Music of Alabama
Alabama has played a central role in the development of both blues and country music. Appalachian folk music, fiddle music, gospel and polka have had local scenes in parts of Alabama; the Tuskegee Institute's School of Music the Tuskegee Choir, is an internationally renowned institution. There are three major modern orchestras, the Mobile Symphony, the Alabama Symphony Orchestra and the Huntsville Symphony Orchestra; the state song of Alabama is entitled "Alabama". It was composed by Edna Gockel Gussen, it was adopted as the state song in 1931. A State Senate bill was passed 32–1 in 2000 to move "Alabama" to the status of State Anthem, with "Stars Fell On Alabama", a song written in 1933 whose most popular release was by Jimmy Buffett in 1972 becoming the new State Song, "My Home's in Alabama" by the Country group Alabama would become the State Ballad, but the bill failed in the State House. Other grass roots efforts to make "Sweet Home Alabama" by Lynyrd Skynyrd the state song have failed, but the song's potential official status made a comeback when the State Tourism Agency chose the song as the centerpiece of its 2008 marketing campaign.
Muscle Shoals, Alabama is renowned worldwide as one of the epicenters of the music industry, having been the birthplace of a number of classic recordings. The studios of the Muscle Shoals area figure prominently in the history of rock, country and R&B through the 1960s, 70s & 80s. FAME Studios, Muscle Shoals Sound Studios, Wishbone Studios, Quinvy Studios, East Avalon Recorders/ClearDay Studio, others have recorded local musicians and international superstars alike. Notable artists have included Aretha Franklin, Rolling Stones, Lynyrd Skynyrd, Otis Redding, Wilson Pickett, Bob Dylan, Paul Simon, Rod Stewart, Willie Nelson, Hank Williams Jr, Roy Orbison, countless others have recorded there; the notable studio house bands include The Muscle Shoals Rhythm Section, The Swampers, The Muscle Shoals Horns, The Fame Gang. Though not as popular a recording center as before, Muscle Shoals continues to be an important contributor to American popular music and is home to a number of the world's most successful songwriters and producers.
Single Lock Records operates a recording studio, record label, performance venue in the area. The Hangout Music Festival is an annual 3-day music festival held at the public beaches of Gulf Shores, Alabama; the Alabama Music Hall of Fame was created by the Alabama state legislature as a state agency in 1980. A 12,500 square foot exhibit hall opened in Tuscumbia in 1990; the Alabama Jazz Hall of Fame is located in Birmingham, housed in the historic Carver Theatre. It was founded in 1978 and opened a museum in 1993. Many artists in the realms of Rock, Country and Blues and pop have emerged from Alabama over the past 50 years, including Wilson Pickett, Toni Tennille, Percy Sledge, Tommy Shaw of Styx, Martha Reeves of Martha and the Vandellas, the Southern Rock/Pop/R&B band Wet Willie, the Rock band Brother Cane, the Power Pop band Hotel of Birmingham, Bill McCorvey of the Country band Pirates of the Mississippi, songwriter/producer Walt Aldridge; the Commodores and their former front man Lionel Richie both hail from Tuskegee.
Richie attended Tuskegee University. Rick Hall, founder of FAME Studios in Muscle Shoals is a well-known producer of classic R&B, country music from the 1960s through the 1980s; the Birmingham area has had more than its fair share of American Idol contestants do well, including second season winner Ruben Studdard, fourth season runner-up Bo Bice, fifth season winner Taylor Hicks. WC Handy referred to as the "father of the blues", was born and raised in Florence, which since 1982 holds an annual WC Handy Music Festival "to preserve and promote the musical heritage of Northwest Alabama"; the festival is held in the summer, cake and other foods are served. Piedmont and country blues singer and songwriter Ed Bell was born near Fort Deposit. Though born in Frayser, a community in North Memphis, Johnny Shines, Blues singer and guitarist, moved to Holt, Alabama, in Tuscaloosa County, in 1969, where he lived until he died. Shines died on April 1992, in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, he was inducted into the Blues Hall of Fame the same year.
Alabama has a rich jazz heritage, being the birthplace of such greats as Lionel Hampton, Erskine Hawkins, Nat King Cole, Cleveland Eaton, James Reese Europe, Cootie Williams, William Manuel Johnson, Urbie Green, Ward Swingle, Cow Cow Davenport, members of Take 6 and many more. Tubist Howard Johnson of the Saturday Night Live band hails from Montgomery; the museum of the Alabama Jazz Hall of Fame honors many of these fine musicians. In the 1930s and 40s, college dance bands, such as the Alabama Cavaliers, the Auburn Knights and the Bama State Collegians played an important role in the history of jazz in the South. Birmingham, Alabama boasts several active big bands, including the SuperJazz Big Band, the Joe Giattina Orchestra, the Night Flight Big Band and the Magic City Jazz Orchestra and directed by Ray Reach. In addition, there is a world-class horn section, the Tuscaloosa Horns, comprising some of Alabama's finest jazz/soul/funk instrumentalists; the newest/youngest break out big band in Alabama which incorporates everything from Duke Ellington to Bob Marley.
Music of Puerto Rico
The music of Puerto Rico has evolved as a heterogeneous and dynamic product of diverse cultural resources. The most conspicuous musical sources have been Spain and West Africa, although many aspects of Puerto Rican music reflect origins elsewhere in Europe and the Caribbean and, in the last century, the USA. Puerto Rican music culture today comprises a wide and rich variety of genres, ranging from indigenous genres like bomba to recent hybrids like reggaeton. Broadly conceived, the realm of "Puerto Rican music" should comprise the music culture of the millions of people of Puerto Rican descent who have lived in the USA, in New York City, their music, from salsa to the boleros of Rafael Hernández, cannot be separated from the music culture of Puerto Rico itself. Music culture in Puerto Rico during the 16th, 17th, 18th centuries is poorly documented, it included Spanish church music, military band music, diverse genres of dance music cultivated by the jíbaros and enslaved Africans and their descendants.
While these never constituted more than 11% of the island's population, they contributed some of the island's most dynamic musical features becoming distinct indeed. In the 19th century Puerto Rican music begins to emerge into historical daylight, with notated genres like danza being better documented than folk genres like jíbaro music and bomba y plena; the African people of the island used drums made of carved hardwood covered with untreated rawhide on one side made from goatskin. A popular word derived from creole to describe this drum was shukbwa, that means'trunk of tree' If the term "folk music" is taken to mean music genres that have flourished without elite support, have evolved independently of the commercial mass media, the realm of Puerto Rican folk music would comprise the Hispanic-derived jíbaro music, the Afro-Puerto Rican bomba, the "creole" plena; as these three genres evolved in Puerto Rico and are unique to that island, they occupy a respected place in island culture if they are not as popular as contemporary musics like salsa or reggaeton.
Jíbaros are small farmers of Hispanic descent who constituted the overwhelming majority of the Puerto Rican population until the mid-twentieth century. They are traditionally recognized as romantic icons of land cultivation, hard working, self-sufficient and with an innate love of song and dance, their instruments were relatives of the Spanish vihuela the cuatro—which evolved from four single strings to five pairs of double strings — and the lesser known tiple. A typical jíbaro group nowadays might feature a cuatro and percussion instrument such as the güiro scraper and/or bongo. Lyrics to jíbaro music are in the décima form, consisting of ten octosyllabic lines in the rhyme scheme abba, accddc. Décima form derives from 16th century Spain. Although it has died out in that country, it took root in various places in Latin America—especially Cuba and Puerto Rico—where it is sung in diverse styles. A sung décima might be pre-composed, derived from a publication by some literati, or ideally, improvised on the spot in the form of a “controversia” in which two singer-poets trade witty insults or argue on some topic.
In between the décimas, lively improvisations can be played on the cuatro. This music form is known as "típica" as well as "trópica"; the décimas are sung with standardized cuatro accompaniment patterns. About twenty such song-types are in common use; these are grouped into viz. seis and aguinaldo. Traditionally, the seis could accompany dancing, but this tradition has died out except in tourist shows and festivals; the aguinaldo is most characteristically sung during the Christmas season, when groups of revelers go from house to house, singing jíbaro songs and partying. The aguinaldo texts are not about Christmas, unlike Anglo-American Christmas carols, they are sung by a solo with the other revelers singing chorus. In general, Christmas season is a time when traditional music—both seis and aguinaldo—is most to be heard. Many groups of Puerto Ricans are dedicated to preserving traditional music by continued practice. Jíbaro music came to be marketed on commercial recordings in the twentieth century, singer-poets like Ramito are well documented.
However, jíbaros themselves were becoming an endangered species, as agribusiness and urbanization have drastically reduced the numbers of small farmers on the island. Many jíbaro songs dealt accordingly with the vicissitudes of migration to New York. Jíbaro music has in general declined accordingly, although it retains its place in local culture around Christmas time and special social gatherings, there are many cuatro players, some of whom have cultivated prodigious virtuosity. Historical references indicate that by the decades around 1800 plantation slaves were cultivating a music and dance genre called bomba. By the mid-twentieth century, when it started to be recorded and filmed, bomba was performed in regional variants in various parts of the island Loíza, San Juan, Mayagüez, it is not possible to reconstruct the history of bomba. French Caribbean elements are evident in the bomba style of Mayagüez, striking choreographic parallels can be seen with the bélé of Martinique. All of
Music of Michigan
The music of Michigan is composed of many different genres. The city of Detroit has been one of the most musically influential and innovative cities for the past 50 years, whether in Michigan or anywhere else in the United States. Impressively, for 48 straight years a greater Michigan-area artist has produced a chart-topping recording. Michigan is best known for three developments: early punk rock, Motown/soul music and techno music. Michigan musicians with a #1 Billboard Hot 100 hit include artists from the 1950s: Guy Mitchell and Bill Haley. Other Detroit musicians with a #1 album on the Billboard 200 include Kid Rock with Rock n Roll Jesus in 2007. Eminem's groups D12 and Bad Meets Evil have had #1 albums. Dej Loaf is the latest hip-hop singer. Alice Cooper, "The Godfather of Shock Rock," had a #1 Billboard 200 album with the hard rock Billion Dollar Babies in 1973. Additionally, the new-age classic rock band Greta Van Fleet, from Frankenmuth, have been nominated for four Grammy Awards in 2019 and won the Best New Artist award from the 2017 Loudwire Music Awards.
Classical music and the arts in Michigan have long been supported by the auto industry and the auto magnates who became rich from it. The Detroit Symphony Orchestra, founded in 1914, is the premier orchestra in the state and performs at Orchestra Hall in Detroit; the Symphony runs the Detroit Youth Symphony, the Elaine Lebenbom Competition for female composers and shares its campus with Detroit's performing arts high school. The Sphinx Music Competition for young black and Latino classical musicians is based in the Detroit-Ann Arbor area. Interlochen Center for the Arts is an arts and music boarding school in Northern Michigan and provides summer camps as does the Blue Lake Fine Arts Camp. In 2006, Leonard Slatkin and the University of Michigan School of Music Symphony won a Grammy for Songs Of Innocence And Of Experience. Paul Smith, born in Calumet, was a composer named a Disney Legend and worked on many Disney films and animations, including Snow White and Bambi. Notable contemporary Michigan classical composers include Augustus O. Hill.
The Detroit Opera House is the site of 4 or 5 staged operas yearly as well as a dance series. The opera Margaret Garner was debuted at Detroit. Another work debuted by the Michigan Opera Theatre was Cyrano by the company's director David DiChiera. Folklorist Ivan Walton, who taught at the University of Michigan, collected the songs of Great Lakes sailors. Duane Starcher recorded Woods and Water: Folk songs from Michigan History, released in 1965 on Western Michigan University Aural Press; the Ark is a folk music venue in Ann Arbor in existence since 1965. Detroit has had a thriving blues scene including most famously John Lee Hooker. Jazz artists born in Detroit include pianists Tommy Flanagan, Hugh Lawson, Barry Harris, Roland Hanna, Kenny Cox and composer Alice Coltrane and vibraphonist Terry Pollard, drummers Louis Hayes, Eddie Locke, Oliver Jackson, Roy Brooks, Frank Gant, Gerald Cleaver, Pheeroan akLaff, vibraphonist Milt Jackson, guitarist Kenny Burrell, trombonist Curtis Fuller, French horn player Julius Watkins, saxophonists J. R. Monterose, Faruq Z. Bey, James Carter, Kenny Garrett, baritone saxophonist Pepper Adams, double bassist Doug Watkins, trumpeter Donald Byrd, harpist Dorothy Ashby, violinist Regina Carter, singers Sheila Jordan, Della Reese, Barbara Dane, Dianne Reeves.
Drummer Elvin Jones, trumpeter Thad Jones, pianist Geri Allen were born in Pontiac. Singer Betty Carter was born in Flint. Double-bassist Ron Carter was born in Ferndale; the Detroit International Jazz Festival was founded in 1980 and features free outdoor concerts in venues in the city. Fortune Records was a pre-Motown, Detroit-based, independent record label that specialized in soul, doo-wop, gospel and rock and roll, it was owned by Jack and Devora Brown, a husband and wife business team who would operate the label with help from their son, Sheldon Brown. The label's biggest stars included John Lee Hooker, Nolan Strong, Andre Williams and Nathaniel Mayer; the label would release more than 800 vinyl records before stopping original releases in the 1970s. While Fortune never made it to Motown's height of fame, artists like the late Nolan Strong proved to be influential. In his autobiography, Smokey Robinson named Strong as one of earliest influences. Andre Williams and Nathaniel Mayer both had career resurgences in the 2000s garage rock scene.
Bands like Reigning Sound, Goober & the Peas, The Black Keys have all cited Fortune artists as influential. Detroit's Motown Records dominated soul music for many years. Musicians included Stevie Wonder, The Temptations, Aretha Franklin (buried in Woodlawn Cemetery in Detroit, where The Four Tops are buried.
Music of Maryland
Maryland is a U. S. state with a musical heritage that dates back to the Native Americans of the region and includes contributions to colonial era music, modern American popular and folk music. The music of Maryland includes a number of popular musicians, folk styles and a documented music history that dates to the colonial archives on music from Annapolis, an important source in research on colonial music. Famous modern musicians from Maryland range from jazz singer Billie Holiday to pop punk band Good Charlotte, include a wide array of popular styles. Modern Maryland is home to many well-regarded music venues, including the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra and Baltimore Opera, the Peabody Institute's Conservatory of Music. Baltimore, the largest city in the state, is home to many important local venues, such as the Red Room, a center for the local experimental music scene, the house nightspot Club Choices. Outside of Baltimore, Frederick's Weinberg Center for the Arts and Rockville's Strathmore are important regional venues.
The Merriweather Post Pavilion and 1st Mariner Arena host most of the largest concerts in the area. Since HFStival ended its successful run in 2006, Virgin Festival has taken over as one of the most popular summer festivals on the east coast since its inaugural year in 2006. Most of the major musical organizations in Baltimore were founded by musicians who trained at the Peabody Institute's Conservatory of Music; these include Baltimore Choral Arts and the Baltimore Opera, as well as the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra. The Baltimore Symphony Orchestra formed in 1916 and was the only orchestra in the country to operate as a branch of the city's government. In 1942, the orchestra was reorganized as a private institution; the Orchestra claims that Joseph Meyerhoff, President of the Orchestra beginning in 1965, his music director, Sergiu Comissiona, began the modern history of the BSO and "ensured the creation of an institution, which has become the undisputed leader of the arts community throughout the State of Maryland".
Aside from the prominent Baltimore Symphony, Maryland is home to several other institutions. The Annapolis Symphony Orchestra, founded in 1962, is a well-known organization that has hosted guests like Cuban violinist Guillermo Perich and Charlie Byrd; the Rohrersville Cornet Band, part of Maryland's cornet band heritage, claims to be the oldest continually performing community band in the state, having been founded in 1837. The Maryland Classic Youth Orchestras was formed in the 1946 to "nurture and advance young talented musicians in a quality orchestral program". Beginning in 1964, the Orchestras began to offer new programs, such as a summer camp that became the Maryland Center for the Arts; the largest music venue in Maryland is the Merriweather Post Pavilion, opened in 1967 and designed by architect Frank Gehry to avoid disturbing as much as possible the surrounding Symphony Woods. In the 1990s and early 2000s, HFStival, held by the WHFS radio station, established itself as an popular annual festival, became a major draw across the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area.
Since 2006, Virgin Festival has established itself as a hugely popular festival annually held at Pimlico Race Course, drawing in a variety of popular acts. The Takoma Park Folk Festival is well known among folk music aficionados, has been held annually since 1978 in Takoma Park, Maryland. Baltimore is home to several important concert spaces, including the Meyerhoff Symphony Hall, Concordia Hall and the Lyric Opera House; the Meyerhoff is home to the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra. Concordia Hall is a long-standing venue, founded in 1867 by German musical societies, which were a large portion of Baltimore's population; the Lyric Opera House, founded in 1894, is another important Baltimore music venue. Smaller Hardcore and Punk acts play at the Charm City Art Space; the city of Frederick is home to the Weinberg Centre for the Arts, which shows various kinds of theatrical and musical productions. The Weinberg was a large movie theater called the Tivoli, opened in 1926. North Bethesda's Strathmore opened in 1976, is now a home for numerous programs, including the largest of its music venues, the Music Center at Strathmore.
Indigenous peoples created the first music in. The documented music history of Maryland begins in the 18th century; the capital city of Annapolis was a major center for music during the colonial era. The larger growing port city of Baltimore 20 miles farther north replaced Annapolis as a center for music in Maryland, became home to most of the prominent music institutions in the state the Peabody Institute, founded by George Peabody in 1857. Still, Baltimore's Pennsylvania Avenue, northwest of downtown, became a well known home f
Music of Oregon
The music of Oregon reflects the diverse array of styles present in the music of the United States, from Native American music to the contemporary genres of rock and roll, country and blues, pop, electronic music, hip hop. However, throughout most of its history, the state has been isolated from the cultural forces shaping American music. Much of modern popular music traces its roots to the emergence in the late 19th century of African American blues and the growth of gospel music in the 1920s. African American musicians borrowed elements of European and Indigenous musics to create new American forms; as Oregon's population was more homogeneous and more white than the United States as a whole, the state did not play a significant role in this history. The state's main contributions to American popular music began in the 1960s, when The Kingsmen and Paul Revere & the Raiders established Oregon as a minor center of frat rock and garage rock; this led in one direction to the blues rock tradition of the Robert Cray Band and Curtis Salgado, in another direction to the hardcore punk scene of the early 1980s Pacific Northwest, led by the Wipers in Portland and like-minded bands in Seattle and Vancouver, BC.
Over the next twenty years, punk rock evolved into grunge, riot grrrl, alternative rock, indie rock. In the last decade, Oregon has made a unique contribution to American independent music, with a strong indie music scene developing in Portland; the city's reputation as a hipster mecca has paralleled the rise of local indie musicians such as The Decemberists, The Dandy Warhols, M. Ward, Logan Lynn, Storm Large, Pink Martini and the late Elliott Smith. Floater is Portland's leading example of an indie band, they have remained unsigned to a major label for over 20 years and have managed to be voted the best band of Portland for 2009 in addition to selling out major venues like the Crystal Ballroom and the Aladdin Theater. Other prominent musicians have relocated to Portland, including Modest Mouse, Sleater-Kinney, The Shins, former Pavement leader Stephen Malkmus, singer songwriter Patterson Hood, former R. E. M. Guitarist Peter Buck; the state has a unique rural-urban dynamic, which has influenced the development of local bluegrass and alternative country music.
Jam bands have a strong presence in the state, dating back to Grateful Dead performances at the Oregon Country Fair, outdoor music festivals continue to be popular. Portland's Waterfront Blues Festival is the second largest blues festival in the country. Prominent cultural institutions include the Oregon Bach Festival, Oregon Festival of American Music, Oregon Symphony, Mt. Hood Jazz Festival. From the 1960s to the 1980s, some musical groups from Portland had occasional success on the pop charts; the Kingsmen were the first to hit the top 10 with their 1960s garage rock classic "Louie Louie" peaking at #2, Paul Revere & the Raiders gained popularity in Portland after relocating there from Idaho. The Hudson Brothers had several hits, such as "Mr. Kirby", "So You Are a Star" and had their own eponymous TV show during the 1970s. Quarterflash, were led by the husband/wife duo Rindy Ross; the band had several hits, including a platinum-selling #3 song "Harden My Heart" in 1981. Nu Shooz led by a husband/wife duo had several hits, their biggest going to #3 "I Can't Wait" in 1986.
Portland had one of the most vibrant hardcore punk scenes in the early 1980s Pacific Northwest, rivaled only by Seattle and Vancouver. The Wipers and Poison Idea are the best known representatives of the scene The Wipers, a major grunge influence; these bands played at the Satyricon. Other hardcore bands in the 1980s included Lockjaw, Final Warning, The Jackals, The Rats. Hole frontwoman Courtney Love spent time in Portland, was active in the city's punk scene at the time, she met Nirvana frontman Kurt Cobain at the Satyricon club in 1989. In the 1990s bands such as Defiance, Bugskull and Tragedy rose in popularity. An important cult band from Portland was the Exploding Hearts of the early 2000s. Dead Moon developed a cult worldwide following with their garage-country punk, starting from the early 1990s. Portland is home to old-time music scene. Popular Portland bands include Foghorn Stringband, The Water Tower Bucket Boys. Banjo player Tony Furtado, who has branched out from traditional bluegrass music into progressive bluegrass and other genres lives in Portland.
The Portland Old-Time Music Gathering takes place in mid-January each year, with a variety of Northwest musicians and square dancing. This event attracts a more diverse audience than is found at Old-Time events in the rest of the state. Portland is home to a thriving world music and international folk dancing scene including the Al-Andalus Ensemble. West Africa is represented by such groups and artists as Obo Addy and Boka Marimba. Eastern Europe and the Middle East has music and dance representation through groups such as Brothers of the Baladi, Vagabond Opera, Krebsic Orkestar & Balkan Fusion Project, The Underscore Orkestra, Balkan And Beyond, The Mora, Vequinox, 3 Leg Torso and Chervona. There are three Argentine Tango
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
Music of Wisconsin
Wisconsin was settled by European immigrants in the late 19th century. This immigration led to the popularization of galops, schottisches and polkas. Classical composers and conductors from Wisconsin include Hans Balatka, Hugo Kaun, Eugene Luening, Theodore Steinmetz and Sarge Boyd. Among Wisconsin's contributions to rock music were Les Paul, an electric guitar pioneer known as the "Wizard of Waukesha"; the Steve Miller Band, with Milwaukee's Steve Miller, had three #1 hits on the Billboard Hot 100 from 1973 to 1982. The Chordettes from Sheboygan, Bon Iver from Eau Claire, Garbage from Madison all had albums on the Billboard 200; the 1830s and 1840s brought European dances like the schottische, galop and, most the polka. The 1840s saw massive immigration from Germany to Milwaukee, which became known as Deutsche Athen. Groups formed, such as the Milwaukee Musical Society; some important figures from this era include Christopher Bach, Hans Balatka, Eugene Luening and Hugo Kaun. While Germans moved to Milwaukee and eastern Wisconsin, Norwegians moved en masse to southern and western Wisconsin, surrounding areas.
Norwegian musicians, such as the violinist Ole Bull, were popular in Madison. New Glarus and Monroe saw. Much like their German counterparts, these Swiss people established polka societies, many of which are still active today. Musical output came from Grafton, Ozaukee County during the 1920s when Paramount Records released a series of blues and jazz recordings by artists from the South. Waukesha's Les Paul, enjoyed a long career as a blues and jazz guitarist and musical innovator. Known as the "Wizard of Waukesha" for his technological tinkering, was one of the pioneers of the solid-body electric guitar, helping to create the Gibson Les Paul and the Gibson SG. Among the musicians he partnered with were his wife Mary Ford, with whom he recorded a version of How High the Moon in 1951, he played with Jim Atkins, Nat King Cole, Bing Crosby and the Andrews Sisters. Drummer Viola Smith, from Mount Calvary, is best known for her work in swing bands and orchestras in the 1930-1940s, she appeared on Broadway and television.
Jazz clarinetist and soprano saxophonist and big band leader Woody Herman was born in Milwaukee. Karen Borca, born in Green Bay, is an avant-garde jazz and free jazz bassoonist who studied music at the University of Wisconsin. Pianist and bandleader Lynne Arriale was born in Milwaukee. A cult favorite from the 1980s was the Violent Femmes from Milwaukee. Boris the Sprinkler was from Green Bay. Mindlisp, The Vendors, The Smerves were all from Ashland. New wave bands from Milwaukee included Couch Flambeau and The Stellas better known as hardcore punk band Die Kreuzen. Milwaukee saw some other hardcore action, but the scene soon died out and Die Kreuzen moved on to speed metal. Madison, Wisconsin spawned the Tar Babies and Appliances-SFB; the noise rock band Killdozer became an indie rock group. The most recent punk rock bands from Wisconsin are Auf Ki, Jetty Boys, The Transgressions, Direct Hit, George's Bush, Garbageman and Masked Intruder. Since the late 1990s, Wisconsin has had an upsurge in heavy and extreme metal bands that have played across the state extending into the surrounding Midwest.
Luna Mortis from Madison was signed by Century Media Records, Lazarus A. D. from Kenosha, Wisconsin was signed by Metal Blade, Jungle Rot from Kenosha, Wisconsin is signed to Napalm Records, Product of Hate from Kenosha, Wisconsin signed to Napalm Records. Since 2003, many metal bands in Wisconsin have teamed up in a loose coalition called the Wisconsin Metal Alliance which helps to promote and organize bands while giving them a place to congregate and pool resources. One-man death metal project Putrid Pile resides in Wisconsin. Putrid Pile has sold over 10,000 albums worldwide since the year 2000. Madison has a vibrant Stoner Rock culture, producing bands such as Bongzilla, Jex Thoth, Romero. Bon Iver from Eau Claire and Cory Chisel are from Appleton. Well-known hip hop artists from Wisconsin include Coo Coo Cal IshDARR Brew City Ballas and Streetz-n-Young Deuces. Haywyre resides in Milwaukee, WI. In 2013, this city hosted the first annual Mile of Music festival, a handcrafted artisan festival featuring among other genres and folk rock music.
The festival draws in tens of thousands of people over four-days and features over 200 artists and 800 performances, encompassing over 60 venues and stretching over a mile of downtown Appleton's College Avenue. This festival is a ` cover free' zone, meaning no cover charges; this is a 100% free festival. The city itself has welcomed artists from all over the country and is fast becoming a hot spot for singer/songwriter and folk music. Appleton has many summer concert series that go on all through the summer months, including those in its city parks and Houdini Plaza; the Chippewa Valley Eau Claire, has groups and performers in the indie rock, metal/hardcore, hip hop, blues and jazz genres. Bands such as Bon Iver, The Daredevil Christopher Wright, Laarks have achieved varying levels of national success. Eau Claire is the original home of national artists such as Venison, Another Carnival, Peter Wolf Crier and Megafaun, as well as many of the Minneapolis scene's popular acts including Mel Gibson and the Pants, Digitata.
The 1990s birthed bands such as Under th