Music for the Masses is the sixth studio album by English electronic music band Depeche Mode. It was released on 28 September 1987 by Mute Records; the album was supported by the Music for the Masses Tour. Daniel Miller, who had produced Depeche Mode's previous album, voluntarily stepped away from production duties for this album, citing the growing tension in the studio that they had experienced during the recording of Black Celebration. With Miller's approval, the band co-produced the album with David Bascombe, who had worked as a recording engineer with Tears for Fears and Peter Gabriel. Band members Andy Fletcher and Martin Gore both explained the album's title was conceived as a joke. Fletcher said, "The title's... a bit tongue-in-cheek, really. Everyone is telling us we should make more commercial music, so that's the reason we chose that title." According to Gore, the title "was a joke on the uncommerciality of. It was anything but music for the masses!" The megaphone on the album's cover was used during the breadth of the album's release: at press events, on the covers of the album's singles, during the tour.
Alan Wilder gave credit to Martyn Atkins, a longtime Depeche Mode collaborator, for the use of the megaphone. " up with this idea of a speaker, but, to give the kind of ironic element which the title has, to put this speaker in a setting which wasn't to do with the masses at all. It was, in fact, the opposite. So you end up with this kind of eerie thing where you get these speakers or megaphones in the middle of a setting that doesn't suit it at all, like a desert or whatever." The deserted natural setting in question was Peak District. An early alternative cover was rejected for the album; the rejected cover was designed by Martyn Atkins and a test pressing copy was auctioned off by Wilder in 2011. It features a white-and-orange stylised design of the megaphone emitting sound waves. In 2006, Music for the Masses became one of the first Depeche Mode albums to be released on a special two-disc SACD/CD Hybrid + DVD format, in the vein of their 2005 album Playing the Angel, which had a limited edition SACD + DVD release.
The format was the same as Playing the Angel's, the first disc had a special digitally remastered version of the album, while the DVD had the album on three formats plus bonus tracks, a documentary on the album. The re-release preserves the album as it was intended. Thus, the four bonus tracks do not appear on the SACD, but appear on the DVD; the DVD features all B-sides from the Music for the Masses era, but unlike the album and the bonus tracks, the B-sides are only available in PCM Stereo. The documentary, a 37-minute short film titled Depeche Mode: 1987–88, is an extensive look at the album, featuring commentary from a wide variety of people, including the current Depeche Mode, former member Wilder, producer David Bascombe, Daniel Miller, Daryl Bamonte, Martyn Atkins, Anton Corbijn, others; the documentary features new facts on the album, an extensive look at the film 101. The re-release was released on 3 April 2006 in Europe; the US version was delayed to 2 June 2006 and is only available on a CD + DVD format, with no SACD.
The DVD on all the versions are region independent however, so one can import the SACD version without worrying about the DVD being incompatible. The remastered album was released on vinyl on 2 March 2007 in Germany and 5 March 2007 internationally; the album received favourable reviews upon release. Robert Christgau complimented the abnormal road symbolism of the lyrics on "Little 15", believed that apart from the sadomasochistic metaphors, Depeche Mode succeeded in turning "adolescent Weltschmerz into something catchy and significant". NME's Jane Solanas felt Gore was "at his obsessive best" on Music for the Masses on "Never Let Me Down Again", which she called "an intriguing masterpiece, combining homo-eroticism with drug euphoria." In a less enthusiastic review, Paul Mathur from Melody Maker was ambivalent towards the group's more mature, minimalist aesthetic and said although they had departed from their simpler pop sound, the record was "seamless, and, once the lights are out dull."In a retrospective review, Q magazine found the narratives on Music for the Masses to be among Depeche Mode's most uncertain and contemplative, that most of its songs were "real diamonds in the darkness... this was the point at which Depeche Mode were first taken seriously."
Slant Magazine's Sal Cinquemani said that Music for the Masses showed the gloomier side of the "post-punk synthpop" scene during the 1980s and was a success with both critics and consumers. Alternative Press called the record "articulate, intricate electronic music that lacked the tinny feel of DM's early synth pop". Music for the Masses was listed by Slant Magazine at number 75 on their list of "Best Albums of the 1980s". All tracks are written except where noted. On the CD, there is a 20-second pause in between "Pimpf" and "Interlude #1", followed by a 30-second pause in between "Interlude #1" and "Agent Orange". On some copies of the cassette the album is presented on side 1 with the four bonus tracks comprising the entirety of side 2. Disc one is a hybrid SACD/CD with a multi-channel SACD layer. Disc two is a DVD containing Music for the Masses in DTS 5.1, Dolby Digital 5.1 and PCM Stereo plus bonus material Credits adapted from the liner notes of Music for the Masses. Andrew Fletcher Martin Gore Alan Wilder David Gahan Depeche Mode – production David Bascombe – production
The Dublin Forum was a political project based in Ireland's capital city, Dublin. It was founded by Kevin Byrne as an initiative of the Fianna Fáil political party, to provide a new structure for the involvement of those who are interested in politics and want a forum to express their ideas and concerns and participate in debate and policy development; the Dublin Forum was launched by the Taoiseach Bertie Ahern in 2000, hosted a schedule of monthly public debates. Issues addressed covered the major social, economic and political issues of the day. Debates featured a wide array of representatives, experts, from both North and South, ministers from most government departments. Motor Insurance in Ireland Prospects for the Israeli-Palestinian Peace Process - with the Israeli Ambassador to Ireland, the Palestinian Delegate General to Ireland and the Minister of State for Foreign Affairs The Convention on the Future of Europe - featuring Minister for Europe, Dick Roche TD and former Taoiseach, John Bruton TD Too Many Women In Politics? - with Minister Mary Coughlan TD Alcohol in Irish Society - including speeches from Micheál Martin TD, Minister for Health and the CEO of Vintners Federation of Ireland Deregulation in the Irish Economy - featuring Séamus Brennan TD, Minister for Transport and Brendan Ogle, Branch Secretary, ILDA What Next for Sellafield?
- featuring John Clarke, Head of Safety, BNFL Sellafield 80 Years of the Irish State - with Minister Michael McDowell and Senator Martin Mansergh Electoral Reform - with Noel Dempsey TD, Minister for the Environment and Local Government and Prof Richard Sinnott, UCD The New World Order - featuring Brian Cowen TD, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Dr Tom Whalen, Visiting Professor of Government, UCC Developing the Economy Over the Last 30 Years The Growing Pains of a New Society Traveller & Settled, Rights & Responsibilities 75 Years of Fianna Fáil, the Republican Party - with Brian Lenihan TD, Minister Mary O'Rourke TD, Éamon Ó Cuív TD and Martin Mansergh, Special Advisor to the Taoiseach The All-Ireland Dimension - with Brian Cowen, TD, Minister for Foreign Affairs, the CEO of Inter Trade Ireland and Denis Haughey, SDLP and Dermot Nesbitt, UUP, Ministers in the Northern Executive Discussion on Local Development & the National Drugs Strategy America's Influence on Ireland Caring For Our Future - featuring Minister for Children, Mary Hanafin TD Who Watches The Watchers? - with Minister Dermot Ahern TD and Emily O'Reilly, Sunday Business Post Post Budget Discussion - with Martin Cullen TD, Minister of State for Finance Are Political Dynasties Compatible with Democracy? - with Minister Noel Dempsey TD and Beverley Flynn TD Integration into Ireland - featururing the Minister for Justice The Future of the Irish Economy & Social Partnership The Loss of Community in Ireland Republicanism and Connolly's Vision in the Year 2000 - featuring Brian Cowen TD, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Alex Attwood MLA, SDLP Launch of the Fianna Fáil Dublin Forum - by Taoiseach, Bertie Ahern TD International Terror and Ireland Republicanism in Capitalist Ireland?
Are Irish Consumers Being Short-Changed? "Government launch project to attract interest in political ideas". Irish Examiner. 2000-09-27. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. "Sellafield must run for 50 years more, says BNFL". Irish Examiner. 2002-12-11. Archived from the original on 2004-12-17. — a report on the 2002 debate at the Dublin Forum
Edward "Monk" Eastman was a New York City gangster who founded and led the Eastman Gang, which became one of the most powerful street gangs in New York City. His aliases included Joseph "Joe" Morris, Joe Marvin, William "Bill" Delaney, Edward "Eddie" Delaney. Eastman is considered to be one of the last of the 19th-century New York gangsters who preceded the rise of Arnold Rothstein and more sophisticated, organized criminal enterprises such as Cosa Nostra. City records show, as documented by crime authors such as Patrick Downey, Ron Arons, Rose Keefe, that Monk was born Edward Eastman in 1875 in the rowdy Corlear's Hook section of lower Manhattan to Samuel Eastman, a Civil War veteran and wallpaper-hanger, his wife Mary Parks. By the time Monk was five, his father had abandoned the family. Mary moved with her children to her father George Parks' home on the Upper East Side. According to the 1880 United States Census, 5-year-old Edward Eastman was living on East Seventy-Fifth St. in Manhattan.
He and his family lived with his grandfather George Parks, age 68, who worked in a dry goods store. George was born in New York. In addition to Edward, the Eastman family included Mary Eastman, age 35. Everyone was born in Manhattan, with the exception of Lizzie, born in California. Both George Parks and his daughter Mary Eastman were recorded as having been divorced. In the 1870 U. S. census, Mary Eastman was living on Cannon St. in the Lower East Side of Manhattan with Samuel Eastman, age 40, born in New York and working as a paper hanger. Living with them were their children Lizzie and Willie, age 3, born in New York. Willie died young, as he was not listed with the family in 1880. In the 1860 census, Samuel Eastman was living in Manhattan in the household of Thomas McSpedon, from a prominent old NYC family. Thomas' firm McSpedon & Baker, Pine Street, NYC, was the official NYC printers. McSpedon served as Fire Marshall for NYC during the mid 19th century. Eastman worked as a paper hanger. In the 1900 census, Mary Eastman lived in Queens on Curtis Ave. with her daughters Elizabeth and Francine and their families.
Edward Eastman was not listed in any additional censuses after 1880. Monk's first documented arrest didn't occur. At some point Parks helped. For years after being known as a gangster, Eastman listed "bird seller" as his legitimate occupation on government forms. At some point he returned to the Lower East Side and became involved with the many gangs of the area. Operations included a bike rental racket. Monk Eastman's background is a subject of debate; because his criminal enterprise involved so many members of Jewish-American organized crime, Eastman is depicted as a Jew himself, but his lineage appears to be Protestant English. In his book The Jews of Sing Sing, the writer Ron Arons notes that none of Monk's sisters were married in Jewish ceremonies, his maternal grandfather George Parks died in a Baptist rest home; when Eastman was buried, his service was performed by a Methodist pastor. In 1898 Monk Eastman was convicted under the alias William Murray, he spent three months on Blackwell's Island for larceny.
During this time, he belonged to a gang of thieves known as the Allen Street Cadets. Herbert Asbury reports that Eastman was known to have had a messy head of wild hair, wore a derby two sizes too small for his head, sported numerous gold-capped teeth, paraded around shirtless or in tatters, always accompanied by his cherished pigeons. In time, Monk's reputation as a tough guy earned him the job of "sheriff" or bouncer at the New Irving Hall, a celebrated club on Broome Street, not far from his pet shop. At the New Irving Hall and Silver Dollar Smith's Saloon, Eastman became acquainted with Tammany Hall politicians, who would put him and his cohort to work as repeat voters and strong-arm men. Eastman's greatest rival was immigrant leader of the Italian Five Points Gang; the warfare between these two gangs reached a fever pitch on September 17, 1903, with a protracted gun battle on Rivington Street involving dozens of gangsters. One man was killed and a second reported fatally wounded and numerous innocent civilians were injured.
Members of the Eastman gang were arrested. Tammany Hall worked with both Kelly and Eastman, its officials grew tired of the feuding and the bad press generated when civilians were killed or injured in the cross-fire. In 1903, Tammany Hall set up a boxing match between Eastman and Kelly in an old barn up in the Bronx; the fight lasted two hours, with both men taking hard punishment. Monk Eastman lived at 221 E. 5th Street at the turn of the 19th/20th century, just about two blocks from Paul Kelly's New Brighton Social Club at 57 Great Jones Street. On February 3, 1904, Eastman tried to rob a young man on 42nd Broadway in Manhattan; as he was followed by two Pinkerton agents hired by the man's family to keep him out of trouble, the agents intervened. Eastman was caught by policemen responding to the shooting. Tired of bad publicity from Eastman, Tammany Hall refused to help him; that year, Eastman was convicted and sentenced to 10 years in prison at Sing Sing penitentiary. In 1909, Eastman was released after serving five years in prison.
During his absence, the Eastman Gang had split