Beenkeragh or Benkeeragh is the second-highest mountain peak in Ireland, at 1,008.2 metres high. It lies to the north of Carrauntoohil in the MacGillycuddys Reeks of County Kerry, beenkeragh is joined to Carrauntoohil by a narrow ridge called The Bones. It is counted by the Scottish Mountaineering Club as a Furth, List of Furths List of mountains in Ireland
Knocknadobar is one of the main mountains of the Iveragh Peninsula in County Kerry, Ireland. Its name means mountain of the wells and is thought to refer to the four lakes on its slopes. The mountain lies northeast of Cahersiveen, just north of the N70 road, knocknadobar is famous for its stations of the cross on the path to the summit and an altar at the top where mass is said yearly. A cross beside the altar was erected in June 1884
Mullaghanattin is a summit of the Dunkerron Mountains, part of the Mountains of the Iveragh Peninsula in County Kerry, Ireland. The mountain lies southwest of Stumpa Dúloigh, the highest mountain of the Dunkerron range, with an elevation is 773 metres it is the 58th highest summit in Ireland. Mullaghanattin summit can be accessed from Tooreennahone parking, walking through gentle slopes which become very steep only for the last km
Munster is one of the provinces of Ireland situated in the south of Ireland. In early Ireland, it was one of the fifths ruled by a king of over-kings Irish, following the Norman invasion of Ireland, the ancient kingdoms were shired into counties for administrative and judicial purposes. In centuries, local government legislation has seen further sub-division of the historic counties, Munster has no official function for local government purposes. For the purposes of the ISO, the province is listed as one of the provincial sub-divisions of the State, Munster covers a total area of 24,675 km2 and has a population of 1,246,088 with the most populated city being Cork. Other significant urban centres in the province include Limerick and Waterford, in the early centuries AD, Munster was the domain of the Iverni peoples and the Clanna Dedad familial line, led by Cú Roí and to whom the king Conaire Mór belonged. In the 5th century, Saint Patrick spent several years in the area and founded Christian churches, during the Early Middle Ages, most of the area was part of the Kingdom of Munster, ruled by the Eóganachta dynasty.
Prior to this, the area was ruled by the Dáirine and Corcu Loígde overlords from the early 7th century onwards, rulers from the Eóganachta who would dominate a greater part of Ireland were Cathal mac Finguine and Feidlimid mac Cremthanin. Notable regional kingdoms and lordships of Early Medieval Munster were Iarmuman, Osraige, Uí Liatháin, Uí Fidgenti, Éile, Múscraige, Ciarraige Luachra, Corcu Duibne, Corcu Baiscinn, around this period Ossory broke away from Munster. The 10th century saw the rise of the Dalcassian clan, who had earlier annexed Thomond and their leaders were the ancestors of the OBrien dynasty and spawned Brian Boru, perhaps the most noted High King of Ireland, and several of whose descendants were High Kings. By 1118 Munster had fractured into the Kingdom of Thomond under the OBriens, the Kingdom of Desmond under the MacCarthy dynasty, the three crowns of the flag of Munster represent these three late kingdoms. The OBrien of Thomond and MacCarthy of Desmond surrendered and regranted sovereignty to the Tudors in 1543 and 1565, the impactful Desmond Rebellions, led by the FitzGeralds, soon followed.
By the mid-19th century much of the area was hit hard in the Great Famine, the province was affected by events in the Irish War of Independence in the early 20th century, and there was a brief Munster Republic during the Irish Civil War. The Irish leaders Michael Collins and earlier Daniel OConnell came from families of the old Gaelic Munster gentry, noted for its traditions in Irish folk music, and with many ancient castles and monasteries in the province, Munster is a tourist destination. During the fifth century, St. Patrick spent seven years founding churches and ordaining priests in Munster, but a fifth century bishop named Ailbe is the patron saint of Munster. In Irish mythology, a number of goddesses are associated with the province including Anann, Áine, Grian, Clíodhna, Aimend, Mór Muman, Bébinn, Aibell. Each is historically associated with certain septs of the nobility, the druid-god of Munster is Mug Ruith. The province has long had trading and cultural links with continental Europe, the tribe of Corcu Loígde had a trading fleet active along the French Atlantic coast, as far south as Gascony, importing wine to Munster.
The Eóganachta had ecclesiastical ties with Germany, which show in the architecture of their capital at the Rock of Cashel
A holy well or sacred spring is a spring or other small body of water revered either in a Christian or Pagan context, sometimes both. In Christian legend, the water is said to have been made to flow by the action of a saint. The term ‘holy-hole is sometimes employed, the terms hole and holy are etymons. However, the nature of the evidence, and the historical differences among cultures and nations. While there are a few studies of holy well lore and history, mainly concentrating on Ireland. In ancient Greece and Rome a nymphaeum or nymphaion, was a monument consecrated to the nymphs, in England, there are examples of reverence for wells and springs at a variety of historical periods. Christianity strongly affected the development of holy wells in Europe and the Middle East, St Athanasius’ Life of St Antony, written about 356–62, mentions the well created by the desert hermit Antony. Visiting of wells for therapeutic and entertainment purposes did not completely die out, however, as spas became fashionable in the 17th century, eventually antiquarians and folklorists began to take notice of holy wells and record their surviving traditions.
Over a hundred holy wells exist in Cornwall, each associated with a particular saint, several holy wells survive in Turkey, called ayazma in Turkish, from Greek ἁγίασμα, literally holiness. Examples of hagiasmata are found in the Church of St. Mary of the Spring, the Protestant Reformers of the 16th century often assumed that medieval Catholic practices embodied lingering remains of Pagan religious practices, and thought of holy wells in that way. This affected the outlook of those who came to study holy well traditions later, the pioneers of folklore study took the view that the customs and legends they were recording were debased versions of Pagan rites and myths. The magazines Wood and Water and Meyn Mamvro, among others, as far as wells themselves were concerned, the controversy emerged in the pages of Source, the holy wells journal edited by Roy Fry and former Benedictine monk Tristan Gray-Hulse. A linked argument was over the nature of the influence of the Celts on the well cult, more recently, radically minded scholars have begun questioning the unity of concepts imposed by the term ‘holy well’.
A good example is St Osyth’s Well at West Bierton, ‘restored’ by the Parish Council as part of a project marking Millennium Year in 2000. The most active wells in Britain are those linked to Christian pilgrimages, at Walsingham and Holywell. The Chalice Well at Glastonbury is at the centre of a Neopagan- and New Age-orientated spirituality, other wells, are often visited on an informal basis for religious or sightseeing reasons. New forms of holy well reverence continue to emerge now and again, in 2001 Channel 4’s archaeological television programme Time Team was responsible for exposing the infamous archaeological fraud of Llygadwy, a site which included an alleged holy well. Historiographically, the publication of Janet and Colin Bord’s Sacred Waters was influential in reviving interest in the history, the same year saw the foundation of the journal Source by Mark Valentine
A mountain range is a geographic area containing numerous geologically related mountains. A mountain system or system of ranges, sometimes is used to combine several geological features that are geographically related. Mountain ranges are usually segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys, individual mountains within the same mountain range do not necessarily have the same geologic structure or petrology. They may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earths land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the worlds longest mountain system. The Alpide belt includes Indonesia and southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, the belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges. The Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, mountain ranges outside of these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains.
If the definition of a range is stretched to include underwater mountains. The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, the sub-range relationship is often expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, and the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians. The position of mountains influences climate, such as rain or snow, when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the side, it warms again and is drier. Often, a shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are constantly subjected to forces which work to tear them down. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted and long after until the mountains are reduced to low hills, rivers are traditionally believed to be the principle erosive factor on mountain ranges, with their ability of bedrock incision and sediment transport.
The rugged topography of a range is the product of erosion. The basins adjacent to a mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. The early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example and this mass of rock was removed as the range was actively undergoing uplift
Galtymore or Galteemore is a 919 m mountain on the border between counties Limerick and Tipperary, Republic of Ireland. It is the highest of the Galty Mountains and the 14th highest peak in Ireland, Galtymore is notable in that it is the tallest inland mountain in Ireland, and the only inland peak to exceed 915 m. The townland that covers the face of Galtymore is called Knocknagalty. Galtymore is informally referred to as one of the Irish Munros and is classed as a Furth by the Scottish Mountaineering Club, Galtymore sits near the middle of the east–west Galty mountain ridge. To the east of Galtymore is Galtybeg and to the west is Slievecushnabinnia, the slopes of Galtymore are steep but the summit is broad and rocky. This is due to the constant freeze-thaw action experienced by the summit during the last ice age, the north face shows much evidence of glacial erosion. It harboured a number of glaciers, most of which are now occupied by loughs. Lough Diheen lies between Galtymore and Galtybeg, while Lough Curra lies between Galtymore and Slievecushnabinnia, Galtymore is not a difficult mountain to climb, but the Galtees are steeper than many Irish mountains and the north face is often snow-covered in the winter months.
A popular starting point for the ascent of Galtymore is the Black Road which can be accessed from the R639 road near the village of Skeheenarinky, List of Furths List of mountains in Ireland List of Irish counties by highest point