MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create a collaborative music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as ALAC, FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.

MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.

This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.

Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.

Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDexMicrosoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player JaikozJava mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound JuicerGNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of

Engineering Research Associates

Engineering Research Associates known as ERA, was a pioneering computer firm from the 1950s. ERA became famous for their numerical computers, but as the market expanded they became better known for their drum memory systems, they were purchased by Remington Rand and merged into their UNIVAC department. Many of the company founders left to form Control Data Corporation; the ERA team started as a group of scientists and engineers working for the US Navy during WWII on code-breaking, a division known as the Communications Supplementary Activity - Washington. After the war budgets were cut for most military projects, including CSAW. Joseph Wenger of the Navy's cryptoanalytic group was worried that the CSAW team would spread to various companies and the Navy would lose their ability to design new machines. Wenger and two members of the CSAW team, William Norris and Howard Engstrom, started looking for investors interested in supporting the development of a new computer company, their only real lead, at Kuhn, Loeb & Co. fell through.

They met John Parker, an investment banker who had run Northwest Aeronautical Corporation, a glider subsidiary of Chase Aircraft, in St. Paul, Minnesota. NAC was in the process of shutting down as the war ended most contracts, Parker was looking for new projects to keep the factory running, he was told nothing about the work the team would do, but after being visited by a series of high-ranking naval officers culminating with James Forrestal, he knew "something" was up and decided to give it a try. Norris and their group incorporated ERA in January, 1946, hired forty of their codebreaking colleagues, moved to the NAC factory. During the early years, the company took on any engineering work that came their way, but were kept in business developing new code-breaking machines for the Navy. Most of the machines were custom-built to crack a specific code, used magnetic drum memory in order to process and analyze the coded texts. To ensure secrecy, the factory was declared to be a Navy Reserve base, armed guards were posted at the entrance.

ERA's numerous military and intelligence projects contributed to Minnesota's becoming "the Land of 10,000 Top-Secret Computer Projects." Their first machine, completed in 1947, used a crude drum made by gluing magnetic tape to the surface of a large metal cylinder that could be spun at 50 RPM for reading. Over the next few years, the drum memory systems increased in capacity and speed, along with the paper tape readers needed to feed the data onto the drums, they ended up in a major patent fight with Technitrol Engineering, who introduced a drum memory of their own in 1952. One of the follow-on machines, was built to crack a specific Soviet code. In 1949 the code was changed. James Pendergrass, a Navy officer attached to the codebreaking unit, had attended a series of lectures at the Moore School of Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania in 1946, became convinced the only lasting solution to the code breaking problem was a computer that could be re-programmed to work on different tasks.

In 1947 the Navy awarded ERA a contract, "Task 13", to develop what was destined to be the first stored program computer in the U. S; the machine, known as the Atlas, used drum memory and was delivered in 1950. ERA started to sell it commercially as the ERA 1101, 1101 being binary for 13. Before delivery of the Atlas, the Navy asked for a more powerful machine using both Williams tubes and drum memory, a machine known as the Atlas II. Work began in 1950 and the completed Atlas II was delivered to the still-secret NSA in September 1953. In 1950, ERA published High-speed Computing Devices, a 450-page textbook that summarized the state of computer technology at that time, it describes the basic components of digital logic, the devices and circuits used to build these components, the principles of computer design and programming. This book was a revision of a report submitted to the Office of Naval Research, omitting references to cryptography. One of the book's most successful predictions concerned the transistor, invented at Bell Laboratories: "It will be competitive with the electron tube in total cost per stage."

ERA looked to selling similar machines to a number of customers, but at about this time they became embroiled in a lengthy series of political maneuvering in Washington. Drew Pearson's Washington Merry-Go-Round claimed that the founding of ERA was a conflict of interest for Norris and Engstrom because they had used their war-time government connections to set up a company for their own profit; the resulting legal fight left the company drained, both emotionally. In 1952 they were purchased by Remington Rand as a result of these problems. Remington Rand had a computing division however, after they had purchased the Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation in 1950. For a time the two companies operated as independent units within Remington, with ERA focusing on scientific and military customers, while Eckert–Mauchly's UNIVACs were sold to business customers. However, in 1955 Remington merged with Sperry Corporation to become Sperry Rand. Both ERA and Eckert–Mauchly were folded into a single division as Sperry-UNIVAC.

Much of ERA's work was dropped. A number of employees were not happy with this move and decamped to form Control Data Corporation under the leadership of Norris. Among them was Seymour Cray, who went on to design supercomputers and create Cray Computer


Ty21a is a live attenuated bacterial vaccine that protects against typhoid. First licensed in Europe in 1983 and in the United States in 1989, it is an orally administered, live-attenuated Ty2 strain of S. Typhi in which multiple genes, including the genes responsible for the production of Vi, have been mutated chemically so as to render it harmless but immunogenic, it is one of the three typhoid vaccines recommended by the World Health Organization. The vaccine is given by mouth; the vaccine is presented either as a liquid suspension. The vaccine must be stored at 2 to 8 °C, but will retain its potency for 14 days at 25 °C; the vaccine offers a statistically significant protection for the first seven years. The vaccine is most used to protect travelers to endemic countries, but some agencies claim that the vaccine could be used in large scale public prevention programs; the Vi polysaccharide vaccine is effective at preventing typhoid fever. The recommended dose varies according to preparation.

At least three doses are required for protection. In the US and Canada, an initial course of 4 doses on alternate days is recommended. Full protection is achieved 7 days after the last dose. In the US, a booster dose is recommended after 5 years. In Canada, a booster dose is recommended after 7 years. In Australia and Europe, an initial course of 3 doses on alternate days is recommended. Protection is achieved 7 days after the last dose. A booster dose is recommended every 3 years for people living in endemic areas, but every year for people traveling from non-endemic to endemic areas. Side effects of this vaccine are rare. Vivotif A newer Vi-rEPA vaccine is being tested for preventing typhoid fever, it has a similar level of protection. Manufacturer's Product Page