Jean-Luc Picard is a fictional character in the Star Trek franchise, most seen as the Captain of the starship USS Enterprise-D. He appears in the television series Star Trek: The Next Generation, the feature films Star Trek Generations, Star Trek: First Contact, Star Trek: Insurrection, Star Trek: Nemesis, is planned to feature as the central character in a forthcoming Star Trek show, he is portrayed by actor Patrick Stewart. After the success of the contemporary Star Trek feature films, a new Star Trek television series featuring a new cast was announced on October 10, 1986. Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry named Picard for one or both of the twin brothers Auguste Piccard and Jean Felix Piccard, 20th-century Swiss scientists. Patrick Stewart, who has a background of theatre at the Royal Shakespeare Company, was considered for the role of Data. Roddenberry did not want to cast Stewart as Picard, since he had envisioned an actor, "masculine and had a lot of hair". Roddenberry's first choice was Stephen Macht, it took "weeks of discussion" with Robert H. Justman, Rick Berman, the casting director to convince him that "Stewart was the one they had been looking for to sit in the captain's chair".
The other actors considered included Patrick Bauchau, Roy Thinnes and Mitchell Ryan. Stewart was uncertain why the producers would cast'a middle-aged bald English Shakespearean actor' as captain of the Enterprise, he had his toupee delivered from London to meet with Paramount executives, but Roddenberry ordered Stewart to remove the "awful looking" hairpiece. Stewart's stentorian voice impressed the executives, who approved the casting. Roddenberry sent Stewart C. S. Forester's Horatio Hornblower novels, saying the Picard character was based on Hornblower, but Stewart was familiar with the character, having read the books as a teenager; as the series progressed, Stewart exercised more control over the character's development. By the time production began on the first Next Generation film, "it was impossible to tell where JeanLuc started and Patrick Stewart ended", by the fourth film, Stewart stated: I find myself talking a lot about Picard and one of the things that I've come to understand is that as I talk a lot about Picard what I find is I’m talking about myself.
There was a sort of double action. In one sense Picard was expanding like this and at the same time he was growing closer and closer to me as well and in some respect I suppose had some influence on me. I became a better listener than I had been as a result of playing Jean Luc Picard because it was one of the things that he does terrifically well. However, Stewart stated that he is not nearly as brooding as his alter ego. Stewart stated, "One of the delights of having done this series and played this role is that people are so attracted to the whole idea of Star Trek... several years after the series has ended... I enjoy hearing how much people enjoyed the work we did... It's always gratifying to me that this bald, middle-aged Englishman seems to connect with them". Stewart has commented, he has noted the "regular presence of Trekkies in the audience" whenever he plays theater, added: "I meet these people afterwards, I get letters from them and see them at the stage door... And they say,'I've never seen Shakespeare before, I didn't think I'd understand it, but it was wonderful and I can't wait to come back.'"
A new Star Trek series was announced by CBS All Access, Alex Kurtzman and Patrick Stewart in July 2018. Stewart has been cast to reprise his role as Picard; the series is set to release near the end of 2019. Jean-Luc Picard was introduced on television in 1987, in the debut episode "Encounter at Farpoint" of Star Trek:The Next Generation. In this science fiction television show, he is the captain of a manned spacecraft of the fictional organization Starfleet as it visits various exoplanets and aliens, it is set in the late 24th century, Jean-Luc must balance the challenges of people and technology. As a character in the Star Trek franchise, Picard appears in various books, computer games, films throughout the 1990s and a variety of merchandise, he is portrayed as being moved by a desire to explore the universe and with a strong sense of duty, however he has misgivings about not having a family. The close-knit crew of the Enterprise provides his main friendships; some of his interests, as presented by show include space exploration, Shakespeare and earl grey tea.
Famous episodes featuring the Jean Luc Picard character include "Best of Both Worlds", "Yesterday's Enterprise", "Family", "All Good Things...", "Inner Light". Actor Patrick Stewart noted of the character "During these past years, it has been humbling to hear many stories about how ‘The Next Generation’ brought people comfort, saw them through difficult periods in their lives or how the example of Jean-Luc inspired so many to follow in his footsteps, pursuing science and leadership.." Jean-Luc Picard was born to Maurice and Yvette Picard in La Barre, France, on 13 July 2305. As a child, he dreamed of joining Starfleet, he and the rest of his family speak English, with English accents—the French language having become obscure by the 24th century, as mentioned in the Next Generation episode "Code of Honor". Suspiciously, Picard has a number of British habits, including the regular consumption of Earl Grey tea, a fondness for Shakespeare, which he performs - authentically enough given the origins of The Bard, riding horses with English ta
Digital audio is sound, recorded in, or converted into, digital form. In digital audio, the sound wave of the audio signal is encoded as numerical samples in continuous sequence. For example, in CD audio, samples are taken 44100 times per second each with 16 bit sample depth. Digital audio is the name for the entire technology of sound recording and reproduction using audio signals that have been encoded in digital form. Following significant advances in digital audio technology during the 1970s, it replaced analog audio technology in many areas of audio engineering and telecommunications in the 1990s and 2000s. In a digital audio system, an analog electrical signal representing the sound is converted with an analog-to-digital converter into a digital signal using pulse-code modulation; this digital signal can be recorded, edited and copied using computers, audio playback machines, other digital tools. When the sound engineer wishes to listen to the recording on headphones or loudspeakers, a digital-to-analog converter performs the reverse process, converting a digital signal back into an analog signal, sent through an audio power amplifier and to a loudspeaker.
Digital audio systems may include compression, storage and transmission components. Conversion to a digital format allows convenient manipulation, storage and retrieval of an audio signal. Unlike analog audio, in which making copies of a recording results in generation loss and degradation of signal quality, digital audio allows an infinite number of copies to be made without any degradation of signal quality. Digital audio technologies are used in the recording, mass-production, distribution of sound, including recordings of songs, instrumental pieces, sound effects, other sounds. Modern online music distribution depends on digital recording and data compression; the availability of music as data files, rather than as physical objects, has reduced the costs of distribution. Before digital audio, the music industry distributed and sold music by selling physical copies in the form of records and cassette tapes. With digital-audio and online distribution systems such as iTunes, companies sell digital sound files to consumers, which the consumer receives over the Internet.
An analog audio system converts physical waveforms of sound into electrical representations of those waveforms by use of a transducer, such as a microphone. The sounds are stored on an analog medium such as magnetic tape, or transmitted through an analog medium such as a telephone line or radio; the process is reversed for reproduction: the electrical audio signal is amplified and converted back into physical waveforms via a loudspeaker. Analog audio retains its fundamental wave-like characteristics throughout its storage, transformation and amplification. Analog audio signals are susceptible to noise and distortion, due to the innate characteristics of electronic circuits and associated devices. Disturbances in a digital system do not result in error unless the disturbance is so large as to result in a symbol being misinterpreted as another symbol or disturb the sequence of symbols, it is therefore possible to have an error-free digital audio system in which no noise or distortion is introduced between conversion to digital format, conversion back to analog.
A digital audio signal may optionally be encoded for correction of any errors that might occur in the storage or transmission of the signal. This technique, known as channel coding, is essential for broadcast or recorded digital systems to maintain bit accuracy. Eight-to-fourteen modulation is a channel code used in the audio compact disc. A digital audio system starts with an ADC; the ADC converts at a known bit resolution. CD audio, for example, has a sampling rate of 44.1 kHz, has 16-bit resolution for each stereo channel. Analog signals that have not been bandlimited must be passed through an anti-aliasing filter before conversion, to prevent the aliasing distortion, caused by audio signals with frequencies higher than the Nyquist frequency. A digital audio signal may be transmitted. Digital audio can be stored on a CD, a digital audio player, a hard drive, a USB flash drive, or any other digital data storage device; the digital signal may be altered through digital signal processing, where it may be filtered or have effects applied.
Sample-rate conversion including upsampling and downsampling may be used to conform signals that have been encoded with a different sampling rate to a common sampling rate prior to processing. Audio data compression techniques, such as MP3, Advanced Audio Coding, Ogg Vorbis, or FLAC, are employed to reduce the file size. Digital audio can be carried over digital audio interfaces such as AES3 or MADI. Digital audio can be carried over a network using audio over Ethernet, audio over IP or other streaming media standards and systems. For playback, digital audio must be converted back to an analog signal with a DAC which may use oversampling. Pulse-code modulation was invented by British scientist Alec Reeves in 1937 and was used in telecommunications applications long before its first use in commercial broadcast and recording. Commercial digital recording was pioneered in Japan by NHK and Nippon Columbia and their Denon brand, in the 1960s; the first commercial digital recordings were released in 1971.
The BBC began to experiment with digital audio in the 1960s. By the early 1970s, it had developed a 2-channel recorder
In computing, a desktop environment is an implementation of the desktop metaphor made of a bundle of programs running on top of a computer operating system, which share a common graphical user interface, sometimes described as a graphical shell. The desktop environment was seen on personal computers until the rise of mobile computing. Desktop GUIs help the user to access and edit files, while they do not provide access to all of the features found in the underlying operating system. Instead, the traditional command-line interface is still used when full control over the operating system is required. A desktop environment consists of icons, toolbars, folders and desktop widgets. A GUI might provide drag and drop functionality and other features that make the desktop metaphor more complete. A desktop environment aims to be an intuitive way for the user to interact with the computer using concepts which are similar to those used when interacting with the physical world, such as buttons and windows.
While the term desktop environment described a style of user interfaces following the desktop metaphor, it has come to describe the programs that realize the metaphor itself. This usage has been popularized by projects such as the Common Desktop Environment, K Desktop Environment, GNOME. On a system that offers a desktop environment, a window manager in conjunction with applications written using a widget toolkit are responsible for most of what the user sees; the window manager supports the user interactions with the environment, while the toolkit provides developers a software library for applications with a unified look and behavior. A windowing system of some sort interfaces directly with the underlying operating system and libraries; this provides support for graphical hardware, pointing devices, keyboards. The window manager runs on top of this windowing system. While the windowing system may provide some window management functionality, this functionality is still considered to be part of the window manager, which happens to have been provided by the windowing system.
Applications that are created with a particular window manager in mind make use of a windowing toolkit provided with the operating system or window manager. A windowing toolkit gives applications access to widgets that allow the user to interact graphically with the application in a consistent way; the first desktop environment was sold with the Xerox Alto in the 1970s. The Alto was considered by Xerox to be a personal office computer. With the Lisa, Apple introduced a desktop environment on an affordable personal computer, which failed in the market; the desktop metaphor was popularized on commercial personal computers by the original Macintosh from Apple in 1984, was popularized further by Windows from Microsoft since the 1990s. As of 2014, the most popular desktop environments are descendants of these earlier environments, including the Aero environment used in Windows Vista and Windows 7, the Aqua environment used in macOS; when compared with the X-based desktop environments available for Unix-like operating systems such as Linux and FreeBSD, the proprietary desktop environments included with Windows and macOS have fixed layouts and static features, with integrated "seamless" designs that aim to provide consistent customer experiences across installations.
Microsoft Windows dominates in marketshare among personal computers with a desktop environment. Computers using Unix-like operating systems such as macOS, Chrome OS, Linux, BSD or Solaris are much less common. Among the more popular of these are Google's Chromebooks and Chromeboxes, Intel's NUC, the Raspberry Pi, etc. On tablets and smartphones, the situation is the opposite, with Unix-like operating systems dominating the market, including the iOS, Tizen and Ubuntu. Microsoft's Windows phone, Windows RT and Windows 10 are used on a much smaller number of tablets and smartphones. However, the majority of Unix-like operating systems dominant on handheld devices do not use the X11 desktop environments used by other Unix-like operating systems, relying instead on interfaces based on other technologies. On systems running the X Window System, desktop environments are much more dynamic and customizable to meet user needs. In this context, a desktop environment consists of several separate components, including a window manager, a file manager, a set of graphical themes, together with toolkits and libraries for managing the desktop.
All these individual modules can be exchanged and independently configured to suit users, but most desktop environments provide a default configuration that works with minimal user setup. Some window managers—such as IceWM, Openbox, ROX Desktop and Window Maker—contain sparse desktop environment elements, such as an integrated spatial file manager, while others like evilwm and wmii do not provide such elements. Not all of the program code, part of a desktop environment has effects which are directly visible to the user; some of it may be low-level code. KDE, for example, provides so-called KIO slaves which give the user access to a wide range of virtual devices; these I/O slaves are not av
A tag editor is a piece of software that supports editing metadata of multimedia file formats, rather than the actual file content. These are taggers for common audio tagging formats like ID3, APE, Vorbis comments, but can be taggers for JPEG, PDF and TIFF metadata. A common purpose of tag editors is to correct or update metadata and enable sorting and grouping of multimedia files, for example music collections; this happens in a batch processing mode so that one doesn't have to manually edit every file on its own. Media players such as iTunes, Foobar2000 or Winamp, as well as dedicated tag editing programs allow users to manually edit tag and song file information, including composer and release year. Dedicated tag editors may feature batch creating tags from file names and vice versa. One type of tag editor compares the existing metadata in an audio file's tags with the information from online music databases, such as Gracenote, freedb, Zortam Music Internet Database or MusicBrainz. Once a match is found, complementary metadata information may be downloaded.
This process is semi-automatic. An acoustic fingerprint is a unique code generated from an audio waveform. Depending upon the particular algorithm, acoustic fingerprints can be used to automatically categorize or identify an audio sample. Practical uses of acoustic fingerprinting include broadcast monitoring, identification of music and ads being played, peer-to-peer network monitoring, sound effect library management, video identification. In hash function, for audio identification, such as finding out whether an MP3 file matches one of a list of known items, one could use a conventional hash function such as MD5, but this would be sensitive to likely perturbations such as time-shifting, CD read errors, different compression algorithms or implementations or changes in volume. Using something like MD5 is useful as a first pass to find exactly-identical files, but another, more advanced algorithm is required to find all items that would nonetheless be interpreted as identical by a human listener.
The following is a list of tag editors. Media players have tag editing capabilities and are not included. Free and open-source: EasyTag – Supports MP3, MP2, FLAC, Ogg, MP4, Musepack MPC and Monkey's Audio formats. Available for Linux and Windows. Ex Falso – Supports MP3, Ogg, FLAC, Wavpack, MP4, WMA, MIDI, Monkey’s Audio. Available for Windows, Mac OS, FreeBSD. Kid3 – Supports MP3, Ogg/Vorbis, FLAC, MPC, MP4/AAC, MP2, Speex, TrueAudio, WavPack, WMA, WAV, AIFF files and tracker modules formats. Available for FreeBSD, Mac OS and Windows. MusicBrainz Picard – Supports MP3, Ogg, FLAC, WavPack, OptimFROG, Monkey's Audio, MP4, Windows Media Audio. Available for FreeBSD, Mac OS and Windows. Puddletag – Supports FLAC, APE, MP3, MPEG-4, MPC, OGG, OptimFROG, TAK, WMA, WavPack. Available for FreeBSD and Linux. Vorbiscomment and lltag are popular CLI tools for Linux. Proprietary software: File Explorer – has limited tag editing capabilities on supported file formats such as MP3 and WMA Jaikoz – Commercial package, available for Windows, Linux and OS X that uses the MusicBrainz database for auto-tagging.
Supports embedded auto-lyrics. Mp3tag – Freeware for Windows. Supports FLAC, APE, MP3, MPEG-4, MPC, OGG, OptimFROG, TAK, WMA, WavPack. ID3-TagIT -- free but proprietary software supporting ID3v1.1, ID3v2.3 and ID3v2.4 tags. Development stopped in 2013. Version 3.2.1 can still be found. Free and open-source: jBrout – Available for Linux and Windows ExifTool – Available for Windows, Linux and OS X DigiKam – Available for Linux, FreeBSD, OS X and Windows F-Spot – Available for Unix-like OSes gThumb – Available for Unix-like OSes Shotwell – Available for Unix-like Proprietary software: iPhoto – Available for OS X IrfanView – Available for Windows, Linux and OS X File Explorer has limited tag editing capabilities on MP4 and WMV files
Compact disc is a digital optical disc data storage format, co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982. The format was developed to store and play only sound recordings but was adapted for storage of data. Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage, rewritable media, Video Compact Disc, Super Video Compact Disc, Photo CD, PictureCD, CD-i, Enhanced Music CD; the first commercially available audio CD player, the Sony CDP-101, was released October 1982 in Japan. Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 millimetres and can hold up to about 80 minutes of uncompressed audio or about 700 MiB of data; the Mini CD has various diameters ranging from 60 to 80 millimetres. At the time of the technology's introduction in 1982, a CD could store much more data than a personal computer hard drive, which would hold 10 MB. By 2010, hard drives offered as much storage space as a thousand CDs, while their prices had plummeted to commodity level. In 2004, worldwide sales of audio CDs, CD-ROMs and CD-Rs reached about 30 billion discs.
By 2007, 200 billion CDs had been sold worldwide. From the early 2000s CDs were being replaced by other forms of digital storage and distribution, with the result that by 2010 the number of audio CDs being sold in the U. S. had dropped about 50% from their peak. In 2014, revenues from digital music services matched those from physical format sales for the first time. American inventor James T. Russell has been credited with inventing the first system to record digital information on an optical transparent foil, lit from behind by a high-power halogen lamp. Russell's patent application was filed in 1966, he was granted a patent in 1970. Following litigation and Philips licensed Russell's patents in the 1980s; the compact disc is an evolution of LaserDisc technology, where a focused laser beam is used that enables the high information density required for high-quality digital audio signals. Prototypes were developed by Sony independently in the late 1970s. Although dismissed by Philips Research management as a trivial pursuit, the CD became the primary focus for Philips as the LaserDisc format struggled.
In 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the Red Book CD-DA standard was published in 1980. After their commercial release in 1982, compact discs and their players were popular. Despite costing up to $1,000, over 400,000 CD players were sold in the United States between 1983 and 1984. By 1988, CD sales in the United States surpassed those of vinyl LPs, by 1992 CD sales surpassed those of prerecorded music cassette tapes; the success of the compact disc has been credited to the cooperation between Philips and Sony, which together agreed upon and developed compatible hardware. The unified design of the compact disc allowed consumers to purchase any disc or player from any company, allowed the CD to dominate the at-home music market unchallenged. In 1974, Lou Ottens, director of the audio division of Philips, started a small group with the aim to develop an analog optical audio disc with a diameter of 20 cm and a sound quality superior to that of the vinyl record.
However, due to the unsatisfactory performance of the analog format, two Philips research engineers recommended a digital format in March 1974. In 1977, Philips established a laboratory with the mission of creating a digital audio disc; the diameter of Philips's prototype compact disc was set at 11.5 cm, the diagonal of an audio cassette. Heitaro Nakajima, who developed an early digital audio recorder within Japan's national public broadcasting organization NHK in 1970, became general manager of Sony's audio department in 1971, his team developed a digital PCM adaptor audio tape recorder using a Betamax video recorder in 1973. After this, in 1974 the leap to storing digital audio on an optical disc was made. Sony first publicly demonstrated an optical digital audio disc in September 1976. A year in September 1977, Sony showed the press a 30 cm disc that could play 60 minutes of digital audio using MFM modulation. In September 1978, the company demonstrated an optical digital audio disc with a 150-minute playing time, 44,056 Hz sampling rate, 16-bit linear resolution, cross-interleaved error correction code—specifications similar to those settled upon for the standard compact disc format in 1980.
Technical details of Sony's digital audio disc were presented during the 62nd AES Convention, held on 13–16 March 1979, in Brussels. Sony's AES technical paper was published on 1 March 1979. A week on 8 March, Philips publicly demonstrated a prototype of an optical digital audio disc at a press conference called "Philips Introduce Compact Disc" in Eindhoven, Netherlands. Sony executive Norio Ohga CEO and chairman of Sony, Heitaro Nakajima were convinced of the format's commercial potential and pushed further development despite widespread skepticism; as a result, in 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. Led by engineers Kees Schouhamer Immink and Toshitada Doi, the research pushed forward laser and optical disc technology. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the task force produced the Red Book CD-DA standard. First published in 1980, the stand
RealNetworks, Inc. is a provider of Internet streaming media delivery software and services based in Seattle, United States. The company provides subscription-based online entertainment services and mobile entertainment and messaging services. RealNetworks was founded in 1994 by an ex-Microsoft executive, Rob Glaser and a management team including Phil Barrett, Andy Sharpless, Stephen Buerkle; the original goal of the company was to provide a distribution channel for politically progressive content. It evolved into a technology venture to leverage the Internet as an alternative distribution medium for audio broadcasts. Progressive Networks became RealNetworks in September 1997. RealNetworks are pioneers in the streaming media markets and broadcast one of the earlier audio events over the Internet — a baseball game between the New York Yankees and Seattle Mariners — on September 5, 1995, they announced streaming video technology in 1997. According to some accounts, by 2000, more than 85% of streaming content on the Internet was in the Real format.
Despite this success, problems arose because Real's primary business model depended upon the sale of streaming media server software, Microsoft and Apple were giving those products away. As servers from Microsoft and Apple became more capable, Real's server sales eroded. On January 20, 2000, RealNetworks, Inc. filed an injunction against Streambox, Inc. regarding the aforementioned company's product designed to convert Real Audio formatted files to other formats. On December 4, 2001, the company was to launch the first coordinated effort to sell and deliver music from major record labels over the Internet, part of a broader initiative by the company to develop subscription Internet services aimed at Web users with fast Internet connections. In 2002, a strategic alliance was formed between RealNetworks and Sony Corporation to expand collaboration. In October, 2005, Microsoft agreed to pay RealNetworks $460 million to settle an antitrust lawsuit. In August 2003, RealNetworks acquired Listen.com's Rhapsody music service, renamed it RealRhapsody.
It offered streaming music downloads for a monthly fee. In January 2004, RealNetworks announced the RealPlayer Music Store, featuring digital rights management restricted music in the AAC file format. After some initial tries to push their own DRM scheme onto all device manufacturers with the Creative Zen Xtra and the Sansa e200r as the only existing compliant devices, they sparked controversy by introducing a technology called Harmony that allowed their music to play on iPods as well as Microsoft Windows Media Audio DRM-equipped devices using a "wrapper" that would convert Helix DRM into the two other target DRM schemes; the domain real.com attracted at least 67 million visitors annually by 2008, according to a Compete.com study. On April 6, 2010, Rhapsody was spun off from RealNetworks. In July 2013, RealNetworks acquired Slingo for $15.6 million. The company introduced a mobile phone app called Listen in April 2014 that plays custom ringtones to those calling the user's phone. RealNetworks has its headquarters in Seattle, Washington in the Home Plate Center building in SoDo across from Safeco Field, sharing the building with King5 and Logic 20/20 Consulting.
In 2000, one of the initial products, the download manager RealDownload, was used for pushing small software, such as games, to subscribers' computers. On top of the subscription for RealDownload and using its RealVideo streaming technology, a service called GoldPass, including unlimited access for video snippets from ABC and movie previews, was offered to registered users for a monthly $10 fee. More content was added through deals with CBS for the reality show Big NBA basketball. After the dot-com bubble, RealNetworks cut most of the resources; some of the content was lost, some were limited to local markets, e.g. Ministry of Sound was available only to UK subscribers. With the increase in broadband usage, RealNetworks started offering live broadcasts of CNN International, BBC World, Al-Jazeera etc. separately for prices between $6 and $12, or bundled in the SuperPass for about $35 a month depending on the market. Between 2003 and 2006, SuperPass included, for European subscribers, unlimited access to UEFA Champions League full-length game recordings.
On September 30, 2008, RealNetworks launched a new product called RealDVD. The software allows any user to save a copy of a DVD movie they own; the company was found to have violated the Digital Millennium Copyright Act and RealNetworks' contract with the DVD Copy Control Association, as the software allowed anyone to save a movie they do not own.. The product's distribution was barred by a court injunction. Real Alternative is a discontinued software bundle that allows users to play RealMedia files without installing RealPlayer; the last version, 2.02, was released on February 19, 2010. It included Media Player Classic. Beginning in 2010, RealNetworks sued Hilbrand Edskes, a 26-year-old Dutch webmaster for having inserted hyperlinks to Real Alternative on his site www.codecpack.nl. RealNetworks alleges. Meanwhile, Download.com and FileHippo continue to host the software product, unchallenged. In November 2011 RealNetworks' case against Edskes was dismissed and RealNetworks was ordered to pay him €48,000 in damages.
Details of the case and judgement have been published. RealNetworks in September 2013 launched RealPlayer Cloud, a service that adds the ability to share videos recorded on smartphones and tablets. RealPlayer Cloud ties into the existing RealPlayer, however it has a Web app and apps for Android, iOS and Roku; the service has 2GB of free c
KDE is an international free software community developing Free and Open Source software. As a central development hub, it provides tools and resources that allow collaborative work on this kind of software. Well-known products include the Plasma Desktop, KDE Frameworks and a range of cross-platform applications like Krita or digikam designed to run on Unix and Unix-like desktops, Microsoft Windows and Android. Being one of KDE's most recognized projects, the Plasma Desktop is the official / default desktop environment on many Linux distributions, such as openSUSE, Mageia, OpenMandriva, Kubuntu, KaOS and PCLinuxOS; the KDE community and its work can be measured in the following figures: KDE is one of the largest active Free Software communities. More than 2500 contributors participate in developing KDE software. About 20 new developers contribute their first code each month. KDE software consists of over 6 million lines of code. KDE software has been translated into over 108 languages. KDE software is available on more than 114 official FTP mirrors in over 34 countries.
A read-only mirror of all repositories can be found on Github. There are many free software projects maintained by the KDE community; the project known as KDE or KDE SC nowadays consists of three parts: KDE Plasma, a platform UI that provides the base for different workspaces like Plasma Desktop or Plasma Mobile KDE Frameworks, a collection of more than 70 free-to-use libraries built on top of Qt KDE Applications KDE Plasma is a user interface technology that can be adjusted to run on various form factors like desktops, netbooks and smartphones or embedded devices. The brand Plasma for the graphical workspaces has been introduced from KDE SC 4.4 onwards. During the fourth series there have been two additional workspaces besides the Plasma 4 Desktop called Plasma Netbook and Plasma Active; the latest KDE Plasma 5 features the following workspaces: Plasma Desktop for any mouse or keyboard driven computing devices like desktops or laptops Plasma Mobile for smartphones Plasma Minishell for embedded and touch-enabled devices, like IoT or automotive Plasma Media Center for TVs and set-top boxes KDE Frameworks provide more than 70 free and open-source libraries built on top of Qt.
Starting with Qt 5, this platform was transformed into a set of modules, now referred to as KDE Frameworks. These modules include: Solid, Phonon, etc. and are licensed either under the LGPL, BSD license, MIT License or X11 license. KDE Applications is a bundle of software, part of the official KDE Applications release. Like Okular, Dolphin or KDEnlive, they are built on KDE Frameworks and released on a 4 months schedule with the version numbering consisting of YY. MM. Software, not part of the official KDE Applications bundle can be found in the "Extragear" section, they feature their own versioning numbers. There are many standalone applications like KTorrent, Krita or Amarok that are designed to be portable between operating systems and deployable independent of a particular workspace or desktop environment; some brands consist of multiple applications, such as KDE Kontact. KDE neon is a software repository, it aims to provide the users with updated Qt and KDE software, while updating the rest of the OS components from the Ubuntu repositories at the normal pace.
KDE maintains that it is not a "KDE distribution," but rather an up-to-date archive of KDE and Qt packages. There is two "Developer" editions of KDE Neon. WikiToLearn, abbreviated WTL, is one of KDE's newer endeavors, it is a wiki that provides a platform to share open source textbooks. The idea is to have a massive library of textbooks for anyone and everyone to create, its roots lay in University of Milan, where a group of physics majors wanted to share notes—then decided that it was for everyone and not just their internal friend group. They have become an official KDE project with several universities backing it. Like many free/open source projects, developing KDE software is a volunteer effort, although various companies, such as Novell, Nokia, or Blue Systems employ or employed developers to work on various parts of the project. Since a large number of individuals contribute to KDE in various ways (e.g. code