www. athensinfoguide. com
Greek cruiser Georgios Averof
Georgios Averof is a modified Pisa-class armored cruiser built in Italy for the Royal Hellenic Navy in the first decade of the 20th century. The ship served as the Greek flagship during most of the first half of the century, although popularly known as a battleship in Greek, she is in fact an armored cruiser, the only ship of this type still in existence. At the beginning of the 20th century, Greece decided to reinforce its fleet, the navy procured eight destroyers between 1905-1907, but the most important addition was Georgios Averof. The ship, a Pisa-class cruiser like her Italian sisters Amalfi, the ship was fitted with a combination of Italian engines, French boilers, British artillery and German generators. The ship was launched on 12 March 1910 and her first captain was Captain Ioannis Damianos, who took command of her on 16 May 1911. Averof sailed for Britain, in order to participate in the festivities for the coronation of King George V and it was clear that Captain Damianos was inadequate, so he was replaced by the highly esteemed Captain Pavlos Kountouriotis, who quickly reimposed discipline and set sail for Greece.
During the journey, Kountouriotis took care to train the crew, Averof finally sailed into Faliro Bay, near Athens, on 1 September 1911. Averof was at the time the most modern and powerful ship in the navies of either the Balkan League or the Ottoman Empire, with the outbreak of the First Balkan War in October 1912, Kountouriotis was named rear admiral and commander-in-chief of the Hellenic Royal Navy. Averof, under Captain Sofoklis Dousmanis, served as the flagship of the fleet, during the naval battles at Elli and Lemnos against the Ottoman Navy, she almost single-handedly secured victory and the undisputed control of the Aegean Sea for Greece. In both battles, due to her speed and armament, she left the battle line. Averof succeeded in crossing the T of the Turkish fleet and concentrated her fire against the Ottoman flagship, during the Battle of Lemnos, when the older battleships failed to follow up with Averof, Kountouriotis did not hesitate to pursue independent action. In each battle the ship suffered slight damage, while inflicting severe damage to several Turkish ships.
These exploits propelled her and her Admiral to legendary status in Greece, after the Battle of Lemnos, the crew of Averof affectionately nicknamed her Lucky Uncle George. It is a fact that, due to the aforementioned delays in the delivery of ammunition. Georgios Averof is credited with closing the Aegean Sea to Ottoman transports bringing fresh troops. This success had a impact on the land action where the Ottoman forces suffered decisive defeats. During World War I, Averof did not see active service, as Greece was neutral during the first years of the war. After the Noemvriana riots of 1916, she was seized by the French, after the wars end, Averof sailed with other Allied ships to Constantinople, receiving an ecstatic welcome from the citys Greeks
As leader of the Liberal Party, he was elected several times as Prime Minister of Greece, serving from 1910 to 1920 and from 1928 to 1933. Venizelos had such influence on the internal and external affairs of Greece that he is credited with being the maker of modern Greece. His first entry into the scene was with his significant role in the autonomy of the Cretan State. Soon, he was invited to Greece to resolve the political deadlock, not only did he initiate constitutional and economic reforms that set the basis for the modernization of Greek society, but reorganized both army and navy in preparation of future conflicts. Before the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913, Venizelos catalytic role helped gain Greece entrance to the Balkan League, through his diplomatic acumen, Greece doubled its area and population with the liberation of Macedonia and most of the Aegean islands. In World War I, he brought Greece on the side of the Allies, his pro-Allied foreign policy brought him into direct conflict with the monarchy, causing the National Schism.
The Schism polarized the population between the royalists and Venizelists and the struggle for power between the two groups affected the political and social life of Greece for decades. Following the Allied victory, Venizelos secured new territorial gains, especially in Anatolia, despite his achievements, he was defeated in the 1920 General Election, which contributed to the eventual Greek defeat in the Greco-Turkish War. In his subsequent periods in office Venizelos succeeded in restoring relations with Greeces neighbors. In 1935 he resurfaced from retirement to support a military coup and its failure severely weakened the Second Hellenic Republic, the republic that he had created. In the 18th century, the ancestors of Venizelos, named Cravvatas, lived in Mystras, in southern Peloponnese. During the Ottoman raids in the peninsula in 1770, a member of the Cravvatas family, Venizelos Cravvatas and his sons discarded their patronymic and called themselves Venizelos. The family was of Laconic and Cretan origin, Eleftherios was born in Mournies, near Chania in then-Ottoman Crete to Kyriakos Venizelos, a Cretan merchant and revolutionary, and Styliani Ploumidaki.
When the Cretan revolution of 1866 broke out, Venizelos family fled to the island of Syros and they were not allowed to return to Crete, and stayed in Syros until 1872, when Abdülaziz granted an amnesty. He spent his year of secondary education at a school in Ermoupolis in Syros from which he received his Certificate in 1880. In 1881 he enrolled at the University of Athens Law School and he returned to Crete in 1886 and worked as a lawyer in Chania. Throughout his life he maintained a passion for reading and was improving his skills in English, German. The situation in Crete during Venizelos early years was fluid, the Ottoman empire was undermining the reforms, which were made under international pressure, while the Cretans desired to see the Sultan, Abdul Hamid II, abandon the ungrateful infidels