Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, reviews and style, is known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres, it hosts events, owns a publishing firm, operates several TV shows. Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows, created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music.
After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, has since been owned by various parties. The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, 1894, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, was known as Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production. The first issues were just eight pages long; the paper had columns like "The Bill Room Gossip" and "The Indefatigable and Tireless Industry of the Bill Poster". A department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896; the title was changed to The Billboard in 1897. After a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegan's interest in the business in 1900 for $500 to save it from bankruptcy.
That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris, re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in 1901. Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism and new shows, it had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, a sub-section called "Freaks to order". According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism"; as railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers. The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them.
This service was first introduced in 1904, became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. By 1914, there were 42,000 people using the service, it was used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. In the 1960s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1,500 letters per week. In 1920, Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers. Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. According to his grandson, Donaldson established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Donaldson died in 1925. Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph, record players, wireless radios.
It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in 1899, created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March 1932. Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in 1907, but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety, it created a radio broadcasting station in the 1920s. The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression, was advertised in Billboard, which led to more editorial focus on music; the proliferation of the phonograph and radio contributed to its growing music emphasis. Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, 1936, introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January 1939. In 1940, it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, was followed by a chart for jukebox records in 1944 called Music Box Machine charts. By the 1940s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication; the number of charts it published grew after World War II, due to a growing variety of music interests and genres.
It had eight charts by 1987, covering different genres and formats, 28 charts by 1994. By 1943, Billboard had about 100 employees; the magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in 1946 to New York City in 1948. A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November 1950 and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January 1963, allowing for photojournalis
Dance Club Songs
The Dance Club Songs chart is a weekly chart published by Billboard in the United States. It is a national survey of the songs which are the most popular in nightclubs across the country and is compiled from reports from a national sample of disc jockeys, it was launched as the Disco Action Top 30 chart on August 28, 1976, became the first chart by Billboard to document the popularity of dance music. Since its inception, several artists garnered multiple achievements. In January 2017, Billboard proclaimed Madonna as the most successful artist in the history of the chart, ranking her first in their list of the 100 top all time dance artists and Janet Jackson being the second most successful dance club artist of all-time. Katy Perry holds the record for having eighteen consecutive number-one songs. Perry's third studio album, Teenage Dream, became the first album in the history of the chart to produce at least seven number-one songs between 2010–12, a record it held until Rihanna's eighth studio album Anti produced seven chart toppers through 2016-17.
Rihanna is the only artist to have achieved five number-one songs in a calendar year. The first number-one song on the Dance Club Songs chart for the issue dated August 28, 1976, was "You Should Be Dancing" by the Bee Gees; the current number-one song on the Dance Club Songs chart for the issue dated April 13, 2019, is "The Boss 2019" by Diana Ross. Dance Club Songs has undergone several incarnations since its inception in 1974. A top-ten list of tracks that garnered the largest audience response in New York City discothèques, the chart began on October 26, 1974 under the title Disco Action; the chart went on to feature playlists from various cities around the country from week to week. Billboard continued to run regional and city-specific charts throughout 1975 and 1976 until the issue dated August 28, 1976, when a thirty-position National Disco Action Top 30 premiered; this expanded to forty positions in 1979 the chart expanded to sixty positions eighty, reached 100 positions from 1979 until 1981, when it was reduced to eighty again.
During the first half of the 1980s the chart maintained eighty slots until March 16, 1985 when the Disco charts were splintered and renamed. Two charts appeared: Hot Dance/Disco, which ranked club play, Hot Dance Music/Maxi-Singles Sales, which ranked 12-inch single sales. Only Hot Dance Club Songs still exists today. In 2003 Billboard introduced the Hot Dance Airplay chart, based on radio airplay of six dance music stations and top 40 mix shows electronically monitored by Nielsen Broadcast Data Systems; these stations are a part of the electronically monitored panel that encompasses the Hot 100. On January 26, 2013, Billboard added a new chart, Dance/Electronic Songs, which tracks the 50 most popular Dance and Electronic singles and tracks based on digital single sales, radio airplay, club play as reported on the component Dance/Electronic Digital Songs, Dance/Electronic Streaming Songs, Dance Club Songs charts. Radio airplay is not limited to that counted on the Dance/Mix Show Airplay chart.
Although the disco chart began reporting popular songs in New York City nightclubs, Billboard soon expanded coverage to feature multiple charts each week which highlighted playlists in various cities such as San Francisco, San Diego, Los Angeles, Phoenix and Houston. During this time, Billboard rival publication Record World was the first to compile a dance chart which incorporated club play on a national level. Noted Billboard statistician Joel Whitburn has since "adopted" Record Worlds chart data from the weeks between March 29, 1975 and August 21, 1976 into Billboards club play history. For the sake of continuity, Record Worlds national chart is incorporated into both Whitburn's Dance/Disco publication as well as the 1975 and 1976 number-ones lists. With the issue dated August 28, 1976, Billboard premiered its own national chart and their data is used from this date forward. For the full list of all 100 All Time Top Dance Club Artists, click here. 19th week — "Wordy Rappinghood"/"Genius of Love" by Tom Tom Club 19th week — "Walking on a Dream" by Empire of the Sun 17th week — "Losing It" by Fisher 16th week — "The Look of Love" by ABC 16th week — "Most Precious Love" by Blaze presents U.
D. A. U. F. L. Featuring Barbara Tucker 16th week — "Where Have You Been" by Rihanna 16th week — "Right Now" by Rihanna featuring David GuettaSources: Thriller by Michael Jackson "The Boss" — Diana Ross, The Braxtons, Kristine W, again Diana Ross. Enrique Iglesias, Dave Audé and Pitbull are tied with 14 number-ones on the chart, the most among male artists. Iglesias, however, is the only male vocalist to accomplish this feat, while Audé is the only producer to achieve this milestone, as his singles feature a different vocalist. Rihanna is the first artist to earn 4 number-ones on the chart in a year and is the first act to earn 5 number-ones in a year as well. Three acts have attained thirteen number-one songs: Deborah Cox, Whitney Houston, Yoko Ono. Kylie Minogue became the first act to have two songs in the top three on March 5, 2011, her song "Better than Today" was number-one while "Higher", a song by Taio Cruz on which Minogue features, was number three. On July 28, 2016, Rihanna became the secon
Show business, sometimes shortened to show biz or showbiz, is a vernacular term for all aspects of the entertainment industry. From the business side, the term applies to the creative element and was in common usage throughout the 20th century, although the first known use in print dates from 1850. At that time and for several decades, it included an initial the. By the latter part of the century, it had acquired a arcane quality associated with the era of variety, but the term is still in active use. In modern entertainment industry, it is associated with the fashion industry and acquiring intellectual property rights from the invested research in the entertainment business; the global media and entertainment market, including motion pictures, television programs and commercials, streaming content and audio recordings, radio, book publishing, video games, ancillary services and products) was worth $1.72 trillion in 2015, $1.9 trillion in 2016, with extrapolations ranging to $2.14 trillion by 2020.
About one third of the total is made up by the U. S. entertainment industry, the largest M&E in the world. The entertainment sector can be split up into the following subsectors: Amusement parks Animation Circus Event management Film Gambling Game manufacturers Home video and home video distributors Music Sex business Talent agency Theatre production The industry segment is covered by class "R" of the International Standard Industrial Classification: "Arts and recreation" Creative industries Cultural industry Cultural technology Light entertainment List of show business families Outline of entertainment This Is Show Business, television series running from 1949 to 1956 Show Business magazine, since 1941 "There's No Business Like Show Business"
Mainstream Top 40
The Mainstream Top 40 is a 40-song music chart published weekly by Billboard Magazine which ranks the most popular songs being played on a panel of Top 40 radio stations in the United States. The rankings are based on radio airplay detections as measured by Nielsen Broadcast Data Systems, a subsidiary of the U. S.' Leading marketing research company. Consumer researchers, Nielsen Audio, refers to the format as contemporary hit radio; the chart debuted in Billboard Magazine in its issued date October 3, 1992, with the introduction of two Top 40 airplay charts and Rhythm-Crossover. Both Top 40 charts measured "actual monitored airplay" from data compiled by Broadcast Data Systems; the Top 40/Mainstream chart was compiled from airplay on radio stations playing a wide variety of music, while the Top 40/Rhythm-Crossover chart was made up from airplay on stations playing more dance and R&B music. Both charts were "born of then-new BDS electronic monitoring technology" as a more objective and precise way of measuring airplay on radio stations.
This data was used as the airplay component for Hot 100 tabulations. Top 40/Mainstream was published in the print edition of Billboard from its debut in October 1992 through May 1995, when both Top 40 charts were moved to Airplay Monitor, a secondary chart publication by Billboard, they returned to the print edition in the August 2003, issue. Songs on the chart are ranked by the total number of spins detected per week. Songs which gain plays or remain flat from the previous week will receive a bullet. A song will receive a bullet if its percentage loss in plays does not exceed the percentage of monitored station downtime for the format. If two songs are tied in total plays, the song with the larger increase in plays is placed first. There are forty positions on this chart and it is based on radio airplay. A number of Top 40 Mainstream radio stations are electronically monitored 24 hours a day, seven days a week by Nielsen Broadcast Data Systems. Songs are ranked by a calculation of the total number of spins per week with its "audience impression", based upon exact times of airplay and each station's Arbitron listener data.
Songs receiving the greatest growth will receive a "bullet", although there are tracks that will get bullets if the loss in detections doesn't exceed the percentage of downtime from a monitored station. "Airpower" awards are issued to songs that appear on the top 20 of both the airplay and audience chart for the first time, while the "greatest gainer" award is given to song with the largest increase in detections. A song with six or more spins in its first week is awarded an "airplay add". If a song is tied for the most spins in the same week, the one with the biggest increase that previous week will rank higher, but if both songs show the same amount of spins regardless of detection the song, being played at more stations is ranked higher. Since the introduction of the chart until 2005, songs below No. 20 were moved to recurrent after 26 weeks on the chart. In the chart week of December 3, 2005, songs below No. 20 were moved to recurrent after 20 weeks on the chart. Since the issue dated December 4, 2010, songs older than 20 weeks on the chart are moved to recurrent after they drop below No. 15.
Whereas the Top 40 Mainstream and Pop 100 Airplay charts both measured the airplay of songs played on Mainstream stations playing pop-oriented music, the Pop 100 Airplay measured airplay based on statistical impressions, while the Top 40 Mainstream chart used the number of total detections. On October 19, 2017, the Mainstream Top 40 co-hosts, Gary Trust and Trevor Anderson, gave hints as to what the number 1 all-time Mainstream Top 40 song was going to be on the charts; that day, the top 100 all-time songs and the top 50-all time artists were released, with the number 1 all-time song being revealed as "Another Night" by Real McCoy. Shown below are the top 10 artists from each chart. Source: Source: Source: The year indicates. Katy Perry Mariah Carey Maroon 5 P!nk, Rihanna Ace of Base, Taylor Swift Bruno Mars Justin Timberlake Christina Aguilera Boyz II Men, Beyoncé Source: Rihanna Nicki Minaj Britney Spears Chris Brown Pitbull Mariah Carey Lil Wayne Source: Mariah Carey: December 9, 1995"One Sweet Day" "Fantasy"OutKast: January 31 - February 7, 2004"Hey Ya!"
"The Way You Move" Pharrell Williams: July 27 - August 3, 2013"Blurred Lines" "Get Lucky" Iggy Azalea: June 28 - July 12, 2014"Fancy" "Problem" Halsey: February 23 - March 9, 2019"Without Me" "Eastside" Source: Mariah Carey — "Fantasy" → "One Sweet Day" OutKast — "Hey Ya!" → "The Way You Move" Iggy Azalea — "Fancy" → "Problem" † Halsey — "Without Me" → "Eastside" † Iggy Azalea is the only act in Mainstream Top 40 history to replace herself at number one with her first two chart entries. Source: Lady Gaga is the only artist to have her first six singles reach No. 1. Britney Spears holds the record for the longest span between No. 1s at 12 years, seven months and four days between her first No.1 and her latest. JoJo at age 13, became the youngest solo artist to have a numbe
R&B/Hip-Hop Airplay is a chart published by Billboard magazine that ranks the top R&B and hip hop songs in the United States, based on audience impressions from a panel of radio stations monitored by Nielsen Broadcast Data Systems. It was used in sister publication R&R, which listed the chart as Urban National Airplay; the chart is not the R&B/hip-hop subset of the Hot 100 Airplay chart, but rather uses a separate panel of R&B stations in urban and urban adult contemporary markets. It was the primary airplay component chart of the Billboard Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart until the issue dated October 20, 2012, when Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs was revamped to include digital sales and airplay from all radio formats; the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Airplay chart encompasses two separate airplay charts, both of which are based on radio spins rather than audience impressions: Mainstream R&B/Hip-Hop and Adult R&B Airplay, which measure airplay on urban contemporary and urban adult contemporary stations respectively.
There are fifty positions on the chart, based on radio airplay. 77 R&B and hip-hop radio stations are electronically monitored 24 hours a day, seven days a week by Nielsen Broadcast Data Systems. Songs are ranked by a calculation of the total number of spins per week with its audience impression, based upon exact times of airplay and each station's Arbitron listener data. Songs receiving the greatest growth will receive a "bullet", although there are tracks that will get bullets if the loss in detections does not exceed the percentage of downtime from a monitored station. "Airpower" awards are issued to songs that appear on the top 20 of both the airplay and audience chart for the first time, while the "greatest gainer" award is given to song with the largest increase in detections. A song with six or more spins in its first week is awarded an "airplay add". If a song is tied for the most spins in the same week, the one with the biggest increase that previous week will rank higher, but if both songs show the same amount of spins regardless of detection the song, being played at more stations is ranked higher.
Songs that fall below the top 20 and have been on the chart after 26 weeks are removed and go to recurrent status. 23 weeks"Adorn" – Miguel 15 weeks"Hotline Bling" – Drake "Be Without You" – Mary J. Blige "Boo'd Up" – Ella Mai 14 weeks"We Belong Together" – Mariah Carey "Blame It" – Jamie Foxx featuring T-Pain "Pretty Wings" - Maxwell "Hold On, We're Going Home" - Drake featuring Majid Jordan13 weeks"Can't Be Friends" – Trey Songz song"Earned It" - The Weeknd "You're Makin' Me High" – Toni Braxton "Trip" – Ella Mai12 weeks"End of the Road" - Boyz II Men "You Make Me Wanna..." - Usher "Single Ladies" - Beyoncé "Un-Thinkable" - Alicia Keys "Blurred Lines" - Robin Thicke featuring T. I. and Pharrell Williams11 weeks"Lost Without U" - Robin Thicke "I'm on One" - DJ Khaled "Climax" - Usher " 5th week"Irreplaceable" - Beyoncé 6th week"Single Ladies" - Beyoncé "Blame It" - Jamie Foxx featuring T-Pain "Drunk in Love" - Beyoncé featuring Jay Z 16th week"Bitch Better Have My Money" - Rihanna "Adorn" by Miguel is the only song to spend at least 20 weeks atop the chart.
Billboard reported that the track was able to do so because the R&B/Hip-Hop Airplay chart reporting panel is composed of a variety of mainstream and adult R&B radio stations. Skip Dillard, the operations manager at adult R&B WBLS New York, stated that Miguel appeals to listeners in both the 25-34 and 35-54 age groups, thus maximizing the reach of his audience. "Adorn" went on to spend a total of 23 weeks at a record. Alicia Keys holds the record for the most number-ones among female acts, with eight. Beyoncé follows with seven, Brandy with five and Aaliyah, Erykah Badu and Mariah Carey, all three of whom have attained four; the 1993 single "That's the Way Love Goes" by American singer Janet Jackson holds the record for being the only song in the history of the chart to debut at number one, which did so in May 1993. Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Airplay at Billboard BDS R&B/Hip-Hop Airplay Chart
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
A magazine is a publication a periodical publication, printed or electronically published. Magazines are published on a regular schedule and contain a variety of content, they are financed by advertising, by a purchase price, by prepaid subscriptions, or a combination of the three. At its root, the word "magazine" refers to a storage location. In the case of written publication, it is a collection of written articles; this explains why magazine publications share the word root with gunpowder magazines, artillery magazines, firearms magazines, and, in French, retail stores such as department stores. By definition, a magazine paginates with each issue starting at page three, with the standard sizing being 8 3⁄8 in × 10 7⁄8 in. However, in the technical sense a journal has continuous pagination throughout a volume, thus Business Week, which starts each issue anew with page one, is a magazine, but the Journal of Business Communication, which starts each volume with the winter issue and continues the same sequence of pagination throughout the coterminous year, is a journal.
Some professional or trade publications are peer-reviewed, an example being the Journal of Accountancy. Academic or professional publications that are not peer-reviewed are professional magazines; that a publication calls itself a journal does not make it a journal in the technical sense. Magazines can be distributed through the mail, through sales by newsstands, bookstores, or other vendors, or through free distribution at selected pick-up locations; the subscription business models for distribution fall into three main categories. In this model, the magazine is sold to readers for a price, either on a per-issue basis or by subscription, where an annual fee or monthly price is paid and issues are sent by post to readers. Paid circulation allows for defined readership statistics; this means that there is no cover price and issues are given away, for example in street dispensers, airline, or included with other products or publications. Because this model involves giving issues away to unspecific populations, the statistics only entail the number of issues distributed, not who reads them.
This is the model used by many trade magazines distributed only to qualifying readers for free and determined by some form of survey. Because of costs associated with the medium of print, publishers may not distribute free copies to everyone who requests one; this allows a high level of certainty that advertisements will be received by the advertiser's target audience, it avoids wasted printing and distribution expenses. This latter model was used before the rise of the World Wide Web and is still employed by some titles. For example, in the United Kingdom, a number of computer-industry magazines use this model, including Computer Weekly and Computing, in finance, Waters Magazine. For the global media industry, an example would be VideoAge International; the earliest example of magazines was Erbauliche Monaths Unterredungen, a literary and philosophy magazine, launched in 1663 in Germany. The Gentleman's Magazine, first published in 1731, in London was the first general-interest magazine. Edward Cave, who edited The Gentleman's Magazine under the pen name "Sylvanus Urban", was the first to use the term "magazine," on the analogy of a military storehouse.
Founded by Herbert Ingram in 1842, The Illustrated London News was the first illustrated magazine. The oldest consumer magazine still in print is The Scots Magazine, first published in 1739, though multiple changes in ownership and gaps in publication totalling over 90 years weaken that claim. Lloyd's List was founded in Edward Lloyd's England coffee shop in 1734. Under the ancient regime, the most prominent magazines were Mercure de France, Journal des sçavans, founded in 1665 for scientists, Gazette de France, founded in 1631. Jean Loret was one of France's first journalists, he disseminated the weekly news of music and Parisian society from 1650 until 1665 in verse, in what he called a gazette burlesque, assembled in three volumes of La Muse historique. The French press lagged a generation behind the British, for they catered to the needs the aristocracy, while the newer British counterparts were oriented toward the middle and working classes. Periodicals were censored by the central government in Paris.
They were not quiescent politically—often they criticized Church abuses and bureaucratic ineptitude. They supported the monarchy and they played at most a small role in stimulating the revolution. During the Revolution, new periodicals played central roles as propaganda organs for various factions. Jean-Paul Marat was the most prominent editor, his L'Ami du peuple advocated vigorously for the rights of the lower classes against the enemies of the people Marat hated. After 1800 Napoleon reimposed strict censorship. Magazines flourished after Napoleon left in 1815. Most were based in Paris and most emphasized literature and stories, they served religious and political communities. In times of political crisis they expressed and helped shape the views of their readership and thereby were major