Gothic Quarter, Barcelona
The Gothic Quarter is the centre of the old city of Barcelona. It stretches from La Rambla to Via Laietana, from the Mediterranean seafront to the Ronda de Sant Pere, it is a part of Ciutat Vella district. The quarter encompasses the oldest parts of the city of Barcelona, includes the remains of the city's Roman wall and several notable medieval landmarks. Much of the present-day fabric of the quarter, dates to the 19th and early 20th centuries. El Call, the medieval Jewish quarter, is located within this area, along with the former Sinagoga Major; the Barri Gòtic retains a labyrinthine street plan, with many small streets opening out into squares. Most of the quarter is closed to regular traffic although open to service taxis. Despite its name, a number of landmark Gothic buildings in the neighborhood do not date to the Middle Ages. Rather, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the quarter was transformed from a sombre neighborhood to a tourist attraction through a massive restoration project, timed to be completed for the 1929 International Exhibition.
This allowed the city and the surrounding region of Catalonia to portray itself in a positive light to the world's media. Further restoration of existing buildings and the creation of brand new neo-Gothic structures continued as late as the 1960s. Among the principal buildings with rebuilt or modified with neo-Gothic additions are: The façade of the Barcelona Cathedral: constructed between 1882 and 1913 by Josep Oriol Mestres and August Font i Carreras with a profusion of Gothic-style elements. Building of the Centre Excursionista de Catalunya on Carrer Paradís: work by Lluís Domènech i Montaner carried out in 1922 on a building of uncertain origins, to which he added Gothic windows and merlons; the Flamboyant-style bridge that crosses Carrer Bisbe between the Palau de la Generalitat and the Cases dels Canonges: newly constructed 1928 by Joan Rubió. Casa Padellàs: the Barcelona City History Museum headquarters, the building was built circa 1500 on Carrer Mercaders, but it was moved to the Plaça del Rei in 1931 with its interior rebuilt.
Aguilar Palace: present-day Museu Picasso, restored by Adolf Florensa in 1959, who added galleries with arches and Gothic windows. Pignatelli Palace: present-day Royal Artistic Circle of Barcelona, restored in 1970 including the addition of various Gothic windows retrieved from municipal warehouses. L4 station Jaume I L3 stations Liceu and Drassanes El Gòtic on the City's website Barri Gòtic at Tmb.cat
In ancient Rome, the domus was the type of house occupied by the upper classes and some wealthy freedmen during the Republican and Imperial eras. It was found in all the major cities throughout the Roman territories; the modern English word domestic comes from Latin domesticus, derived from the word domus. The word dom in modern Slavic languages means "home" and is a cognate of the Latin word, going back to Proto-Indo-European. Along with a domus in the city, many of the richest families of ancient Rome owned a separate country house known as a villa. Many chose to live or exclusively, in their villas; the elite classes of Roman society constructed their residences with elaborate marble decorations, inlaid marble paneling, door jambs and columns as well as expensive paintings and frescoes. Many poor and lower-middle-class Romans lived in crowded and rundown rental apartments, known as insulae; these multi-level apartment blocks were built as high and together as possible and held far less status and convenience than the private homes of the prosperous.
The homes of the early Etruscans were simple for the wealthy or ruling classes. They were small familiar huts constructed on the axial plan of a central hall with an open skylight, it is believed that the Temple of Vesta was, in form, copied from these early dwellings because the worship of Vesta began in individual homes. The huts were made of mud and wood with thatched roofs and a centre opening for the hearth's smoke to escape; this could have been the beginnings of the atrium, common in homes. As Rome became more and more prosperous from trade and conquest, the homes of the wealthy increased in both size and luxury, emulating both the Etruscan atrium house and Hellenistic peristyle house; the domus included multiple rooms, indoor courtyards and beautifully painted walls that were elaborately laid out. The vestibulum led into a large central hall: the atrium, the focal point of the domus and contained a statue of or an altar to the household gods. Leading off the atrium were cubicula, a dining room triclinium where guests could eat dinner whilst reclining on couches, a tablinum, the culina.
On the outside, without any internal connection to the atrium, were tabernae. In cities throughout the Roman Empire, wealthy homeowners lived in buildings with few exterior windows. Glass windows were not available: glass production was in its infancy, thus a wealthy Roman citizen lived in a large house separated into two parts, linked together through the tablinum or study or by a small passageway. To protect the family from intruders, it would not face the streets, only its entrance providing more room for living spaces and gardens behind. Surrounding the atrium were arranged the master's family’s main rooms: the small cubicula or bedrooms, the tablinum, which served as a living room or study, the triclinium, or dining-room. Roman homes were like Greek homes. Only two objects were present in the atrium of Caecilius in Pompeii: a small bronze box that stored precious family items and the lararium, a small shrine to the household gods, the Lares. In the master bedroom was a small wooden bed and couch which consisted of some slight padding.
As the domus developed, the tablinum took on a role similar to that of the study. In each of the other bedrooms there was just a bed; the triclinium had three couches surrounding a table. The triclinium was similar in size to the master bedroom; the study was used as a passageway. If the master of the house was a banker or merchant, the study was larger because of the greater need for materials. Roman houses lay on an axis, so that a visitor was provided with a view through the fauces and tablinum to the peristyle. Vestibulum The vestibulum was the main entrance hall of the Roman domus, it is seen only in grander structures. The vestibulum would run the length of these front Tabernae shops; this created security by keeping the main portion of the domus off the street. In homes that did not have spaces for let in front, either rooms or a closed area would still be separated by a separate vestibulum. Atrium The atrium was the most important part of the house, where guests and dependents were greeted.
The atrium was open in the centre, surrounded at least in part by high-ceilinged porticoes that contained only sparse furnishings to give the effect of a large space. In the centre was a square roof opening called the compluvium in which rainwater could come, draining inwards from the slanted tiled roof. Directly below the compluvium was the impluvium. Impluvium An impluvium was a drain pool, a shallow rectangular sunken portion of the Atrium to gather rainwater, which drained into an underground cistern; the impluvium was lined with marble, around, a floor of small mosaic. Fauces These were similar in design and function of the vestibulum but were found deeper into the domus. Separated by the length of another room, entry to a different portion of the residence was accessed by these passageways which would now be called halls or hallways. Tablinum Between the atrium and the peristyle was the tablinum, an office of sorts for the dominus, who would receive his clients for the morning salutatio.
The dominus was able to command the house visually from this vantage point as the he
Spanish Civil War
The Spanish Civil War took place from 1936 to 1939. Republicans loyal to the left-leaning Second Spanish Republic, in alliance with the Anarchists and Communists, fought against the Nationalists, an alliance of Falangists and Catholics, led by General Francisco Franco. Due to the international political climate at the time, the war had many facets, different views saw it as class struggle, a war of religion, a struggle between dictatorship and republican democracy, between revolution and counterrevolution, between fascism and communism; the Nationalists won the war in early 1939 and ruled Spain until Franco's death in November 1975. The war began after a pronunciamiento against the Republican government by a group of generals of the Spanish Republican Armed Forces under the leadership of José Sanjurjo; the government at the time was a moderate, liberal coalition of Republicans, supported in the Cortes by communist and socialist parties, under the leadership of centre-left President Manuel Azaña.
The Nationalist group was supported by a number of conservative groups, including the Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups, including both the opposing sides of Alfonsists and the religious conservative Carlists, the Falange Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista, a fascist political party. Sanjurjo was killed in an aircraft accident while attempting to return from exile in Portugal, whereupon Franco emerged as the leader of the Nationalists; the coup was supported by military units in the Spanish protectorate in Morocco, Burgos, Valladolid, Cádiz, Córdoba, Seville. However, rebelling units in some important cities—such as Madrid, Valencia, Málaga—did not gain control, those cities remained under the control of the government. Spain was thus left militarily and politically divided; the Nationalists and the Republican government fought for control of the country. The Nationalist forces received munitions and air support from Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, while the Republican side received support from the Soviet Union and Mexico.
Other countries, such as the United Kingdom and the United States, continued to recognise the Republican government, but followed an official policy of non-intervention. Notwithstanding this policy, tens of thousands of citizens from non-interventionist countries directly participated in the conflict, they fought in the pro-Republican International Brigades, which included several thousand exiles from pro-Nationalist regimes. The Nationalists advanced from their strongholds in the south and west, capturing most of Spain's northern coastline in 1937, they besieged Madrid and the area to its south and west for much of the war. After much of Catalonia was captured in 1938 and 1939, Madrid cut off from Barcelona, the Republican military position became hopeless. Madrid and Barcelona were occupied without resistance, Franco declared victory and his regime received diplomatic recognition from all non-interventionist governments. Thousands of leftist Spaniards fled to refugee camps in southern France.
Those associated with the losing Republicans were persecuted by the victorious Nationalists. With the establishment of a dictatorship led by General Franco in the aftermath of the war, all right-wing parties were fused into the structure of the Franco regime; the war became notable for the passion and political division it inspired and for the many atrocities that occurred, on both sides. Organised purges occurred in territory captured by Franco's forces so they could consolidate their future regime. A significant number of killings took place in areas controlled by the Republicans; the extent to which Republican authorities took part in killings in Republican territory varied. The 19th century was a turbulent time for Spain; those in favour of reforming Spain's government vied for political power with conservatives, who tried to prevent reforms from taking place. Some liberals, in a tradition that had started with the Spanish Constitution of 1812, sought to limit the power of the monarchy of Spain and to establish a liberal state.
The reforms of 1812 did not last after King Ferdinand VII dissolved the Constitution and ended the Trienio Liberal government. Twelve successful coups were carried out between 1814 and 1874; until the 1850s, the economy of Spain was based on agriculture. There was little development of a bourgeois commercial class; the land-based oligarchy remained powerful. In 1868 popular uprisings led to the overthrow of Queen Isabella II of the House of Bourbon. Two distinct factors led to the uprisings: a series of urban riots and a liberal movement within the middle classes and the military concerned with the ultra-conservatism of the monarchy. In 1873 Isabella's replacement, King Amadeo I of the House of Savoy, abdicated owing to increasing political pressure, the short-lived First Spanish Republic was proclaimed. After the restoration of the Bourbons in December 1874, Carlists and Anarchists emerged in opposition to the monarchy. Alejandro Lerroux, Spanish politician and leader of the Radical Republican Party, helped bring republicanism to the fore in Catalonia, where poverty was acute.
Growing resentment of conscription and of the military culminated in the Tragic Week in Barcelona in 1909. Spain was neutral in World War I. Following the war, the working class, industrial class, military united in hopes of removing the corrupt central government, but were unsuc
History of Barcelona
The history of Barcelona stretches over 2000 years to its origins as an Iberian village named Barkeno. Its defensible location on the coastal plain between the Collserola ridge and the Mediterranean sea, the coastal route between central Europe and the rest of the Iberian peninsula, has ensured its continued importance, if not always preeminence, throughout the ages. Barcelona is a city of 1,620,943, the second largest in Spain, the capital of the autonomous community of Catalonia, its wider urban region is home to three-quarters of the population of Catalonia and one-eighth of that of Spain. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear. Remains from the Neolithic and early Chalcolithic periods have been found on the coastal plain near the city; the ruins of an early settlement have been excavated in the El Raval neighborhood, including different tombs and dwellings dating to earlier than 5000 BC. In the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, the area was settled by the Laietani, an Ιberian people, at Barkeno on the Táber hill and at Laie, believed to have been located on Montjuïc.
Both settlements struck coinage. Some historians have maintained that a small Greek colony, was founded in the vicinity at around the same period, but conclusive archaeological evidence to support this has not been found, it is sometimes asserted that the area was occupied c. 230 BC by Carthaginian troops under the leadership of Hamilcar Barca, but this is disputed. The alleged military occupation is cited as the foundation of the modern city of Barcelona, although the northern limit of the Punic territories up to that time had been the Ebro river, located over 150 km to the south. There is no evidence that Barcelona was a Carthaginian settlement, or that its name in antiquity, had any connection with the Barcid family of Hamilcar. At least two founding myths have been proposed for Barcelona by romantic historians since the 15th century. One credits the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal, with the foundation of the city around 230 BC, giving it the name Barkenon. Despite the similarities between the name of this Carthaginian family and that of the modern city, it is accepted that the origin of the name "Barcelona" is the Iberian word Barkeno.
The second myth attributes the foundation of the city to Hercules before the foundation of Rome. During the fourth of his Labours, Hercules joins Jason and the Argonauts in search of the Golden Fleece, travelling across the Mediterranean in nine ships. One of the ships is lost in a storm off the Catalan coast, Hercules sets out to locate it, he finds with the crew saved. The crew are so taken by the beauty of the location. Information about the period from 218 BC; the Roman Republic contested the Carthaginian control of the area, set out to conquer the whole of the Iberian peninsula in the Cantabrian Wars, a conquest, declared complete by Caesar Augustus in 19 BC. The north-east of the peninsula was the first region to fall under Roman control, served as a base for further conquests. While Barcelona was settled by the Romans during this period under the name of Barcino, it was less important than the major centres of Tarraco and Caesaraugusta, the latter of, known today as Zaragoza; the name Barcino was formalised around the end of the reign of Caesar Augustus.
It was a shortened version of the name, official until Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino and Colonia Faventia. As a colonia, it was established to distribute land among retired soldiers; the Roman geographer Pomponius Mela refers to Barcino as one of a number of small settlements near Tarraco, a town wealthy in maritime resources. However, Barcino's strategic position on a branch of the Via Augusta allowed its commercial and economic development, it enjoyed immunity from imperial taxation. At the time of Caesar Augustus, Barcino had the form of a castrum, with the usual central forum and perpendicular main streets: the Cardus Maximus and the Decumanus Maximus intersecting at the top of the Táber hill, site of the Iberian Barkeno; the perimeter walls were 1.5 km long. By the 2nd century, the city had the form of an oppidum and a population of 3500–5000; the main economic activity was cultivation of the surrounding land, its wine was exported widely. The archeological remains from the period indicate a prosperous population, although the city lacked the major public buildings found in more important Roman centres such as Tarraco.
The forum's most impressive building was the temple dedicated to Caesar Augustus constructed at the start of the 1st century. It was quite large for a city the size of Barcino, measuring 35 m by 17.5 m, built on a podium surrounded by Corinthian columns. The first raids by the Germanic tribes started around 250, the fortifications of the city were improved in the years of the 3rd century under Claudius II; the new double wall was at least two metres high, up to eight metres in some parts, was punctuated by seventy-eight towers measuring up to eighteen metres high. The new fortifications were the strongest in the Roman province of the Tarraconensis, would increase the importance of Barcino compared to Tarraco. Significant vestiges of Roman Barcino can be seen in the und
Barcelona is a city in Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within city limits, its urban area extends to numerous neighbouring municipalities within the Province of Barcelona and is home to around 4.8 million people, making it the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, Madrid, the Ruhr area and Milan. It is one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of, 512 metres high. Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. After merging with the Kingdom of Aragon, Barcelona continued to be an important city in the Crown of Aragon as an economic and administrative centre of this Crown and the capital of the Principality of Catalonia.
Barcelona has a rich cultural heritage and is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination. Renowned are the architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner, which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites; the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean are located in Barcelona. The city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and many international sport tournaments. Barcelona is one of the world's leading tourist, trade fair and cultural centres, its influence in commerce, entertainment, fashion and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities, it is a major cultural and economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world and a financial centre. In 2008 it was the fourth most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union and 35th in the world with GDP amounting to €177 billion. In 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $170 billion. In 2009 the city was ranked one of the world's most successful as a city brand.
In the same year the city was ranked Europe's fourth best city for business and fastest improving European city, with growth improved by 17% per year, the city has been experiencing strong and renewed growth for the past three years. Since 2011 Barcelona has been a leading smart city in Europe. Barcelona is a transport hub, with the Port of Barcelona being one of Europe's principal seaports and busiest European passenger port, an international airport, Barcelona–El Prat Airport, which handles over 50 million passengers per year, an extensive motorway network, a high-speed rail line with a link to France and the rest of Europe; the name Barcelona comes from the ancient Iberian Barkeno, attested in an ancient coin inscription found on the right side of the coin in Iberian script as, in ancient Greek sources as Βαρκινών, Barkinṓn. Some older sources suggest that the city may have been named after the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca, supposed to have founded the city in the 3rd century BC, but there is no evidence that Barcelona was a Carthaginian settlement, or that its name in antiquity, had any connection with the Barcid family of Hamilcar.
During the Middle Ages, the city was variously known as Barchinona, Barçalona and Barchenona. Internationally, Barcelona's name is wrongly abbreviated to'Barça'. However, this name refers only to the football club; the common abbreviated form used by locals is Barna. Another common abbreviation is'BCN', the IATA airport code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport; the city is referred to as the Ciutat Comtal in Catalan, Ciudad Condal in Spanish, owing to its past as the seat of the Count of Barcelona. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear; the ruins of an early settlement have been found, including different tombs and dwellings dating to earlier than 5000 BC. The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends; the first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. The second legend attributes the foundation of the city directly to the historical Carthaginian general, Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal, who named the city Barcino after his family in the 3rd century BC, but there is no historical or linguistic evidence that this is true.
In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum centred on the "Mons Taber", a little hill near the contemporary city hall. Under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia, or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. Pomponius Mela mentions it among the small towns of the district as it was eclipsed by its neighbour Tarraco, but it may be gathered from writers that it grew in wealth and consequence, favoured as it was with a beautiful situation and an excellent harbour, it enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens. The city minted its own coins. Important Roman vestiges are displayed in Plaça del Rei underground, as a part of the Barcelona City History Museum; some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have been incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have been founded in 343; the city
A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, historical, or scientific importance. Many public museums make these items available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary; the largest museums are located in major cities throughout the world, while thousands of local museums exist in smaller cities and rural areas. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public; the goal of serving researchers is shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, children's museums. Amongst the world's largest and most visited museums are the Louvre in Paris, the National Museum of China in Beijing, the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. the British Museum and National Gallery in London, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and Vatican Museums in Vatican City.
According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries. The English "museum" comes from the Latin word, is pluralized as "museums", it is from the Ancient Greek Μουσεῖον, which denotes a place or temple dedicated to the Muses, hence a building set apart for study and the arts the Musaeum for philosophy and research at Alexandria by Ptolemy I Soter about 280 BC. The purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public. From a visitor or community perspective, the purpose can depend on one's point of view. A trip to a local history museum or large city art museum can be an entertaining and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the economic health of a city, a way to increase the sophistication of its inhabitants. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museum's mission, such as civil rights or environmentalism.
Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithson's bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge."Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of each classification of a field of knowledge for research and for display was the purpose; as American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students. By the last quarter of the 19th century, the scientific research in the universities was shifting toward biological research on a cellular level, cutting edge research moved from museums to university laboratories. While many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums. While there is an ongoing debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museum's collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect and preserve artifacts for future generations.
Much care and expense is invested in preservation efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artifacts and buildings. All museums display objects; as historian Steven Conn writes, "To see the thing itself, with one's own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting."Museum purposes vary from institution to institution. Some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects, they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a historic printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia; some seek to reach a wide audience, such as a national or state museum, while some museums have specific audiences, like the LDS Church History Museum or local history organizations. Speaking, museums collect objects of significance that comply with their mission statement for conservation and display.
Although most museums do not allow physical contact with the associated artifacts, there are some that are interactive and encourage a more hands-on approach. In 2009, Hampton Court Palace, palace of Henry VIII, opened the council room to the general public to create an interactive environment for visitors. Rather than allowing visitors to handle 500-year-old objects, the museum created replicas, as well as replica costumes; the daily activities, historic clothing, temperature changes immerse the visitor in a slice of what Tudor life may have been. This section lists the 20 most visited museums in 2015 as compiled by AECOM and the Themed Entertainment Association's annual report on the world's most visited attractions. For 2016 figures see List of most visited museums; the cities of London and Washington, D. C. contain more of the 20 most visited museums in the world than any others, with six museums and four museums, respectively. Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy individuals, families or institutions of art and rare or curious natural objects and artifacts.
These were displayed in so-called wonder rooms or cabinets of curiosities. One of the oldest museums known is Ennigaldi-Nanna's museum, built by Princess Ennigaldi at the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire; the site dates from c. 530 BCE, contained artifacts from earlier M
1888 Barcelona Universal Exposition
The 1888 Barcelona Universal Exposition was Spain's first International World's Fair and ran from May 20 to December 9, 1888. It was the first of the two held in Barcelona. Eugenio Serrano de Casanova tried to launch an exposition in 1886, when that failed, the Mayor of Barcelona, Francesc Rius i Taulet, took over the planning of the project; the fair was hosted on the reconstructed 115-acre site of the city's main public park, the Parc de la Ciutadella, with Vilaseca's Arc de Triomf forming the entrance. More than 2 million people from Spain, the rest of Europe, other international points of embarkation visited the exhibition, which made the equivalent of 1,737,000 United States dollars; the fair was opened by Maria Christina of Austria. Twenty-seven countries participated, including China and the United States; the piano manufacturer Erard sponsored a series of 20 concerts featuring Isaac Albéniz, a Catalan pianist and composer best known for his piano works based on folk music idioms. The main legacy of the 1888 World Fair is the Ciutadella Park: the World Fair served as the opportunity for Barcelona to rid itself of the hated citadel and transform it into a central park for the city's denizens.
The entire Ciutadella Park in its present layout is a product of the World Fair, with its monumental fountain and small ponds, its Castell dels tres dracs built by Domènech i Montaner to house the World Fair's café / restaurant, which served to house the Zoology Museum, the classicist Geology Museum and the Umbracle. Another product of the World Fair is the Modernista or Neo-Mudéjar Arc de Triomf, the Fair's former gateway, presiding over Passeig de Lluís Companys; the Columbus Monument, a 60 m tall monument to Christopher Columbus, was built for the exposition on the site where Columbus returned to Europe after his first voyage to the Americas. It remains standing today. 1929 Barcelona International Exposition 1992 Summer Olympics 2004 Universal Forum of Cultures L'Esquella de la Torratxa Official website of the BIE THE WORLD’S FAIR 1888 Overview / brief history of the 1888 Barcelona Universal Expo on the GenCat website