Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of sound perception. More specifically, it is the branch of science studying the psychological and physiological responses associated with sound and it can be further categorized as a branch of psychophysics. Psychoacoustics received its name from a field within psychology—i. e, recognition science—which deals with all kinds of human perceptions. It is a field of many areas, including psychology, electronic engineering, biology, physiology. These nerve pulses travel to the brain where they are perceived, the inner ear, for example, does significant signal processing in converting sound waveforms into neural stimuli, so certain differences between waveforms may be imperceptible. Data compression techniques, such as MP3, make use of this fact, in addition, the ear has a nonlinear response to sounds of different intensity levels, this nonlinear response is called loudness. Telephone networks and audio noise reduction systems make use of this fact by nonlinearly compressing data samples before transmission, another effect of the ears nonlinear response is that sounds that are close in frequency produce phantom beat notes, or intermodulation distortion products.
The expression that one hears what one wants to hear may pertain in such discussions, the human ear can nominally hear sounds in the range 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz. The upper limit tends to decrease with age, most adults are unable to hear above 16 kHz, the lowest frequency that has been identified as a musical tone is 12 Hz under ideal laboratory conditions. Tones between 4 and 16 Hz can be perceived via the sense of touch. Frequency resolution of the ear is 3.6 Hz within the octave of 1000 –2000 Hz and that is, changes in pitch larger than 3.6 Hz can be perceived in a clinical setting. However, even smaller pitch differences can be perceived through other means, for example, the interference of two pitches can often be heard as a repetitive variation in volume of the tone. This amplitude modulation occurs with a equal to the difference in frequencies of the two tones and is known as beating. The semitone scale used in Western musical notation is not a frequency scale. The intensity range of sounds is enormous.
Human ear drums are sensitive to variations in the sound pressure, for this reason, sound pressure level is measured logarithmically, with all pressures referenced to 20 µPa. The lower limit of audibility is defined as 0 dB. The upper limit is more a question of the limit where the ear will be harmed or with the potential to cause noise-induced hearing loss
Auditory imagery is a form of mental imagery that is used to organize and analyze sounds when there is no external auditory stimulus present. This form of imagery is broken up into a couple of auditory modalities such as verbal imagery or musical imagery and this modality of mental imagery differs from other sensory images such as motor imagery or visual imagery. The vividness and detail of auditory imagery can vary from person-to-person depending on their background, the accuracy of tempo within an auditory image usually suffers when recalled however the consistency of a person’s perception of tempo is preserved. When surveying subject’s auditory imagery that their sense of tempo usually stays within 8% of the original tempo heard in a song that the subject heard at some point in the past and this was shown by having subjects compare the pitch of two words in a song. For instance, people can sing through “Jingle Bells” in their head, experiments like this have shown it takes longer to compare the pitches of two words if the space between the two words is larger.
Therefore the tempo structure of the melody is preserved in the auditory image, however, if someone had musical training the person has more flexibility in his or her auditory imagery tempo representations. Humans retain a relatively strong auditory image for details in pitch, people are able to improve their discrimination of pitch, they cannot improve their detection. Auditory image pitch detection studies have shown that response time decreases when judging two high pitches as opposed to judging two low pitches, of the many aspects of sound, loudness is a characteristic of auditory imagery that is usually lost or impaired. This is evident when people attempt to image a song and there is little noticeable volume dynamics in the auditory image, according to Pitt and Crowder, the encoding of loudness into our auditory imagery was shown to have little correlation with any physiological neural factors. Other scientists such as Intons-Petersons believe that there is encoding for loudness in our auditory images that if so it most likely occurs in a motor cortex.
The auditory imagery developed from lyrics or words generally is considered a part of inner speech. When people image their voice or the voices of others it is considered inner speech and this generally refers to imagining speech which can occur when trying to remember what someone said or the sound of their voice which can be elicited voluntarily or involuntarily. Auditory verbal imagery is considered useful for practicing and organizing things people would like to say in person, for instance, practicing a speech or getting ready to sing a part in a song. Cognitive scientists are interested in finding out what brain structures are involved with mental imaging in order to provide consistent, localized. It has been established that auditory imagery makes use of the right lobe since people with right lobe lesions tend to have difficulty generating auditory images. This is because auditory imaging requires the usage of the frontal and these portions of the brain are usually involved with interpreting the inflections of sounds.
The supplementary motor area is involved in image generation and encodes motor processes to do. The activation of the motor area is relevant since it is a portion of the brain that is involved when a motor task is imagined as opposed to overly executed
Cognition is the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought and the senses. Human cognition is conscious and unconscious, concrete or abstract, as well as intuitive, cognitive processes use existing knowledge and generate new knowledge. These and other different approaches to the analysis of cognition are synthesised in the field of cognitive science. Within psychology and philosophy, the concept of cognition is closely related to concepts such as mind. It encompasses the functions, mental processes, and states of intelligent entities. It is used in a branch of psychology called social cognition to explain attitudes, attribution. In cognitive psychology and cognitive engineering, cognition is typically assumed to be processing in a participant’s or operator’s mind or brain. Cognition can in specific and abstract sense be artificial. The term cognition is often used to mean cognitive abilities or cognitive skills. The word cognition comes from the Latin verb cognosco meaning to conceptualize or to recognize, Cognition is a word that dates back to the 15th century, when it meant thinking and awareness.
Attention to the process came about more than eighteen centuries ago, beginning with Aristotle and his interest in the inner workings of the mind. Aristotle focused on cognitive areas pertaining to memory, wilhelm Wundt heavily emphasized the notion of what he called introspection, examining the inner feelings of an individual. With introspection, the subject had to be careful to describe his or her feelings in the most objective manner possible in order for Wundt to find the information scientific, Hermann Ebbinghaus conducted cognitive studies that mainly examined the function and capacity of human memory. Ebbinghaus developed his own experiment in which he constructed over 2,000 syllables made out of nonexistent words and he examined his own personal ability to learn these non-words. He purposely chose non-words as opposed to words to control for the influence of pre-existing experience on what the words might symbolize. Ebbinghaus observed and hypothesized a number of variables that may have affected his ability to learn, one of the reasons, he concluded, was the amount of time between the presentation of the list of stimuli and the recitation or recall of same.
Ebbinghaus was the first to record and plot a curve. His work heavily influenced the study of serial position and its effect on memory, mary Whiton Calkins was an influential American pioneer in the realm of psychology
Pitch can be determined only in sounds that have a frequency that is clear and stable enough to distinguish from noise. Pitch is a major attribute of musical tones, along with duration, loudness. Pitch may be quantified as a frequency, but pitch is not a purely objective physical property, Pitch is an auditory sensation in which a listener assigns musical tones to relative positions on a musical scale based primarily on their perception of the frequency of vibration. Pitch is closely related to frequency, but the two are not equivalent, frequency is an objective, scientific attribute that can be measured. Pitch is each persons subjective perception of a wave, which cannot be directly measured. However, this not necessarily mean that most people wont agree on which notes are higher and lower. Sound waves themselves do not have pitch, but their oscillations can be measured to obtain a frequency and it takes a sentient mind to map the internal quality of pitch. However, pitches are usually associated with, and thus quantified as frequencies in cycles per second, or hertz, by comparing sounds with pure tones and aperiodic sound waves can often be assigned a pitch by this method.
According to the American National Standards Institute, pitch is the attribute of sound according to which sounds can be ordered on a scale from low to high. That is, high pitch means very rapid oscillation, and low pitch corresponds to slower oscillation, despite that, the idiom relating vertical height to sound pitch is shared by most languages. At least in English, it is just one of many deep conceptual metaphors that involve up/down, the exact etymological history of the musical sense of high and low pitch is still unclear. There is evidence that humans do actually perceive that the source of a sound is slightly higher or lower in vertical space when the frequency is increased or reduced. The pitch of tones can be ambiguous, meaning that two or more different pitches can be perceived, depending upon the observer. In a situation like this, the percept at 200 Hz is commonly referred to as the missing fundamental, Pitch depends to a lesser degree on the sound pressure level of the tone, especially at frequencies below 1,000 Hz and above 2,000 Hz.
The pitch of lower tones gets lower as sound pressure increases, for instance, a tone of 200 Hz that is very loud seems one semitone lower in pitch than if it is just barely audible. Above 2,000 Hz, the pitch gets higher as the sound gets louder, theories of pitch perception try to explain how the physical sound and specific physiology of the auditory system work together to yield the experience of pitch. In general, pitch perception theories can be divided into place coding, place theory holds that the perception of pitch is determined by the place of maximum excitation on the basilar membrane. However, a purely place-based theory cannot account for the accuracy of pitch perception in the low, temporal theories offer an alternative that appeals to the temporal structure of action potentials, mostly the phase-locking and mode-locking of action potentials to frequencies in a stimulus
The physical characteristics of sound that determine the perception of timbre include spectrum and envelope. Singers and instrumental musicians can change the timbre of the music they are singing/playing by using different singing or playing techniques, for example, a violinist can use different bowing styles or play on different parts of the string to obtain different timbres. On electric guitar and electric piano, performers can change the timbre using effects units, in simple terms, timbre is what makes a particular musical sound have a different sound from another, even when they have the same pitch and loudness. For instance, it is the difference in sound between a guitar and a playing the same note at the same volume. Experienced musicians are able to distinguish between different instruments of the type based on their varied timbres, even if those instruments are playing notes at the same pitch. Tone quality and tone color are synonyms for timbre, as well as the attributed to a single instrument.
However, the texture can refer to the type of music, such as multiple. The sound of an instrument may be described with words such as bright, warm, harsh. There are colors of noise, such as pink and white, in visual representations of sound, timbre corresponds to the shape of the image. The Acoustical Society of America Acoustical Terminology definition 12, Timbre has been called. the psychoacousticians multidimensional waste-basket category for everything that cannot be labeled pitch or loudness. Many commentators have attempted to decompose timbre into component attributes, the richness of a sound or note a musical instrument produces is sometimes described in terms of a sum of a number of distinct frequencies. The lowest frequency is called the frequency, and the pitch it produces is used to name the note. The dominant frequency is the frequency that is most heard, for example, the dominant frequency for the transverse flute is double the fundamental frequency. Other significant frequencies are called overtones of the frequency, which may include harmonics.
Harmonics are whole number multiples of the frequency, such as ×2, ×3, ×4. There are sometimes subharmonics at whole number divisions of the fundamental frequency, most instruments produce harmonic sounds, but many instruments produce partials and inharmonic tones, such as cymbals and other indefinite-pitched instruments. When the tuning note in an orchestra or concert band is played, each instrument in the orchestra or concert band produces a different combination of these frequencies, as well as harmonics and overtones. The sound waves of the different frequencies overlap and combine, the timbre of a sound is greatly affected by the following aspects of its envelope, attack time and characteristics, sustain and transients
Culture in music cognition
Culture in music cognition refers to the impact that a persons culture has on their music cognition, including their preferences, emotion recognition, and musical memory. Additionally, individuals musical memory abilities are greater for culturally familiar music than for culturally unfamiliar music, the sum of these effects makes culture a powerful influence in music cognition. Culturally bound preferences and familiarity for music begin in infancy and continue through adolescence, people tend to prefer and remember music from their own cultural tradition. Familiarity for culturally regular meter styles is already in place for young infants of only a few months age. The looking times of 4- to 8-month old Western infants indicate that they prefer Western meter in music, both groups preferred either meter when compared with arbitrary meter. In addition to influencing preference for meter, culture affects peoples ability to correctly identify music styles, adolescents from Singapore and the UK rated familiarity and preference for excerpts of Chinese and Indian music styles.
Neither group demonstrated a preference for the Indian music samples, although the Singaporean teenagers recognized them, an individuals musical experience may affect how they formulate preferences for music from their own culture and other cultures. American and Japanese individuals both indicated preference for Western music, but Japanese individuals were more receptive to Eastern music, among the participants, there was one group with little musical experience and one group that had received supplemental musical experience in their lifetimes. Bimusicalism is a phenomenon in which people well-versed and familiar with music from two different cultures exhibit dual sensitivity to both genres of music. In contrast, the Western and Indian participants more successfully recognized music from their own culture and these results indicate that everyday exposure to music from both cultures can result in cognitive sensitivity to music styles from those cultures. Bilingualism typically confers specific preferences for the language of lyrics in a song, Spanish speakers identified most closely with the Spanish song.
Thus, the language of lyrics interacts with a listeners culture, the cue-redundancy model of emotion recognition in music differentiates between universal, structural auditory cues and culturally bound, learned auditory cues. Structural cues that span all musical traditions include such as pace, loudness. Fast tempo, for example, is associated with happiness, regardless of a listeners cultural background. Culture-specific cues rely on knowledge of the conventions in a musical tradition. A particular timbre may be interpreted to reflect one emotion by Western listeners, according to the cue-redundancy model, individuals exposed to music from their own cultural tradition utilize both psychophysical and culturally bound cues in identifying emotionality. Conversely, perception of intended emotion in unfamiliar music relies solely on universal, psychophysical properties, Japanese listeners accurately categorize angry and happy musical excerpts from familiar traditions and relatively unfamiliar traditions.
Simple, fast melodies receive joyful ratings from these participants, slow samples receive sad ratings, strong relationships between emotional judgments and structural acoustic cues suggest the importance of universal musical properties in categorizing unfamiliar music
Eye movement in music reading
Eye movement in music reading is the scanning of a musical score by a musicians eyes. This usually occurs as the music is read during performance, although musicians sometimes scan music silently to study it, the phenomenon has been studied by researchers from a range of backgrounds, including cognitive psychology and music education. A central aspect of reading is the sequence of alternating saccades and fixations. Saccades are the rapid ‘flicks’ that move the eyes from location to location over a music score, saccades are separated from each other by fixations, during which the eyes are relatively stationary on the page. It is well established that the perception of information occurs almost entirely during fixations. Fixations comprise about 90% of music reading time, typically averaging 250–400 ms in duration, despite some 30 studies in this area over the past 70 years, little is known about the underlying patterns of eye movement in music reading. However, it is here that the similarities end.
It is this uniquely strict temporal requirement in musical performance that has made the observation of eye movement in music reading fraught with more difficulty than that in language reading, another critical difference between reading music and reading language is the role of skill. Most people become reasonably efficient at language reading by adulthood, even though almost all language reading is sight reading, by contrast, some musicians regard themselves as poor sight readers of music even after years of study. It is therefore unsurprising that most research into eye movement in reading has aimed to compare the eye movement patterns of the skilled. From the start, there were problems with eye-tracking equipment. The five earliest studies used photographic techniques and these systems were sensitive to even small movement of the head or body, which appear to have significantly contaminated the data. In addition to head movement, researchers faced other physical. The musculoskeletal response required to play a musical instrument involves substantial body movement, usually of the hands and this can upset the delicate balance of tracking equipment and confound the registration of data.
The disadvantage of this behaviour is that it causes signal dropout in the data every time it occurs, when participants are prevented from looking down at their hands, typically the quality of their performance is degraded. Rayner & Pollatsek wrote that, even skilled musicians naturally look at their hands at times, accurate eye movement recording these head movements. Musicians often need appreciable training with the apparatus before their eye movements can be measured, since Lang, all reported studies into eye movement in music reading, aside from Smith, appear to have used infrared tracking technology. However, research into the field has mostly been conducted using less than optimal equipment and this has had a pervasive negative impact on almost all research up until a few recent studies
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes. It examines the nature, the tasks, and the functions of cognition, Cognitive scientists study intelligence and behavior, with a focus on how nervous systems represent and transform information. The typical analysis of cognitive science spans many levels of organization, from learning and decision to logic and planning, the fundamental concept of cognitive science is that thinking can best be understood in terms of representational structures in the mind and computational procedures that operate on those structures. The cognitive sciences began as a movement in the 1950s often referred to as the cognitive revolution. A central tenet of science is that a complete understanding of the mind/brain cannot be attained by studying only a single level. An example would be the problem of remembering a phone number, one approach to understanding this process would be to study behavior through direct observation, or naturalistic observation. A person could be presented with a number and be asked to recall it after some delay of time.
Then, the accuracy of the response could be measured, another approach to measure cognitive ability would be to study the firings of individual neurons while a person is trying to remember the phone number. Neither of these experiments on its own would fully explain how the process of remembering a phone number works, thus, an understanding of how these two levels relate to each other is imperative. ”This can be provided by a functional level account of the process. Studying a particular phenomenon from multiple levels creates a better understanding of the processes that occur in the brain to give rise to a particular behavior, Cognitive scientists work collectively in hope of understanding the mind and its interactions with the surrounding world much like other sciences do. Similarly to the field of psychology, there is doubt whether there is a unified cognitive science. Many, but not all, who consider themselves cognitive scientists hold a functionalist view of the view that mental states and processes should be explained by their function - what they do.
According to the multiple realizability account of functionalism, even non-human systems such as robots, the term cognitive in cognitive science is used for any kind of mental operation or structure that can be studied in precise terms. The earliest entries for the word cognitive in the OED take it to mean roughly pertaining to the action or process of knowing, the first entry, from 1586, shows the word was at one time used in the context of discussions of Platonic theories of knowledge. Most in cognitive science, presumably do not believe their field is the study of anything as certain as the knowledge sought by Plato, Cognitive science is a large field, and covers a wide array of topics on cognition. However, it should be recognized that science has not always been equally concerned with every topic that might bear relevance to the nature. Among philosophers, classical cognitivists have largely de-emphasized or avoided social and cultural factors, consciousness, animal cognition, with the decline of behaviorism, internal states such as affects and emotions, as well as awareness and covert attention became approachable again.
For example and embodied cognition theories take into account the current state of the environment as well as the role of the body in cognition
Music and emotion
The study of music and emotion seeks to understand the psychological relationship between human affect and music. The field draws upon and has significant implications for areas as philosophy, music theory and aesthetics, as well the acts of musical composition. Two of the most influential philosophers in the aesthetics of music are Stephen Davies, Davies terms his concept the expressiveness of emotions in music appearance emotionalism, which holds that music expresses emotion without feeling it. Objects can convey emotion because their structures can contain certain characteristics that resemble emotional expression, the resemblance that counts most for musics expressiveness. is between musics temporally unfolding dynamic structure and configurations of human behaviour associated with the expression of emotion. The observer can note emotions from the posture, gestures, attitude. Associations between musical features and emotion differ among individuals, appearance emotionalism claims many listeners perceiving associations constitutes the expressiveness of music.
Which musical features are commonly associated with which emotions is part of music psychology. Davies claims that expressiveness is a property of music and not subjective in the sense of being projected into the music by the listener. Musics expressiveness is certainly response-dependent, i. e. it is realized in the listeners judgement, the philosopher Jenefer Robinson assumes the existence of a mutual dependence between cognition and elicitation in her description of emotions as process, music as process theory. This series of events continually exchanges with new, incoming information and these simultaneous musical processes can reinforce or conflict with each other and thus express the way one emotion morphs into another over time. The ability to perceive emotion in music is said to develop early in childhood, the capacity to perceive emotion in music is subject to cultural influences, and both similarities and differences in emotion perception have been observed in cross-cultural studies.
Empirical research has looked at which emotions can be conveyed as well as what structural factors in music help contribute to the emotional expression. There are two schools of thought on how we interpret emotion in music, the cognitivists approach argues that music simply displays an emotion, but does not allow for the personal experience of emotion in the listener. Emotivists argue that music elicits real emotional responses in the listener, segmental features are the individual sounds or tones that make up the music, this includes acoustic structures such as duration and pitch. Suprasegmental features are the structures of a piece, such as melody, tempo. There are a number of musical features that are highly associated with particular emotions. Performance features refers to the manner in which a piece of music is executed by the performer and these are broken into two categories, performer skills and performer state. Performer skills are the ability and appearance of the performer, including physical appearance, reputation
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, embracing all aspects of conscious and unconscious experience as well as thought. It is a discipline and a social science which seeks to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perception, attention, intelligence, motivation, brain functioning, and personality. This extends to interaction between people, such as relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, and other areas. Psychologists of diverse orientations consider the unconscious mind, Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. Psychology has been described as a hub science, with psychological findings linking to research and perspectives from the sciences, natural sciences, humanities.
By many accounts psychology ultimately aims to benefit society, the majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a range of topics related to mental processes and behavior. The word psychology derives from Greek roots meaning study of the psyche, the Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Marulić in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century. In 1890, William James defined psychology as the science of mental life and this definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades. Also since James defined it, the more strongly connotes techniques of scientific experimentation. Folk psychology refers to the understanding of people, as contrasted with that of psychology professionals. The ancient civilizations of Egypt, China, historians note that Greek philosophers, including Thales and Aristotle, addressed the workings of the mind.
As early as the 4th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders had physical rather than supernatural causes, in China, psychological understanding grew from the philosophical works of Laozi and Confucius, and from the doctrines of Buddhism. This body of knowledge involves insights drawn from introspection and observation and it frames the universe as a division of, and interaction between, physical reality and mental reality, with an emphasis on purifying the mind in order to increase virtue and power. Chinese scholarship focused on the advanced in the Qing Dynasty with the work of Western-educated Fang Yizhi, Liu Zhi. Distinctions in types of awareness appear in the ancient thought of India, a central idea of the Upanishads is the distinction between a persons transient mundane self and their eternal unchanging soul. Divergent Hindu doctrines, and Buddhism, have challenged this hierarchy of selves, yoga is a range of techniques used in pursuit of this goal
Functional magnetic resonance imaging
Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI is a functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow. This technique relies on the fact that blood flow and neuronal activation are coupled. When an area of the brain is in use, blood flow to that increases. The primary form of fMRI uses the blood-oxygen-level dependent contrast, discovered by Seiji Ogawa and this measure is frequently corrupted by noise from various sources and hence statistical procedures are used to extract the underlying signal. The resulting brain activation can be presented graphically by color-coding the strength of activation across the brain or the specific region studied, the technique can localize activity to within millimeters but, using standard techniques, no better than within a window of a few seconds. Other methods of obtaining contrast are arterial spin labeling and diffusion MRI, the latter procedure is similar to BOLD fMRI but provides contrast based on the magnitude of diffusion of water molecules in the brain. FMRI is used both in the world, and to a lesser extent, in the clinical world.
It can be combined and complemented with other measures of brain physiology such as EEG, newer methods which improve both spatial and time resolution are being researched, and these largely use biomarkers other than the BOLD signal. Some companies have developed products such as lie detectors based on fMRI techniques. The fMRI concept builds on the earlier MRI scanning technology and the discovery of properties of oxygen-rich blood, MRI brain scans use a strong, static magnetic field to align nuclei in the brain region being studied. Another magnetic field, the gradient field, is applied to spatially locate different nuclei. Finally, a pulse is played to kick the nuclei to higher magnetization levels. When the RF field is removed, the nuclei go back to their states. MRI thus provides a static view of brain matter. The central thrust behind fMRI was to extend MRI to capture changes in the brain caused by neuronal activity. Differences in magnetic properties between arterial and venous blood provided this link, since the 1890s it has been known that changes in blood flow and blood oxygenation in the brain are closely linked to neural activity.
When neurons become active, local blood flow to those regions increases. This rises to a peak over 4–6 seconds, before falling back to the original level, oxygen is carried by the hemoglobin molecule in red blood cells
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time. The common elements of music are pitch, dynamics, different styles or types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. The word derives from Greek μουσική, Ancient Greek and Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies. Common sayings such as the harmony of the spheres and it is music to my ears point to the notion that music is often ordered and pleasant to listen to. However, 20th-century composer John Cage thought that any sound can be music, for example, There is no noise, the creation, performance and even the definition of music vary according to culture and social context. There are many types of music, including music, traditional music, art music, music written for religious ceremonies. For example, it can be hard to draw the line between some early 1980s hard rock and heavy metal, within the arts, music may be classified as a performing art, a fine art or as an auditory art.
People may make music as a hobby, like a teen playing cello in a youth orchestra, the word derives from Greek μουσική. According to the Online Etymological Dictionary, the music is derived from mid-13c. Musike, from Old French musique and directly from Latin musica the art of music and this is derived from the. Greek mousike of the Muses, from fem. of mousikos pertaining to the Muses, from Mousa Muse. In classical Greece, any art in which the Muses presided, Music is composed and performed for many purposes, ranging from aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, or as an entertainment product for the marketplace. With the advent of recording, records of popular songs. Some music lovers create mix tapes of their songs, which serve as a self-portrait. An environment consisting solely of what is most ardently loved, amateur musicians can compose or perform music for their own pleasure, and derive their income elsewhere. Professional musicians sometimes work as freelancers or session musicians, seeking contracts and engagements in a variety of settings, There are often many links between amateur and professional musicians.
Beginning amateur musicians take lessons with professional musicians, in community settings, advanced amateur musicians perform with professional musicians in a variety of ensembles such as community concert bands and community orchestras. However, there are many cases where a live performance in front of an audience is recorded and distributed. Live concert recordings are popular in classical music and in popular music forms such as rock, where illegally taped live concerts are prized by music lovers